The Stanley plan
was a package of 13 statutes adopted in September 1956 by the U.S. state
designed to ensure racial segregation
in that state's public schools despite the ruling of the Supreme Court of the United States
in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
, 347 U.S. 483 (1954). The legislative program was named for Governor Thomas B. Stanley
, who proposed the program and successfully pushed for its enactment. The Stanley plan was a critical element in the policy of "massive resistance
" to the Brown
ruling advocated by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. (pictured)
. The plan also included measures designed to curb the Virginia state chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP), which many Virginia segregationists believed was responsible for "stirring up" litigation to integrate the public schools.
The plan was enacted by the Virginia Assembly on September 22, 1956, and signed into law by Governor Stanley on September 29. A federal court struck down a portion of the Stanley plan as unconstitutional in January 1957. By 1960, nearly all of the major elements of the plan (including the litigation curbs aimed at the NAACP) had been struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court and other federal and state courts. The constitutional invalidity of the Stanley plan led new governor of Virginia, James Lindsay Almond, Jr., to propose "passive resistance" to school integration in 1959. The Supreme Court declared portions of "passive resistance" unconstitutional in 1964 and again in 1968.
(16 December 1896 – 12 February 1984) was the best known of several impostors
who claimed to be Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia
. The real Anastasia, the youngest daughter of the last Tsar and Tsarina of Russia, Nicholas II
, was killed along with her parents and siblings
on 17 July 1918 by communist
revolutionaries, but the location of her body was unknown until 2008.
In 1920, Anderson was institutionalized in a mental hospital after a suicide attempt in Berlin. In March 1922, claims that Anderson was a Russian grand duchess first received public attention. Most members of Grand Duchess Anastasia's family and those who had known her, including court tutor Pierre Gilliard, said Anderson was an impostor but others were convinced she was Anastasia. In 1927, a private investigation identified Anderson as Franziska Schanzkowska, a Polish factory worker with a history of mental illness. After a lawsuit lasting many years, the German courts ruled that Anderson had failed to prove she was Anastasia, but through media coverage, her claim gained notoriety. She emigrated to the United States in 1968, and shortly before the expiry of her visa married Jack Manahan, a Virginia history professor who was later characterized as "probably Charlottesville's best-loved eccentric". DNA tests on a lock of Anderson's hair and surviving medical samples of her tissue showed that Anderson's DNA did not match that of the Romanov remains or that of living relatives of the Romanovs. Most scientists, historians and journalists who have discussed the case accept that Anderson and Schanzkowska were the same person.
This month in Virginia history
- September 11, 2001: Flight 77 is steered into the Pentagon Building in Arlington, Virginia, killing 189, as part of the September 11 attacks.
- September 19, 1676: The capital city of Jamestown is burnt to the ground during Bacon's Rebellion, by rebels under the leadership of Nathaniel Bacon
- September 24, 1960: USS Enterprise (pictured), the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, is christened and launched at the Newport News Shipbuilding yard.
- September 27, 1903: The Wreck of the Old 97 occurs while the train near Danville, and is later immortalized by a popular ballad.
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- Capital: Richmond, Virginia
- Total area: 110,862 sq.mi
- Highest elevation: 5,729 ft (Mount Rogers)
- Population (2010 census) 8,001,024
- Date Virginia joined the united States: June 25, 1788
- Governor: Ralph Northam (D)
- Lieutenant Governor: Justin Fairfax (D)
- Attorney General: Mark Herring (D)
- Senators: Tim Kaine (D), Mark Warner (D)
- Representatives: Rob Wittman (R-1st), Scott Rigell (R-2nd), Robert C. Scott (D-3rd), Randy Forbes (R-4th), Robert Hurt (R-5th), Bob Goodlatte (R-6th), Eric Cantor (R-7th), Jim Moran (D-8th), Morgan Griffith (R-9th), Frank Wolf (R-10th), Gerry Connolly (D-11th)
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