Caspian tiger

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Caspian tiger
Tiger from the Caucasus in Berlin Zoological Garden, 1899[1]
Tiger from the Caucasus in Berlin Zoological Garden, 1899[1]
Extinct (1970)
Scientific classificationEdit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Pantherinae
Genus: Panthera
Species: P. tigris
Subspecies: P. t. tigris
Population: Caspian tiger
Historical distribution
Historical distribution

The Caspian tiger was a Panthera tigris tigris population native to eastern Turkey, northern Iran, Mesopotamia, the Caucasus around the Caspian Sea, Central Asia to northern Afghanistan and the Xinjiang region in western China.[2] Until the Middle Ages, it was also present in southern Russia.[3] It inhabited sparse forests and riverine corridors in this region until the 1970s.[1] This population was regarded as a distinct subspecies and assessed as extinct in 2003.[4]

Results of a phylogeographic analysis evinces that the Caspian and Siberian tiger populations shared a common continuous geographic distribution until the early 19th century.[5]

Some Caspian tigers were intermediate in size between Siberian and Bengal tigers.[3][6][7]

It was also called Balkhash tiger, Hyrcanian tiger, Turanian tiger,[4] and Mazandaran tiger.[8]


Felis virgata was a scientific name used by Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger in 1815 for the greyish tiger in the area surrounding the Caspian Sea.[9] Tigris septentrionalis was the scientific name proposed by Konstantin Satunin in 1904 for a skull and mounted skins of tigers that were killed in the Lankaran Lowland in the 1860s.[10] Felis tigris lecoqi and Felis tigris trabata were proposed by Ernst Schwarz in 1916 for tiger skins and skulls from Lop Nur and Ili River areas, respectively.[11]

In 1929, Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the tiger to the genus Panthera.[12] For several decades, the Caspian tiger was considered a distinct tiger subspecies.[6][13]

In 1999, the validity of several tiger subspecies was questioned. Most putative subspecies described in the 19th and 20th centuries were distinguished on basis of fur length and colouration, striping patterns and body size, hence characteristics that vary widely within populations. Morphologically, tigers from different regions vary little, and gene flow between populations in those regions is considered to have been possible during the Pleistocene. Therefore, it was proposed to recognize only two tiger subspecies as valid, namely P. t. tigris in mainland Asia, and P. t. sondaica in the Greater Sunda Islands and possibly in Sundaland.[14]

At the start of the 21st century, genetic studies were carried out using 20 tiger bone and tissue samples from museum collections and sequencing at least one segment of five mitochondrial genes. Results revealed a low amount of variability in the mitochondrial DNA in Caspian tigers; and that Caspian and Siberian tigers were remarkably similar, indicating that the Siberian tiger is the genetically closest living relative of the Caspian tiger. Phylogeographic analysis indicates that the common ancestor of Caspian and Siberian tigers colonized Central Asia via the GansuSilk Road region from eastern China less than 10,000 years ago, and subsequently traversed eastward to establish the Siberian tiger population in the Russian Far East. The Caspian and Siberian tigers were likely a single contiguous population until the early 19th century, but became isolated from another due to fragmentation and loss of habitat during the Industrial Revolution.[5]

In 2015, morphological, ecological and molecular traits of all putative tiger subspecies were analysed in a combined approach. Results support distinction of the two evolutionary groups continental and Sunda tigers. The authors proposed recognition of only two subspecies, namely P. t. tigris comprising the Bengal, Malayan, Indochinese, South Chinese, Siberian and Caspian tiger populations, and P. t. sondaica comprising the Javan, Bali and Sumatran tiger populations. Tigers in mainland Asia fall into two clades, namely a northern clade formed by the Caspian and Siberian tiger populations, and a southern clade formed by populations in remaining mainland Asia.[15]

In 2017, the Cat Specialist Group revised felid taxonomy and now recognizes the tiger populations in continental Asia as P. t. tigris.[2] However, a genetic study published in 2018 supported six monophyletic clades, with the Amur and Caspian tigers being distinct from other mainland Asian populations, thus supporting the traditional concept of six living subspecies.[16]


Skin of a Caspian tiger from Iran
Illustration of two Caspian tigers


Photographs of skins of Caspian and Siberian tigers indicate that the main background colour of the Caspian tiger's fur varied and was generally brighter and more uniform than that of the Siberian tiger. The stripes were narrower, fuller and more closely set than those of tigers from Manchuria. The colour of its stripes was a mixture of brown or cinnamon shades. Pure black patterns were invariably found only on head, neck, the middle of the back and at the tip of the tail. Angular patterns at the base of the tail were less developed than those of Far Eastern populations. The contrast between the summer and winter coats was sharp, though not to the same extent as in Far Eastern populations. The winter coat was paler, with less distinct patterns. The summer coat had a similar density and hair length to that of the Bengal tiger, though its stripes were usually narrower, longer and closer set. It had the thickest fur amongst tigers, possibly due its occurrence in the temperate parts of Asia.[3][6][7]


Male Caspian tigers had a body length of 270–295 cm (106–116 in) and weighed 170–240 kg (370–530 lb); females measured 240–260 cm (94–102 in) in head-to-body and weighed 85–135 kg (187–298 lb).[6] Maximum skull length in males was 297–365.8 mm (11.69–14.40 in), while that of females was 195.7–255.5 mm (7.70–10.06 in).[3] Its occiput was broader than of the Bengal tiger.[14] It ranked among the largest extant cat species, along with the Siberian tiger.[6][3][17]

Some individuals attained exceptional sizes. In 1954, a tiger was killed near the Sumbar River in Kopet-Dag, whose stuffed skin was put on display in a museum in Ashgabat. Its head-to-body length was 2.25 m (7.4 ft). Its skull had a condylobasal length of about 305 mm (12.0 in), and zygomatic width of 205 mm (8.1 in). Its skull length was 385 mm (15.2 in), hence more than the known maximum of 365.8 mm (14.40 in) for this population, and slightly exceeding skull length of most Siberian tigers.[3] In Prishibinske, a tiger was killed in February 1899. Measurements after skinning revealed a body length of 270 cm (8.9 ft) between the pegs, plus a 90 cm (3.0 ft) long tail, giving it a total length of about 360 cm (11.8 ft). Measurements between the pegs of up to 2.95 m (9.7 ft) are known.[6] It was said to have been "a tiger of immense proportions" and "no smaller than the local horse breeds." It had rather long fur.[3]

Skull size and shape of Caspian tigers significantly overlap with and are almost indistinguishable from other tiger specimens in mainland Asia.[18]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Shore of the Türkmenbaşy Gulf at the Caspian Sea
The Tigris River outside Mosul in Iraq
Landscape in the Altai Mountains

Historical records show that the distribution of the tiger in the region of the Caspian Sea was not continuous but patchy, and associated with wetlands such as river basins, lake edges and sea shores. In the Middle Ages, it inhabited the steppes and forest steppes of Ukraine and southern Russia.[3] In the 19th century, tigers occurred in:

Its former distribution can be approximated by examining the distribution of ungulates in the region.[25] Wild boar was the numerically dominant ungulate in forested habitats, along watercourses, in reed beds and in thickets of the Caspian and Aral Seas. Where watercourses penetrated deep into desert areas, suitable wild pig and tiger habitat was often linear, only a few kilometers wide at most. Red and roe deer occurred in forests around the Black Sea to the western side and around the southern side of the Caspian Sea in a narrow belt of forest cover. Roe deer occurred in forested areas south of Lake Balkhash. Bactrian deer lived in the narrow belt of forest habitat on the southern border of the Aral Sea, and southward along the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers.[3]

Throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene, the Caspian tiger population was likely connected to the Bengal tiger population through corridors below elevations of 4,000 m (13,000 ft) in the Hindu Kush, before gene flow was interrupted by humans.[26]

Local extinction[edit]

Tiger killed in northern Iran, early 1940s

The demise of the Caspian tiger began with the Russian colonisation of Turkestan during the late 19th century.[27] Its extirpation was caused by several factors:

  • Tigers were killed by large parties of sportsmen and military personnel who also hunted tiger prey species such as wild pigs. The wild pig range underwent a rapid decline between the middle of the 19th century and the 1930s due to overhunting, natural disasters, and diseases such as swine fever and foot-and-mouth disease, which caused large and rapid die-offs.[3]
  • The extensive reed beds of tiger habitat were increasingly converted to cropland for planting cotton and other crops that grew well in the rich silt along rivers.[27]
  • The tiger was already vulnerable due to the restricted nature of its distribution, having been confined to watercourses within the large expanses of desert environment.[25]

Until the early 20th century, the regular Russian army was used to clear predators from forests, around settlements, and potential agricultural lands. Until World War I, about 50 tigers were killed in the forests of Amu Darya and Piandj Rivers each year. High incentives were paid for tiger skins up to 1929. Wild pigs and deer, the prey base of tigers, were decimated by deforestation and subsistence hunting by the increasing human population along the rivers, supported by growing agricultural developments.[28] By 1910, cotton plants were estimated to occupy nearly one-fifth of Turkestan's arable land, with about one half located in the Fergana Valley.[29]

Last sightings[edit]

In Iraq, a tiger was killed near Mosul in 1887.[1][19] In Georgia, the last known tiger was killed in 1922 near Tbilisi, after taking domestic livestock.[30][1] In China, tigers disappeared from the Tarim River basin in Xinjiang in the 1920s.[30][1] In Azerbaijan, the last known tiger was killed in 1932; however, tigers were allegedly sighted in later years in the Talysh Mountains.[31]

In Turkey, a pair of tigers was allegedly killed in the area of Selçuk in 1943.[32] Several tiger skins found in the early 1970s near Uludere indicated the presence of a tiger population in eastern Turkey.[33][34] Questionnaire surveys conducted in this region revealed that one to eight tigers were killed each year until the mid-1980s, and that tigers likely had survived in the region until the early 1990s. Due to lack of interest, in addition to security and safety reasons, no further field surveys were carried out in the area.[20]

In Iran, one of the last known tigers was shot in Golestan National Park in 1953. Another individual was sighted in Golestān Province in 1958.[7] In Turkmenistan, the last known tiger was killed in January 1954 in the Sumbar River valley in the Kopet-Dag Range.[35] It reportedly disappeared in the Manasi River basin in the Tian Shan Range west of Ürümqi in the 1960s.[3] The last record from the lower reaches of the Amu Darya river was an unconfirmed observation in 1968 near Nukus in the Aral Sea area. By the early 1970s, tigers disappeared from the river's lower reaches and the Pyzandh Valley in the Turkmen-Uzbek-Afghan border region.[3] The Piandj River area between Afghanistan and Tajikistan was a stronghold of the Caspian tiger until the late 1960s. The latest sighting of a tiger in the Afghan-Tajik border area dates to 1998 in the Babatag Range.[28] A pair of Caspian tigers was captured in Afghanistan's Laghman Province in April 1997.[36]

In Kazakhstan, the last Caspian tiger was recorded in 1948, in the environs of the Ili River, the last known stronghold in the region of Lake Balkhash.[3] In May 2006, a Kazakh hunter claimed to have seen a female Caspian tiger with cubs near Lake Balkhash. However, this sighting remains uncertain and unconfirmed.[37]

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

Mosaic of an elephant attacking a tiger, from Roman Syria, which occupied parts of what is now Anatolia and Mesopotamia[38]

No information is available for home ranges of Caspian tigers. In search for prey, they possibly prowled widely and followed migratory ungulates from one pasture to another. Wild pigs and cervids probably formed their main prey base. In many regions of Central Asia, Bactrian deer and roe deer were important prey species, as well as Caspian red deer and goitered gazelle in Iran; Eurasian golden jackals, jungle cats, locusts, and other small mammals in the lower Amu Darya River area; saigas, wild horses and Persian onagers in the Miankaleh Peninsula; Turkmenian kulans, Mongolian wild asses, and mountain sheep in the Zhana-Darya and around the Aral Sea; and Manchurian wapiti and moose in the area of Lake Baikal. They caught fish in flooded areas and irrigation channels. In winter, they frequently attacked dogs and livestock straying away from herds. They preferred drinking water from rivers, and drank from lakes in seasons when water was less brackish.[3]


Two tigers in southwestern Tajikistan harbored 5–7 tapeworms (Taenia bubesei) in their small and large intestines.[3]


In 1938, the first protected area Tigrovaya Balka (Russian: Тигровая балка, lit.'Tiger dry creek or Tiger arroyo'), was established in Tajikistan. The name was given to this zapovednik after a tiger had attacked two Russian Army officers riding horseback along dried-up river channel known in Russian as balka. Tigrovaya Balka was apparently the last refuge of Caspian tigers in the Soviet Union, and is situated in the lower reaches of Vakhsh River between the Piandj and Kofarnihon Rivers near the border of Afghanistan. A tiger was seen there in 1958.[39] After 1947, tigers were legally protected in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.[28]

In Iran, Caspian tigers had been protected since 1957, with heavy fines for shooting. In the early 1970s, biologists from the Department of Environment searched several years for Caspian tigers in the uninhabited areas of Caspian forests, but did not find any evidence of their presence.[7]

In captivity[edit]

Colour-enhanced photo of the captive tiger in Berlin Zoo, 1899

A tiger from the Caucasus was housed at Berlin Zoo in the late 19th century.[1] DNA from a tiger caught in northern Iran and housed at Moscow Zoo in the 20th century was used in the genetic test that established the Caspian tiger's close genetic relationship with the Siberian tiger.[5]

Reintroduction project[edit]

Stimulated by recent findings that the Siberian tiger is the closest relative of the Caspian tiger, discussions started as to whether the Siberian tiger could be appropriate for reintroduction into a safe place in Central Asia, where the Caspian tiger once roamed.[40] The Amu Darya delta was suggested as a potential site for such a project. A feasibility study was initiated to investigate if the area is suitable, and if such an initiative would receive support from relevant decision makers. A viable tiger population of about 100 animals would require at least 5,000 km2 (1,900 sq mi) of large tracts of contiguous habitat, with rich prey populations. Such habitat is not currently available, and cannot be provided in the short term. The proposed region is therefore unsuitable for the reintroduction, at least at the current stage.[28]

While the restoration of the Caspian tiger has stimulated discussions, the locations for the tiger have yet to become fully involved in the planning. But through preliminary ecological surveys it has been revealed that some small populated areas of Central Asia have preserved natural habitat suitable for tigers.[41]

In culture[edit]

The 'Tiger Mosaic' in Palmyra
Portal of the Sher-Dor Madrasa in Samarkand depicting a tiger

In the Roman Empire, tigers and other large animals imported from Africa and Asia were used during gladiatorial games.[42] In the Taurus Mountains, stone traps were used to capture leopards and tigers.[43]

In the Fables of Pilpay, the tiger is described as furious and avid to rule over wilderness.[44] The babr (Persian: ببر, tiger) features in Persian and Central Asian culture. The name "Babr Mazandaran" is sometimes given to a prominent wrestler.[8] A Syrian mosaic in Palmyra depicts the Sassanids as tigers, possibly commemorating the victory of the Palmyrene King Odaenathus over Shapur I. The inscription on the mosaic conceals an earlier one that read: (Mrn), which is a title used by Odaenathus.[45] It possibly celebrates Odaenathus' victory over the Persians, the archer representing Odaenathus and the tigers the Persians; Odaenathus is about to be crowned with victory by the eagle flying above him.[46]

See also[edit]

  • Holocene extinction


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Nowell, K. & Jackson, P. (1996). "Tiger, Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758)" (PDF). Wild Cats: status survey and conservation action plan. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. pp. 55–65.
  2. ^ a b Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O'Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z. & Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News (Special Issue 11): 66–68.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Heptner, V. G. & Sludskij, A. A. (1992) [1972]. "Tiger". Mlekopitajuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Vysšaia Škola [Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 2. Carnivora (Hyaenas and Cats)]. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. pp. 95–202.
  4. ^ a b Jackson, P. & Nowell, K. (2011). "Panthera tigris ssp. virgata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T41505A10480967.
  5. ^ a b c Driscoll, C. A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Bar-Gal, G. K.; Roca, A. L.; Luo, S.; Macdonald, D. W. & O'Brien, S. J. (2009). "Mitochondrial Phylogeography Illuminates the Origin of the Extinct Caspian Tiger and Its Relationship to the Amur Tiger". PLOS ONE. 4 (1): e4125. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.4125D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004125. PMC 2624500. PMID 19142238.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Mazák, V. (1981). "Panthera tigris". Mammalian Species (152): 1–8. doi:10.2307/3504004. JSTOR 3504004.
  7. ^ a b c d Firouz, E. (2005). "Tiger". The complete fauna of Iran. London, New York: I. B. Tauris. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-1-85043-946-2.
  8. ^ a b Humphreys, P. & Kahrom, E. (1999). "Caspian tiger". Lion and Gazelle: The Mammals and Birds of Iran. Avon: Images Publishing. pp. 75–77. ISBN 9781860642296.
  9. ^ Illiger, C. (1815). "Überblick der Säugethiere nach ihrer Verteilung über die Welttheile". Abhandlungen der Königlichen Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 1804−1811: 39–159. Archived from the original on 2019-06-08. Retrieved 2020-07-15.
  10. ^ Satunin, K. (1906). "Die Säugetiere des Talyschgebietes und der Mugansteppe" [The mammals of the Talysch and the Mugan steppe regions]. Mitteilungen des Kaukasischen Museums. 2: 263–394.
  11. ^ Schwarz, E. (1916). "Zwei neue Lokalformen des Tigers aus Centralasien" [Two new local races of the Tiger from Central Asia]. Zoologischer Anzeiger. 47 (12): 351–354.
  12. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1929). "Tigers". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 33 (3): 505–541.
  13. ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Subspecies Panthera tigris virgata". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 548. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  14. ^ a b Kitchener, A. (1999). "Tiger distribution, phenotypic variation and conservation issues". In Seidensticker, J.; Christie, S.; Jackson, P. (eds.). Riding the Tiger: Tiger Conservation in Human-Dominated Landscapes. Cambridge University Press. pp. 19–39. ISBN 978-0-521-64835-6. Archived from the original on 2012-04-23.
  15. ^ Wilting, A.; Courtiol, A.; Christiansen, P.; Niedballa, J.; Scharf, A. K.; Orlando, L.; Balkenhol, N.; Hofer, H.; Kramer-Schadt, S.; Fickel, J. & Kitchener, A., A. C. (2015). "Planning tiger recovery: Understanding intraspecific variation for effective conservation". Science Advances. 11 (5): e1400175. Bibcode:2015SciA....1E0175W. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1400175. PMC 4640610. PMID 26601191.
  16. ^ Li, Y.-C.; Sun, X.; Driscoll, C.; Miquelle, D. G.; Xu, X.; Martelli, P.; Uphyrkina, O.; Smith, J. L. D.; O'Brien, S. J. & Luo, S.-J. (2018). "Genome-wide evolutionary analysis of natural history and adaptation in the world's tigers". Current Biology. 28 (23): 3840–3849.e6. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2018.09.019. PMID 30482605.
  17. ^ Nowak, R. M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-5789-8.
  18. ^ Mazák, J. H. (2010). "Craniometric variation in the tiger (Panthera tigris): Implications for patterns of diversity, taxonomy and conservation". Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 75 (1): 45–68. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2008.06.003.
  19. ^ a b c Kock, D. (1990). "Historical record of a tiger, Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758), in Iraq". Zoology in the Middle East. 4: 11–15. doi:10.1080/09397140.1990.10637583.
  20. ^ a b Can, Ö. E. (2004). Status, conservation and management of large carnivores in Turkey (PDF). Strasbourg: Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats.
  21. ^ Hatt, R. T. (1959). The mammals of Iraq. Ann Arbor: Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan.
  22. ^ Masseti, M. (2009). "Carnivores of Syria". In Neubert, E.; Amr, Z.; Taiti, S.; Gümüs, B. (eds.). Animal Biodiversity in the Middle East. Proceedings of the First Middle Eastern Biodiversity Congress, Aqaba, Jordan, 20–23 October 2008. ZooKeys 31. pp. 229–252. doi:10.3897/zookeys.31.170. {{cite book}}: |journal= ignored (help)
  23. ^ Faizolahi, K. (2016). "Tiger in Iran – historical distribution, extinction causes and feasibility of reintroduction". Cat News (Special issue 10): 5–13.
  24. ^ Seidensticker, J.; Christie, S. & Jackson, P. (1999). "Preface". Riding the Tiger. Tiger conservation in human-dominated landscapes. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. pp. XV–XIX. ISBN 978-0-521-64835-6.
  25. ^ a b Sunquist, M.; Karanth, K. U. & Sunquist, F. (1999). "Ecology, behaviour and resilience of the tiger and its conservation needs". In Seidensticker, J.; Christie, S. & Jackson, P. (eds.). Riding the Tiger. Tiger conservation in human-dominated landscapes. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. pp. 5–18. ISBN 9780521648356.
  26. ^ Cooper, D. M.; Dugmore, A. J.; Gittings, B. M.; Scharf, A. K.; Wilting, A. & Kitchener, A. C. (2016). "Predicted Pleistocene–Holocene range shifts of the tiger (Panthera tigris)". Diversity and Distributions. 22 (11): 1199–1211. doi:10.1111/ddi.12484.
  27. ^ a b Johnson, P. (1991). The birth of the Modern World Society, 1815–1830. New York: Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 978-0-06-016574-1.
  28. ^ a b c d Jungius, H.; Chikin, Y.; Tsaruk, O. & Pereladova, O. (2009). Pre-Feasibility Study on the Possible Restoration of the Caspian Tiger in the Amu Darya Delta (PDF). WWF Russia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  29. ^ Brower, D. R. (2003). Turkestan and the fate of the Russian Empire. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-29744-8.
  30. ^ a b Ognev, S. I. (1935). "Carnivora (Fissipedia)". Mammals of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. Vol. 2. Washington D. C.: National Science Foundation.
  31. ^ Novikov, A. G. (1962). Khishchnye mlekopitayushchie fauny SSSR [Carnivorous mammals of the fauna of the USSR]. Israel program for scientific translations. OCLC 797893515.
  32. ^ Johnson, K. (2002). "The Status of mammalian carnivores in Turkey" (PDF). Endangered Species Update 19 (6): 232–237.
  33. ^ Baytop, T. (1974). "La presence du vrai tigre, Panthera tigris (Linne 1758) en Turquie". Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen. 22 (3): 254–256.
  34. ^ Kumerloeve, H. (1974). "Zum Vorkommen des Tigers auf türkischem Boden". Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen. 22 (4): 348–350.
  35. ^ Ministry of Forest of Turkmenistan (1999). The Red Data Book of Turkmenistan. Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). Turkmenistan Publishing House.
  36. ^ UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs (1997). Afghanistan Weekly Update No. 215. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (Report).
  37. ^ Rossi, L.; Scuzzarella, C.M.; Angelici, F.M. (2020). "Extinct or Perhaps Surviving Relict Populations of Big Cats: Their Controversial Stories and Implications for Conservation". In Angelici, F.M.; Rossi, L. (eds.). Problematic Wildlife II. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 393–417. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-42335-3_12. ISBN 978-3-030-42335-3. S2CID 218943307.
  38. ^ Sicker, M. (2001). Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 years of Roman-Judaean relations. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780275971403. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  39. ^ Dybas, C. L. (2010). "The Once and Future Tiger". BioScience. 60 (11): 872–877. doi:10.1525/bio.2010.60.11.3. S2CID 83471382.
  40. ^ Luo, S.-J.; Johnson, W. E. & O'Brien, S. J. (2010). "Applying molecular genetic tools to tiger conservation". Integrative Zoology. 5 (4): 351–362. doi:10.1111/j.1749-4877.2010.00222.x. PMC 6984346. PMID 21392353.
  41. ^ Driscoll, C.A.; Chestin, I.; Jungius, H.; Pereladova, O.; Darman, Y.; Dinerstein, E.; Seidensticker, J.; Sanderson, J.; Christie, S.; Luo, S.J.; Shrestha, M.; Zhuravlev, Y.; Uphyrkina, O.; Jhala, Y.V.; Yadav, S.P.; Pikunov, D.G.; Yamaguchi, N.; Wildt, D.E.; J.L.D. Smith; L. Marker; P.J. Nyhus; R. Tilson; D.W. Macdonald & O’Brien, S.J. (2012). "A postulate for tiger recovery: the case of the Caspian Tiger". Journal of Threatened Taxa. 4 (6): 2637–2643. doi:10.11609/jott.o2993.2637-43.
  42. ^ Auguet, R. (1994). "The hunts of the amphitheatre". Cruelty and civilization: the Roman games. Psychology Press. pp. 81–106. ISBN 978-0-415-10453-1.
  43. ^ Şekercioğlu, Ç.H.; Anderson, S.; Akcay, E.; Bilgin, R.; Can, O. & Semiz, G. (2011). "Turkey's Globally Important Biodiversity In Crisis". Biological Conservation. 144 (12): 2752–2769. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.06.025. S2CID 18094317.
  44. ^ Kāshifī, H. V. (1854). The Anvari Suhaili; or the Lights of Canopus Being the Persian version of the Fables of Pilpay; or the Book Kalílah and Damnah rendered into Persian by Husain Vá'iz U'L-Káshifí. Translated by Eastwick, E. B. Hertford: Stephen Austin.
  45. ^ Gawlikowski, M. (2005). "L'apothéose d'Odeinat sur une Mosaïque Récemment Découverte à Palmyre". Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (in French). 149 (4): 1293–1304. doi:10.3406/crai.2005.22944.
  46. ^ Gawlikowski, M. (2006). "Palmyra". Current World Archaeology. 12: 32.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]