Richmond, Virginia, U.S.
|Founder||Richard Fairbank, Nigel Morris|
|Products||Retail banking, credit cards, loans, savings|
|Revenue||US$25.501 billion (2016)|
|US$5.80 billion (2016)|
|US$3.75 billion (2016)|
|Total assets||US$357.033 billion (2016)|
|Total equity||US$47.514 billion (2016)|
Number of employees
Capital One is the eighth-largest commercial bank in the United States when ranked by assets and deposits. and is ranked 10th on the list of largest banks in the United States by total assets. The bank has 755 branches including 18 café style locations and 2,000 ATMs. It is ranked #100 on the Fortune 500, #17 on Fortune's 100 Best Companies to work for list, and conducts business in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The company helped pioneer the mass marketing of credit cards in the 1990s, and it is one of the largest customers of the United States Postal Service due to its direct mail credit card solicitations. In 2015, it was the 5th largest credit card issuer by purchase volume, after American Express, JP Morgan Chase, Bank of America, and Citigroup.
Capital One is also the fourth-largest bank auto lender, with a market share of 4.2% in 2016.
In 2016, 62% of the company's revenues were from credit cards, 26% was from consumer banking, 11% was from commercial banking, and 1% was from other.
- 1 Divisions
- 2 History
- 3 Sports marketing
- 4 Corporate citizenship
- 5 Criticism and legal actions
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Capital One operates 3 divisions as follows:
- Credit Cards – Capital One issues credit cards in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. As of December 31, 2016, after JP Morgan Chase and Citigroup, Capital One was the 3rd largest credit card issuer, with an outstanding receivables balance of $91 billion, representing 12.1% of the total outstanding credit card receivable balance in the United States. As of December 31, 2016, Capital One had a total of $97 billion in credit card loans outstanding in the United States and $8 billion of credit card loans outstanding in Canada and the United Kingdom.
- Consumer Banking – offers banking services, including checking accounts, saving accounts, and money market accounts. Also operates CapitalOne 360, a direct bank.
- Auto loans – Along with Wells Fargo, Bank of America, Ally Financial, and JP Morgan Chase, Capital One is one of the top bank auto lenders in the U.S. by volume. As of December 31, 2016, Capital One had $48 billion in auto loans outstanding.
- Home mortgage – Capital One was one of the largest mortgage lenders, with $21 billion in home loans outstanding as of December 31, 2016. It exited the mortgage industry on November 7, 2017, laying off 1,100 employees. It was the 12th-largest mortgage lender among banks standing at $20.6 billion worth of residential mortgages.
- Commercial banking – As of December 31, 2016, Capital One had $66 billion in loans outstanding secured by commercial, multifamily, and industrial properties.
Monoline credit card company (1994–2004)
On July 27, 1994, Richmond, Virginia-based Signet Financial Corp (now part of Wells Fargo) announced the corporate spin-off of its credit card division, OakStone Financial, naming Richard Fairbank as CEO. Signet renamed the subsidiary Capital One in October 1994. The spinoff was concluded February 28, 1995, making Capital One fully independent.
At that time, Capital One was a monoline bank, meaning that all of its revenue came from a single product, in this case, credit cards. This strategy is risky in that it can lead to losses during bad times. Capital One attributed its relative success as a monoline to its use of data collection to build demographic profiles, allowing it to target personalized offers of credit direct to consumers.
Capital One commenced operations in Canada in 1996.
Expansion into auto loans (1998-present)
In July 1998, Capital One acquired auto financing company Summit Acceptance Corporation.
In 1999, Capital One was looking to expand beyond credit cards. CEO Richard Fairbank announced moves to use Capital One's experience with collecting consumer data to offer loans, insurance, and phone service. 
In October 2001, PeopleFirst Finance LLC was acquired by Capital One.
The companies were combined and rebranded as Capital One Auto Finance Corporation in 2003.
In late 2002, Capital One and the United States Postal Service proposed a negotiated services agreement for bulk discount in mailing services. The resulting three-year agreement was extended in 2006. In June 2008, however, Capital One had filed a complaint with the USPS regarding the terms of the next agreement, citing the terms of the NSA of Capital One's competitor, Bank of America. Capital One subsequently withdrew its complaint to the Postal Regulatory Commission following a settlement with the USPS.
Onyx Acceptance Corporation was acquired by Capital One in September 2004.
Expansion into retail banking (2005-present)
While many other monolines were acquired by larger, diverse banks, Capital One expanded into retail banking with a focus on subprime customers.
Capital One acquired New Orleans, Louisiana-based Hibernia National Bank for $4.9 billion in cash and stock in 2005 and acquired Melville, New York-based North Fork Bank for $13.2 billion in cash and stock in 2006, which reduced its dependency on credit cards from 90% to 55%.
In 2007, Capital One acquired NetSpend, a marketer of prepaid debit cards, for $700 million.
In 2008, Capital One received an investment of US$3.56 billion from the United States Treasury as a result of the Troubled Asset Relief Program. On June 17, 2009, Capital One completed the repurchase of the stock the company issued to the U.S. Treasury paying a total of US$3.67 billion, resulting in a profit of over $100 million to the U.S. Treasury.
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission criticized Capital One's conduct during the crisis, claiming that the understated auto loan losses during the financial crisis of 2007–2008. In 2013, Capital One paid $3.5 million to settle the case, but was not required to directly address the allegations of wrongdoing.
In June 2011, ING Group announced the sale of its ING Direct division to Capital One for US$9 billion in cash and stock. On August 26, 2011, the Federal Reserve Board of Governors announced it would hold public hearings on the Capital One acquisition of ING Direct, and extend to October 12, 2011, the public comment period that had been scheduled to end August 22. The move came amidst rising scrutiny of the deal on systemic risk, or "Too-Big-to-Fail," performance under the Community Reinvestment Act, and pending legal challenges. A coalition of national civil rights and consumer groups, led by the National Community Reinvestment Coalition, were joined by Rep. Barney Frank to challenge immediate approval of the deal. The groups have argued that the acquisition is a test of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, under which systemically risky firms must demonstrate a public benefit that outweighs new risk before they are allowed to grow. Kansas City Federal Reserve Bank head Thomas M. Hoenig was also skeptical of the deal. In February 2012, the acquisition was approved by regulators and Capital One completed its acquisition of ING Direct. Capital One received permission to merge ING into its business in October 2012, and rebranded ING Direct as Capital One 360 in November 2012.
In August 2011, Capital One reached a deal with HSBC to acquire its U.S. credit card operations. Capital One paid US$31.3 billion in exchange for US$28.2 billion in loans and $600 million in other assets. The acquisition was completed by May 2012.
On February 26, 2012, along with several other banks, Capital One announced support for the Isis Mobile Wallet payment system. However, in September 2013, Capital One dropped support for the venture.
In 2012, Capital One closed 41 branch locations.
In 2015, Capital One closed 186 branch locations.
On February 19, 2014, Capital One became a 25% owner in ClearXchange, a P2P (person to person) money transfer service designed to make money transfers to customers within the same bank and other financial institutions via mobile phone number or email address. ClearXchange was sold to Early Warning in 2016.
In January 2015, Capital One acquired Level Money, a budgeting app for consumers.
On July 8, 2015, Capital announced that it has acquired Monsoon, a design studio, development shop, marketing house and strategic consultancy.
Exit from mortgage banking (2006–2007 and 2011–2017)
Sanjiv Yajnik announced that the mortgage market is too competitive in the low rate environment to make money in the business. This is the second closure; the first occurred on August 20, 2007, when GreenPoint Mortgage unit was closed. GreenPoint had been acquired December 2006 when Capital One paid $13.2 billion to North Fork Bancorp Inc. The re-emergence into the mortgage industry came in 2011 with the purchase of online bank ING Direct USA.
Since 2001, Capital One has been the principal sponsor of the college football Florida Citrus Bowl, which has been called the Capital One Bowl since 2003. It sponsors a mascot challenge every year, announcing the winner on the day of the Capital One Bowl. Capital One is one of the top three sponsors of the NCAA, paying an estimated $35 million annually in exchange for advertising and access to consumer data. Capital One also sponsored the EFL Cup, an English Soccer Competition, from 2012 to 2016. The company sponsored Sheffield United F.C. from 2006 to 2008. Most recently, the company became the new naming sponsor of the main indoor sports venue in Washington, D.C., now known as Capital One Arena, in 2017.
Capital One operates some charitable programs, such as the "No Hassle Giving" web portal, in which Capital One covers the transaction fees on customer and non-customer donations made through the site. The accountability organization National Committee for Responsive Philanthropy has been highly critical of Capital One's relatively low rate of giving, stating that "Capital One's philanthropic track record is dismal". The organization pointed out that Capital One's donations of 0.024% of revenue were much less than the industry median of 0.11% of revenue. Capital One has disputed the groups figures, saying that "... In 2011 alone, our giving totals are more than 6 times greater ($30 million) than the number given by the NCRP".
Criticism and legal actions
Fines for misleading customers to pay extra for services
In July 2012, Capital One was fined by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau for misleading millions of its customers, such as paying extra for payment protection or credit monitoring when they took out a card. The company agreed to pay $210 million to settle the legal action and to refund two million customers. This was the CFPB's first public enforcement action.
Automated dialing to customers' phones
In August 2014, Capital One and three collection agencies entered into an agreement to pay $75.5 million to end a consolidated class action lawsuit pending in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois alleging that the companies used an automated dialer to call customers’ cellphones without consent, which is a violation of the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991. It is notable that this legal action involved informational telephone calls, which are not subject to the "prior express written consent" requirements which have been in place for telemarketing calls since October 2013.
Capital One spokeswoman Pam Girardo responded that the company would not actually make personal visits to customers except "As a last resort, . . . if it becomes necessary to repossess [a] sports vehicle". Capital One also attributed its assertion of a right to "spoof" as necessary because "sometimes the number is 'displayed differently' by 'some local phone exchanges,' something that is 'beyond our control'".
Girardo told the New York Times that the company was "reviewing" the language involved. David Lazarus noted that "now that a little sunlight has been applied, the company is not as comfortable as it previously was with behaving like a total maniac. In the meantime, cardholders can make up their own minds. Do they want to believe the non-binding explanations of a company representative or the legally enforceable language that's currently in their written contracts?"
- Capital One Arena
- Capital One Tower
- Hibernia National Bank (acquired in 2005)
- North Fork Bank (acquired in 2006)
- Chevy Chase Bank (acquired in 2009)
- ING Direct (acquired in 2011)
- HSBC Credit Cards (acquired in 2012)
- Capital One History, Capital One, retrieved 25 Jan 2017
- "Capital One Financial Corporation 2016 Form 10-K Annual Report".
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- "The Four Largest Card Issuers Now Hold 60% Of All U.S. Credit Card Debt". Forbes. March 21, 2017.
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- "Capital One Exits Mortgage Origination Business, Cuts 1,100 Jobs". November 7, 2017. Retrieved November 16, 2017 – via www.Bloomberg.com.
- "COMPANY NEWS; SIGNET BANKING TO SPIN OFF CREDIT CARD BUSINESS". The New York Times. July 28, 1994.
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- "Capital One Completes Acquisition of Hibernia Corporation" (Press release). U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. November 16, 2005.
- "Capital One Completes Acquisition of North Fork Bancorporation" (Press release). U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. December 1, 2006.
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- "Capital One Acquires Nation's Prepaid Card Leader NetSpend" (Press release). PRNewswire. August 7, 2007.
- "Capital One Closes Wholesale Mortgage Unit" (Press release). PRNewswire. August 20, 2007.
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- "Capital One Financial Closes Wholesale Mortgage Unit". Associated Press. CNBC. August 20, 2007.
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- "CAPITAL PURCHASE PROGRAM Transaction Report" (PDF). Tarp Transactions. United States Treasury. November 17, 2008.
11/14/2008 Capital One Financial Corporation / McLean VA / Purchase Preferred Stock w/Warrants / $3,555,199,000 / Par
- "Capital One, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Jun 17, 2009". secdatabase.com. June 17, 2009.
- Protess, Ben (April 25, 2013). "DEALBOOK; Capital One Settles Charges It Understated Loan Losses". The New York Times.
- "Capital One to Buy Chevy Chase Bank". The New York Times. December 4, 2008.
- Fitzpatrick, Dan (December 4, 2008). "Capital One to Acquire Chevy Chase Bank". The Wall Street Journal.(subscription required)
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- "Capital One Completes Acquisition of Chevy Chase Bank" (Press release). PRNewswire. February 27, 2009.
- "ING To Sell ING Direct USA to Capital One" (Press release). ING Group. June 16, 2011.
- "Federal Reserve Board announces public meetings on the notice by Capital One Financial Corporation to acquire ING Bank". Federal Reserve System. August 26, 2011.
- Felsenthal, Mark (August 25, 2011). "Fed's Hoenig Says Doesn't See Recession Looming". Reuters.
- Pearlstein, Steven (August 28, 2011). "Steven Pearlstein: Time to say no to bank consolidation". The Washington Post.
- "Capital One Completes Acquisition of ING Direct" (Press release). PRNewswire. February 17, 2012.
- "Conditional Merger Approval" (pdf). Office of the Comptroller of Currency. 17 Oct 2012. Retrieved 13 Feb 2014.
- Ruiz Switzky, Bryant (November 8, 2012). "ING Direct rebranded as Capital One 360". American City Business Journals.
- Dan Wilchins; Denny Thomas (10 Aug 2011). "Capital One bulks up U.S. cards with HSBC deal". Reuters. Retrieved 5 Feb 2014.
- Simon Zhen (2 May 2012). "Capital One Completes Purchase of HSBC US Credit Cards". MyBankTracker. Retrieved 5 Feb 2014.
- "Chase, Capital One and Barclaycard First to Place Their Cards in the Isis™ Mobile Wallet". 26 Feb 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-03-07. Retrieved 9 Feb 2014.
- Stephanie Mlot (20 Sep 2013). "Capital One Drops Support for Isis Mobile Wallet". PC Magazine. Retrieved 9 Feb 2014.
- Ellis, Blake (January 25, 2013). "Say goodbye to more bank branches". CNN Money.
- Medici, Andy (May 4, 2016). "Here's how much Capital One is spending this year to close, renovate its branches". American City Business Journals.
- "CAPITAL ONE JOINS CLEARXCHANGE NETWORK" (PDF) (Press release). pymnts.com. February 19, 2014.
- "Early Warning Completes Acquisition of clearXchange" (Press release). Early Warning. January 12, 2016.
- Perez, Sarah (January 12, 2015). "Capital One Acquires Budgeting App Level Money". TechCrunch.
- Perez, Sarah (8 July 2015). "Capital One Acquires Oakland-Based Design And Development Firm Monsoon". TechCrunch. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- "Capital One Completes Acquisition of GE Capital's Healthcare Financial Services Lending Business" (Press release). PRNewswire. December 1, 2015.
- Perez, Sarah (October 6, 2016). "Capital One acquires online price tracker Paribus". TechCrunch.
- Yurcan, Bryan (October 12, 2016). "Capital One Adds to Its Growing List of Fintech Deals". American Banker.
- "Capital One suddenly exits mortgage and home equity business". HousingWire.com. Retrieved November 16, 2017.
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- Merle, Renae (June 16, 2011). "Capital One Bank to acquire ING Direct USA". Retrieved November 16, 2017 – via www.WashingtonPost.com.
- Dosh, Kristi (November 3, 2013). "Capital One maximizing March's madness". ESPN.
- Hornblass, JJ (Apr 11, 2013). "Cap One Uses March Madness to Mine Customer Data, Even After Tournament". Bank Innovation.
- Steinberg, Dan. "Verizon Center to become Capital One Arena, starting now". Washington Post.
- "Individual Donations Add Up With Capital One's No Hassle Giving Program" (Press release). Business Wire. November 25, 2009.
- "Doubt Over Capital One's Commitment to Philanthropy". NCRP. 4 Oct 2011. Retrieved 10 Feb 2014.
- Associated Press (5 October 2011). "Charity group wary of Capital One-ING merger". NBC news. Retrieved 13 Feb 2014.
- "Capital One fined for misleading millions of customers". BBC News. July 18, 2012.
- "Capital One, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Jul 18, 2012" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved Mar 19, 2013.
- "Capital One to pay $210 million in fines, consumer refunds". CNN Money. July 18, 2012. Retrieved Sep 6, 2013.
- Dale, Margaret A (19 August 2014). "Capital One to Pay Largest TCPA Settlement on Record". The National Law Review. Proskauer Rose LLP. ISSN 2161-3362. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- Slawe, Meredith C.; Madway, Brynne S. (11 August 2014). "Capital One Agrees to $75 Million Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) Settlement". The National Law Review. Drinker Biddle & Reath. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- David Lazarus, "Capital One says it can show up at cardholders' homes, workplaces", Los Angeles Times, February 17, 2014
- David Lazarus, "Another complaint about Capital One bafflegab", Los Angeles Times, February 17, 2014. Lazarus's comment involved both the terms of service changes and other customer complaints.
- Amanda Alix, "Capital One to Customers: You Can't Hide From Us", February 19, 2014
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