Christiaan Lindemans

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Christiaan Lindemans
Christiaan Lindemans (1912 – 1946).jpg
Born (1912-10-24)24 October 1912
Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Died 18 July 1946(1946-07-18) (aged 33)
Scheveningen, The Netherlands
Cause of death Suicide
Nationality Dutch
Occupation Motor engineer, double agent
Spouse(s) Gilberte Yvonne Lindemans née Letuppe (m. 1941)
Children 2

Christiaan Antonius Lindemans (Rotterdam, 24 October 1912 – Scheveningen, 18 July 1946), the fourth son of Joseph Hendrik Lindemans and Christina Antonia van Uden, was a Dutch double agent during the Second World War, working under Russian control. Otherwise known as Freddi Desmet,[1] officer in the Belgian army and SOE agent with security clearance at the Dutch Military Intelligence Division of the SOE (MID/SOE). He is better known under his nickname "King Kong" or in some circles as "le Tueur" (the Killer) as he undertook missions to kill[2] and was ready to shoot at the slightest provocation. There is speculation that Lindemans may have been a member of Colonel[3] Claude Dansey's Z organisation.

He is blamed[4][5] for betraying the plans of Operation Market Garden, or more precisely, the Arnhem operation to the enemy and as a result caused the Allies defeat at the battle of Arnhem in 1944, the loss of the battle prolonged the war by 6 months, allowing the Russian Red Army to enter Berlin first.[6]

Krist, as he was called by his comrades, had worked for the Allies with great bravery, being personally responsible for the death of at least of twenty-seven Germans during the guerrilla war in the outskirts of Antwerp. A natural risk-taker, he didn't know the meaning of fear; unfortunately neither did he know the meaning of loyalty.[7]


Before the outbreak of the Second World War, Lindemans worked alongside his brother Jan as a mechanic at his father's garage in Rotterdam. In the summer of 1936, he was injured in a motorcycle accident sustaining a cracked skull and injuries to his left arm and leg which left him walking with a lumbering, simian-like, gait[8](described by some as a slight limp and a deformed hand). Tall and heavily built (6 ft 3 and 260 lbs), he was nicknamed King Kong (name given to him by his rowing trainer), he spoke French and German well and some English. By his own account, Lindemans started to work as an informant for the British secrets service since the spring of 1940, relaying shipping movements to London. In August of the same year, he found work as lorry driver on the Lille to Paris route carrying petrol for the German air forces. While living at Lille, and through his girlfriend (who later became his wife), he became involved with the resistance sometime in 1940. About September 1942, Lindemans established his own escape line in Abbeville where he was arrested two months later after being denounced by a woman living in Paris, an acquaintance named Colette. He was imprisoned by the Germans for five months, he was the only one of his organization to be detained.

By 1943, his popularity as one of the leaders of the Dutch resistance was its highest. He had begun collecting jewels and other valuables from rich women to provide fighting funds for the underground "escape route" through occupied Belgium and the Netherlands into Spain and Portugal.

Lindemans served as a contact with resistance movements, some with Communist tendencies such as the RVV (Raad van Verzet or Council of Resistance, the RVV was engaged in both communications sabotage and protection of onderduikers or people in hiding[9]), the CS VI group of Amsterdam (a clandestine sabotage and intelligence organisation, one of its members was Dutch officer Captain Kas de Graaf,[10][n 1]) the Trouw (Fidelity), the Het Parool (The spoken Word), the Dutch-Paris escape line run by John Henry Weidner[11] and for evasion networks within the jurisdisdiction of MI9.[12] Lindemans was a member of one of the twelve recognised units of the Belgian underground army called Les Affranchis (The Liberated, ranked twelve,[13] founded by Camille Tromme), allowing him to remain in possession of a machine gun and a revolver.

Sometime in February 1944, his younger brother Henk was arrested in Rotterdam by the Sicherheitspolizei and held captive at The Hague, awaiting execution for helping English people to escape from the Netherlands. Followed on 24 February[14] by the arrest of his wife who was then 3 months pregnant, expecting her second child, a French cabaret singer who worked for the French Resistance named Gilberte Letuppe (she had previously worked as an ambulance driver for the French Red Cross) nicknamed Gilou Lelup at Hotel Montholon (included in the arrests, Victor Vic Swane, Head of an escape network, Swane was deported to Buchenwald concentration camp where he died on 12 October 1944, Lindemans's wife, a member of Swane's organisation, operated under the aliases Anna Van Vredenburgh and Yvonne), situated in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, the arrest was made by two members of the Gestapo assisted by four German soldiers heavily armed. They searched her bag and her room and found three ID cards, some Kommandantur signatures, pass and some German employment permits, all stolen the previous day, in addition to the items discovered, three revolvers and a box of ammunition, all to be hand over to a French resistance movement in Bordeaux (Lindemans was there at the time of his wife's arrest).

Letuppe was taken prisonner and interrogated for eleven hours that day, she was beaten with such force in the face, she fell from her chair but she refused to speak. She was therefore taken to Fresnes Prison, south of Paris where she was jailed, manacled hand and foot with no food and water on a bed for four days. She was questioned violently a couple of times (twenty-four), beaten in the face on every occasion. Because of her mutism, she spend the next six months in Solitary confinement.

She is registered,[15] at the beginning of August, to be the last woman admitted to Fort de Romainville, a stop before deportation. Her file numbered 6 862 described her being born on 15 September 1922 and nine months pregnant (9 Monat schwanger). But, instead, being among the prisoners aboard the last convoy[n 2] (I.264, 15 August 1944) of deportees from Paris (quai des bestiaux, gare de Pantin) to Germany and alike some of her fellow inmates who were considered unfit for transportation, she was evacuated from the Fort of Romainville on 17 August to a local Hospice in Saint-Denis where she gave birth on 25 August to her second child, a daughter named Christianne. Letuppe's release might have been ordered by Abwehr Colonel Oscar Reile, he supposedly left Paris on 18 August. It's worth mentioning that the fort of Romainville was under the control of the German military authorities.

Gilberte Letuppe's record card, fort de Romainville, circa August 1944, the German military abbreviation, bev which is short for Bevollmächtigter and typed next to Geburt (birth), can be translated into English by authorized agent or Plenipotentiary

Her testimony was later written down by the Allied Information Service (AIS)-SHAEF[n 3] and used as evidence in the Nuremberg trials.

By March 1944, he was able to initiate contact[n 4] with Abwehr[n 5] operatives in Brussels, due to his inability to pay 10,000 Florins asked by the first intermediary agent in exchange for their freedom, Lindemans agreed to meet Dr. Gerhard, sometimes called Dr. German (pseudonym for Hermann Giskes, who had run the successful Operation North Pole and who could speak perfectly English without a trace of a German accent.) in a villa outside Brussels and agreed to become a double agent[n 6] on condition that his wife and brother were released.[17] Giskes claimed that he performed his part of the bargain,[18] Henk Lindemans was released in due course and went as a voluntary worker to Germany where he had some acquaintances [19]

From here on, Lindemans (Abwehr codenamed CC) was instructed to renew contact with resistance agents and transmit back to Major Hermann Giskes[n 7] information about the resistance movement in the occupied Netherlands, France and Belgium. In return he received large sums of money. During his time as an informant for the German military intelligence service, Lindemans was closely shadowed by an Abwehr agent. Lindemans's early denunciations created a Domino effect resulting in the arrest of 267 Dutch and Belgians resistance fighters. In the wake of D-Day's landings, Lindemans said to have visited the British sector of the Normandy Beachhead,[20] he succeeded in getting himself recruited by IS 9 (Intelligence School 9 a.k.a. Nine Eyes[21]) Western Europe Area, an Anglo-American[22] secret agency which worked under MI9,[23] by the end of September 1944[n 8], he was a member of Prince Bernhard's Staff[n 9] and was appointed to the position of liaison officer (with temporary rank of Captain in the Netherlands Forces of the Interior) between Dutch resistance and a British Intelligence unit commanded by a Canadian officer.[n 10]

The true nature of Lindemans's mission could have been an assassination attempt against Prince Bernhard but according to Bernhard's biographer that was not his orders, Lindemans was to spy on Prince Bernhard's HQ and find out who was the primary source of intelligence (contacts in the Dutch resistance, radio operators and other suppliers of information).[29]

September 1944[edit]

On 3 September 1944, Giskes left Brussels (en route to his next assignment in Bonn, Giskes' FAK 307 was now attached to Army Group B) and instructed Lindemans to stay in Belgium and make contact with Anglo-Canadian intelligence, he was to offer himself as an agent, the mission was to find out what plans Canadian Intelligence[n 11] had made for the Netherlands and as soon as possible cross the lines with that information, in that case he was to use a secret code to get past German sentries. Lindemans was involved in the liberation of the city of Brussels, alongside three Belgian police officers, he attacked German forces who were still holding out in the North railway station district, Lindemans managed to kill two German soldiers and wounding two.

On 4 September 1944, British intelligence officer, Captain Peter Baker of IS 9 of the D group (Western Europe Area), an expert in sabotage and Hand-to-hand combat and assigned to SHAEF G-2 division (intelligence), arrived in Brussels (office at the Hotel Metropole where he set up a W/T station) on his way to the newly liberated Antwerp in search of a Dutchman who would be able to go through the lines and to contact Allied airmen hiding in the southern part of the Netherlands (Allied pilots were to stay put as the Allied amies were preparing to move toward Eindhoven[30]).

An Armée secrète ‘s operative named Urbain Renniers[n 12] recommended Lindemans to the job, before sending him out, Baker made a few enquiries, he then went to the 21st Army Group's[n 13] headquarters which in turn contacted Prince Bernhard’s staff, on SHAEF Special Forces Captain de Graaf’s recommendation, Prince Bernhard notifiy Baker that Lindemans could be trusted, accordingly special priority clearance was granted and an IS 9 pass under the name of Christiaan Brand was issued.

Lindemans, operating under the alias of “De Vries” given to him by Baker, in order to protect his idendity had now joined The Buccaneers, Baker's private army, the Jolly Roger was the unit Battle standard.[32] It is noteworthy that the De Vries alias was also used by another Abwehr agent, Antonie Damen, Lindemans was required to perform the role of Baker's Chauffeur. The Baker mission (It is conceivable that it was part of an elaborate deception operation) begin on 12–3 September from the Belgium town of Diest.

On the night of 14 September,[n 14] Captain Baker conducted Lindemans and a Belgian named Lucien de Ness to Hechtel-Eksel near Berigen (location of Capt Baker HQ, the British intended to drive on Eindhoven with 300 tanks from the bridgehead near Berigen). For the most part of his journey, Lindemans was escorted by a patrol of fourteen British soldiers under the authority of Major Ross (pseudonym for a British officer), in full British battle dress uniform he crossed the frontlines (Valkenswaard) through a hail of shells, the Belgian was seriously wounded and taken to a German field Hospital, he died shortly after and for Lindemans he had rendezvous with the German HQs in the Netherlands.

Lindemans first met with German Luftwaffe general Kurt Student in Vught[35][n 15] and then escorted to Driebergen by Giskes's right-hand man, Abwehr agent Richard Christmann[42] (1905–1989) who had been detached from FAK 307 to FAT 365 in the upcoming meeting with Lindemans. The latter was driven back to the region of Eindhoven on 16 September by agent Christmann (codenamed Arnaud).[n 16]

Alongside his BBO assignement, Lindemans had received a Dutch BI (bureau of information, The Dutch exile government's intelligence service and MI-6 counterpart[43]) order by Baker, once in Eindhoven he was instructed to deliver personally to four high-ranking members of a Dutch resistance organisation, all employed by The Philips Company also known as Eindhoven Philips[n 17] the following assignment that they should hold back information on the development of V-2 rocket and a cyclotron[n 18] until the Allies reached them unless they considered it to be a strategic imperative. In that case they were to hand their intelligence to Lindemans on his way back through the lines[45] and to prevent the Germans of committing acts of sabotage against the Philips's factories.

Possibly part of the Melanie Mission,[n 19] a joint operation between the Office of Strategic Services and the BI,[46] the Melanie Mission was to collect military, economic and industrial intelligence.[47]

Saturday 16 September, he went for the safe house of resistant police officer Inspector Kooy, his address had been given to Lindemans via Baker by Dutch intelligence liaison officers. Kooy started to suspect Lindemans, he had him searched, a copy of the Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden and a pass signed by Major Ernest Kiesewetter, head of FAT[n 20] 365 in Driebergen (Giskes's subordinate and successor) were discovered in his pocket, Lindemans answered that he had picked up the newspaper on the road and the document bearing Kiesewetter's signature was a forgery. Unconvinced by Lindemans's explanation, Kooy had him locked up in a coal cellar near the police station .

Lindemans was released on Tuesday, 19 September, one day after the Allies entered Eindhoven[n 21] by Baker who was absolutely furious that one of his best agents was detained, Kooy produced the items discovered, Baker's reply that the newspaper meant nothing and the pass was a fake. On 23 September, Lindemans was debriefed and cleared of any suspicion by Captain de Graff[49] (A coded telegram was sent to the BI HQ in London noting that Lindemans was all right[50]) and Captain de Jong who had recently arrived from England and who was also serving on Prince Bernhard's Staff.

On duty with the SOE and in company of two British officers, Lindemans paid a visit to French resistance fighter named Charles Buisine on 17 October. Buisine, a veteran of the Battle of France, had been recruited into the SOE in 1940 by Lindemans with the immediate rank of Lieutenant, he was head of an intelligence and escape network codenamed Sector 6-North-F (stretching from the neighbouring of Orchies to Lille) with HQ in Beuvry. Buisine codenamed agent 28/24 who was working under the authority of Belgian Officer Desmet was unaware of his commanding officer true idendity.

Waiting to be alone with Buisine, here is what Lindemans had to say:

In the following days, Buisine did learnt to his own disbelief that Freddi Desmet, SOE Captain of the Belgian army with an impeccable record and Christiaan Lindemans, one of the leaders of the Communist group CS VI of Armsterdam who was held prisoner by the British Military police on suspicion of treason were one and the same.

Tactical advantage[edit]

Since the war various authors have speculated that Lindemans' information led Field Marshal Model (The Talefberg Hotel was Model's Tactical HQ in Oosterbeek in the neighbouring of Arnhem and the Hartenstein Hotel was used as the German Officers' Mess. Model moved to Oosterbeek on 11 September.) to reposition the II SS Panzer Corps (commanded by General Bittrich whose headquarters was in Doetinchem 15 miles east of Arnhem.) under the cover of darkness to positions overlooking likely Airborne targets, mainly bridgeheads, near Arnhem[52] and for the troops, they were camping in the nearby forests waiting for the Allied airdrop to begin.

According to Lindemans, the Allies wanted to attack Eindhoven.[53] More specifically, Lindemans' information stated that the Allied attack would be north of Eindhoven and would consist of Airborne troops eventually backstopped by Allied armor.[54]

Lindemans's intel (report dated 22 August) was incomplete but enough to let the German High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht) to pinpoint some of the enemy targets, likely bridges at Grave, Nijmegen and Arnhem, the last-mentioned was brought forward in Lindeman's report. Early September, Model who had the task to defend a line running from the North Sea to the Swiss border (500 miles), had ordered the 9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen and the 10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg to the neighborhood of Arnhem for refitting and upgrading under the direction of Bittrich who would set up his command post in the area in preparation for the upcoming Allied invasion of Germany in reaction to the V-2 campaign.

Lindemans' second report (dated 15 September) was made into two summaries (general information and prospective aerial landings), enabled the Germans to counter-attack and send further reinforcements made of auxiliary units in the Arnem and Nijmegen area.

The limited availability of German jet planes, most of the Me 262 were grounded due to the lack of adequate fuel, made impossible the full use of Lindemans's intelligence on the position of Eisenhower's HQ and the whereabouts of Allied battle tanks.

It should be noted that Allied aircraft reconnaissance were used on the 11 and on the 16 September but not on the 15th due to bad weather, nothing critical was detected.[55]

Prince Bernhard impersonation[edit]

On the eve of the liberation of Eindhoven, preceded by Sherman tanks, Baker entered the town of Valkenswaard, accompanied by Charles Muller,[n 22] a French officer, the two men were driven through the town in an impressive black Cadillac limousine, quickly attracting devoted followers. With his horn rimmed spectacles and his London-tailored uniform, Baker bore an uncanny resemblance to Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands and as expected, a large and enthusiastic crowd started to cheer at Baker who politely replied waving his hands in royal manner. At the end, Baker had to take refuge at the Irish Guards’s HQ at Aalst near Eindhoven where some British and American journalists were waiting to interview the Commander-in-Chief of the Dutch Forces.

Baker acknowledged in his memoirs that pictures were taken that day.[56] It is possible that the enduring myth that Lindemans and Prince Bernhard were acquainted before Operation Market-Garden started found its origin in the Baker-Lindemans connection.

Capture and death[edit]

On 26 October 1944, Lindemans was denounced as a German spy by a fellow Abwehr agent named Cornelis Johannes Antonius Verloop[n 23] nicknamed Satan Face (Abwehr codenamed Nelis), a recipient of the German Cross in Gold. Verloop who at that time was in Allied hands, claimed[n 24] that Lindemans had betrayed Operation Market Garden to intelligence officer Kiesewetter on Friday, 15 September at the Abwehr station in Driebergen. "King Kong" showed no resistance to his arrest by British security officer Alfred Vernon Sainsbury of Special Forces Detachment on the afternoon of 28 October 1944 at Prince Bernhard's headquarters located at Château de La Fougeraie also known as Château Wittouck in Uccle outside Brussels. After five days in St-Gilles-Prison, Brussels, Lindemans was transferred to Camp 020 (A maximum-security prison), placed under the command of Lieutenant colonel R.W.G .Stephens nicknamed Tin Eye. Lindemans's personal effects were seized but gave no evidence of his betrayal.

Following an intense two-week interrogation by MI5 agents, Lindemans had several epileptic fits and consequently, he made a full and detailed confession[n 25] and contrary to initial findings compelled by Camp 020 officers that they were unable to report what intel[n 26] Lindemans has transmitted to the enemy, Colonel Stevens recommended that Lindemans should receive the death sentence. Lindemans questioning at Camp 020 had revealed that he had general knowledge on some of Nazi Germany top-secret weapons including the V-2 program and the existence of an atomic bomb which burns and destroys everything within a radius of 500 yards, that large amounts of gold were stored in an unknown location in Brussels, he also disclosed that Giskes was a personal friend[64] of Hitler. Lindemans was also suspected of helping German spies getting back into enemy lines during the month of October.

He was then returned to Dutch custody (7 Dec 1944) where he was jailed in Breda[n 27] Prison up to March 1945 and in Scheveningen until summer 1946, held under sentence of death by the Dutch government, for treachery during the war.[66]

Oreste Pinto[n 28] did visit Lindemans at least once, the very muscular and keen boxer nicknamed "King Kong" was now the shadow of his former self,[n 29] the two men looked at each other, Lindemans could only say those words, Is there no mercy ?,[69] Pinto didn’t reply only to disappear in the mist of Scheveningen Prison. He allegedly committed suicide by swallowing 80 aspirin[n 30] in a psychiatric ward[n 31] before his case could be heard.

Prison, rumours and escape[edit]

According to British officer Capt Baker's own recollections of events, Lindemans was kept at the Tower of London, he was later executed for treason.[72]

In the summer of 1946, a Dutch newspaper published an article on a prison break which occurred at Scheveningen Prison, three men being held at the camp for political delinquents escaped, one of the escapees was the notorious Christiaan Lindemans, the mysterious Tower of London prisoner, a previous escape attempt by Lindemans from the same place had been thwarted,[73] he may have been allowed to escape[74] to South America[75] after a body-swap.[76][77]

Russian Syndicate[edit]

I received your letter but cannot understand it. You must known that after many tortures of the Germans, she (Lindemans's wife) is very afraid to speak to British or Dutch agents.

I have had my chance to escape, but i was waiting for you, because we worked in the same job. I liked the British better than the Dutch therefore i will work.

My wife Gilou likes to work with me and nobody else. I suppose that you are afraid that i am working with the wrong organisation, but that is not true, otherwise i would not have told you all these things.

If you think you can play with me then you will lose. I am in your hands now, so do what you like.[78]

– Lindemans’s reply, Scheveningen Prison, to security officer, Lieutenant Van Dijk acting under the orders of D.G. Baber, RAF security officer, Ypenburg, the Netherlands,

c.April–May 1946

In April 1946, Lindemans's wife visited the Soviet Embassy[79] in Rotterdam, at least on three occasions. The British intelligence service took the matter seriously and intervene with help of one of their agent inside Scheveningen Prison to get through to Lindemans, in exchange for his wife’s safety, he agreed to share informations on a Russian organisation who have ties with senior members of France, Germany and the Netherlands Armed forces and civilian administrations. This organisation is said to be all over the Netherlands territory and actively try to absorb all Dutchmen who served in the SS during the war, had taken into custody German engineers who had worked on the German atomic project and exfiltrated them to the Soviet Union, the same group had now spread to Persia, possibly threatening British interests. The British intelligence service cross-checked Lindemans's report and found it to be very accurate.[80]

The same mysterious organisation might have been involved in Verloop breaking out of Scheveningen Prison (1946). According to his British personal file classified Red, Verloop was regarded by the British intelligence service as one of the most dangerous German spy who worked in the Netherlands, he was last seen in 1949. Verloop name was on the official list of German agents kept by Admiral Wilhelm Canaris in his office in Berlin. Lindemans was believed to know where Verloop was hiding.

During the eighties, Verloop was interviewed by French historian, Michel Rousseau about two SOE networks in north of France, the Garrow-Pat O'Leary network and the Farmer network, the article was printed in the French quarterly publication Revue d'histoire de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale et des conflits contemporains in 1984 and by American journalist, Brendan M. Murphy for his projected book on British spy turned traitor Harold Cole, published in 1987.

In January 1944, posing as patriots, Verloop and fellow Abwehr agent, Antonie Damen (mention in the September 1944 section above), raised some suspicions in the mind of a member of the Belgian resistance movement, Mrs Lambot of 15, rue d'Alliance, Brussels. Lambot who lodged Verloop and Damen, suspected both men to be working for the Russian intelligence service. Damen's capture by Allied forces cause that of Verloop.

Body exhumed[edit]

Lindemans's resting place, Rotterdam, picture dated, March 25, 1986.

On Tuesday, 17 June 1986,[n 32] Dutch pathologist Martin Voortman positively identified a skeleton exhumed as that of Christiaan Lindemans, according to Voortman, the skeleton had an irregularly healed break in its left ankle, corresponding to Lindemans' medical records. The body[n 33] was recovered[n 34] at dawn the same day from Rotterdam Crooswijk cemetery from a coffin sandwiched between those of Lindemans's parents.[84]

Hendrik (Henk) Lindemans witnessed the exhumation of his brother's body, states that he was convinced that the remains were those of his brother.

In 1997, Lindemans' suicide note surfaced and had provided satisfactory evidence that Lindemans took his own life.[85]

Easter egg[edit]

A close-up of a Beware, the Walls Have Ears poster can be seen in Richard Attenborough's 1977 film adaptation of Operation Market Garden, A Bridge Too Far.

The Lindemans files[edit]

The NARA retains some files on Lindemans and the documents are located among the Office of the Secretary of Defense (RG 330) records. The Lindemans files are still security classified as late as 2015.


  1. ^ In the fall of 1943, Lindemans helped de Graaf escape from the Netherlands en route to London (Jan 1944). The de Graff-Lindemans connection went under scrutiny during Lindemans imprisonment at Camp 020. Lindemans was one of the highest-ranking members of CS VI.
  2. ^ Letuppe was to be deported to Ravensbrück concentration camp, branded with the following number 57584.
  3. ^ Her husband last name is misspelled as "Sindemans".
  4. ^ There are different versions of the same story, Lindemans and Verloop.
  5. ^ Abwehr III West section Northern France, Belgium and the Netherlands was renamed FAK 307 and headed by Giskes (March 1944), FAK (Front-Aufklärungs-Kommando or Front Intelligence Units) 307 was under the authority of Colonel Oscar Reile.
  6. ^ Lindemans was known to the German Intelligence Service by either Christiaan Brand[16] or by his real name. The name Brand was given to him in early 1944 by a Dutch resistance group. One of Lindemans's sisters in law was named Brand.
  7. ^ After the war, Giskes was recruited by the CIA sponsored intelligence organization, the Gehlen Organization.
  8. ^ 23 September,[24] date of the first meeting between Lindemans and Prince Bernhard at Chateau Wittouck. Half of Chateau Wittouck was occupied By Prince Bernhard's staff and the other half by the First Canadian Army.[25]
  9. ^ 20 September, date of Lindemans's first visit to Prince Bernahrd's HQ.[26]
  10. ^ Lindemans was assigned to a junior Canadian officer by Lieutenant-Colonel Maurice Louis De Rome, OBE, ED, of the Royal 22nd Regiment and Special Forces Detachments (SFD) attached to the First Canadian Army. In 1945, De Rome was appointed special military adviser to the Netherlands Army and to his H.R.H. Prince Bernhard, in July 1948, he was promoted to chief of staff,[27] Quebec Army Command with HQ in Montreal. De Rome[28] alongside RN officer Philip Johns (Within Two Cloaks) who was then head of SOE's branch in the Low Countries accompanied Intelligence Corps officer Peter Baker to his first meeting with Lindemans.
  11. ^ Lindemans was to find out the status of the Belgian resistance in the forthcoming of an Allied attack and Allied plans for infiltrating agents behind German lines.
  12. ^ Renniers codenamed Reaumur,[31] was an Engineering officer of the Belgian Army and became one the leaders of the Belgian secret Army in Antwerp, he provided Lindemans with a written statement for his bravery exhibited during the liberation of Antwerp. Renniers played a key role in insuring that the Port of Antwerp was intact upon arrival of the Allies.
  13. ^ IS 9 (WEA) was attached to the intelligence staff of Montgomery's 21 Army.
  14. ^ There is some confusion about the exact date and area of Lindemans crossing into enemy lines, Langley mentioned the event in his wartime memoir he co-wrote with British historian M. R. D. Foot as taking place 4 days before Operation Market-Garden started, setting the occurrence a day earlier, on the 13 September before midnight and the crossing point being described as near Eindhoven[33] and not Berigen as it is officially recorded. Langley states it was Lindemans's call and other sources says the order came from First Canadian Army's HQ, Lindemans's assignment under Canadian arrangement was to gather the resistance to linkup in the imminent Operation market-Garden. Langley claimed that before given green light, Pinto had warned[34] him that Lindemans was a possible German spy.
  15. ^ Student denied that he ever met Lindemans.[36] On 17 September, Luftwaffe's Flack (Fliegerabwehrkanone, stands for anti-aircraft guns) had reportedly shot down a glider (British[37] or American[38][39]) near the First Parachute Army's command post,[40] among its cargo, details of Operation Market-Garden were discovered by a Feldwebel and brought immediately to the attention of Student.[41]
  16. ^ Holder of the War Merit Cross, first class, Christmann was instrumental in the success of Operation North Pole, by October 1944, he was in charge of protecting the V-2 Bases. He established contact in May 1945 with the British intelligence service and provided intelligence to the SAS Belgian Regt of Operation Fabian (mention in Theodore Bachenheimer article, see Notes section). Alike Colonel Reile and Major Giskes, Christmann was recruited into the Gehlen Organization
  17. ^ From 1934 to 1944 at least, the Philips laboratories had an extensive atomic research program,[44] Lindemans was acquainted with Philips's representatives in Brussels and Paris.
  18. ^ Commissioned by the Reich Postal Office for its laboratory in Miersdorf near Zeuthen. The RPM was headed by Wilhelm Ohnesorge.
  19. ^ The Melanie Mission reached Eindhoven on 21 September 1944. Baker had written in his memoirs that he was to meet with some men (an unidentified party) in Eindhoven.
  20. ^ Front-Aufklärungs-Truppe
  21. ^ Baker expressed admiration for Lindeman's courageous and devoted conduct displayed after his release.[48]
  22. ^ Muller (maybe a pseudonym), a veteran of the Battle of France was made a Lieutenant in Baker's unit, possibly a member of the Jedburgh teams. Muller remained with Baker until they reached Eindhoven when he was ordered back to France.
  23. ^ Born in 1909 in The Hague.Verloop joined the French Foreign Legion in 1935, he deserted to join the Abwehr as an active intelligence operative, he was involved in the mock arrest of British traitor Harold Cole (December 1941). He was the one who put Lindemans in touch with Giskes, Verloop crossed into the liberated section of North Brabant on Abwehr instructions[57] to discover the whereabouts of Abwehr agent Damen who had not return from previous mission.
  24. ^ Verloop was questioned by Dutch counterintelligence officer Oreste Pinto, to prove that he could be trusted, Verloop named some members of Pinto's staff including British officer Captain Baker. The intelligence had been passed to him by Kiesewetter.[58]
  25. ^ Lindemans files and confession went missing prior to his death.[59] Lindemans's confession (24 pages) appears to have been made from four reports written down at different times (6 Dec 1944).
  26. ^ An ISOS (Intelligence Services Oliver Strachey) decrypt of a Abwehr signal dated from end of August[60] (22 August[61]) reveals that it contained Lindemans's report to Giskes on a meeting (21 August[62]) between British officers and Dutch resistance representatives. Informations about possible landings of airborne troops in the Meuse area were disclosed, it is unclear in what capacity did Lindemans intend this secret conference and if he used his real name or the Christiaan Brand alias. In Giskes's London Calling North Pole, the event is mentioned taking place on 25 August,[63] the message was transmitted to Abwehr Departement III West (Paris station) who had moved to Sainte-Menehould. However Giskes acknowledged that an attempt was made to check the correctness of Lindemans's report (22 August) proved unsuccessful.
  27. ^ Pinto was ordered back to SHAEF's HQ to be congratulated on his catch by a Very Important Person with a soft American accent.[65]
  28. ^ Pinto's distrust of Lindemans began with their first encounter which occurred in early September 1944 at an Allied detention camp near Antwerp where Pinto was the security officer. Lindemans had two female detainees[67] removed from the camp before they had been cleared for release.
  29. ^ Lindemans was reported suffering from the debilitating effects of partial paralysis, his medical condition featured in Pinto's book Spycatcher.[68]
  30. ^ Alternatively for meds and cause of death, Luminal,[70] an anti-epileptic drug, he killed himself by hitting his head with a club and next taking arsenic.[71]
  31. ^ Psychiatric wing of the Scheveningen prison also known as the Orange Hotel.
  32. ^ Ordered by Rotterdam mayor Bram Peper on a request by resistance veteran, Haarlem city councillor Belinda Thone.[81]
  33. ^ According to Dutch General Practitioner Dr Hans.C Moolenburgh, Lindemans's autopsy revealed unexplained high levels of Arsenic.[82]
  34. ^ Lindemans surviving brother and two daughters witnessed the exhumation.[83]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "La ligne de démarcation: Un acte de foi dans la Patrie, Tome XVI, by Rémy , published by Librairie académique Perrin, 1969
  2. ^ Was Arnhem Betrayed ?, by Loe de Jong, article published in Encounter, June 1981
  3. ^ "La ligne de démarcation: Un acte de foi dans la Patrie, Tome XVI, by Colonel Rémy, published by Librairie académique Perrin, 1969
  4. ^ "Spy Catcher", by Oreste Pinto, published by Nelson, 1964, p. 129
  5. ^ "Liddell Hart: 15/15/50", [1947–1951],1957, King's College London, Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives
  6. ^ "Major Problems in American Foreign Relations, Volume II: Since 1914", by Dennis Merrill and Thomas G.Paterson, published by Cengage learning Inc, 7 edition, 2009, p.175
  7. ^ "My Testament", by Capt. Peter Baker, MC, published by John Calder, March 1955, pp. 112–3
  8. ^ "Uncertain Horizons:Canadians and their world in 1945", ed by Greg Donaghy, published by Canadian Committee for the History of the Second World War 1997, p. 53
  9. ^ Studies in Intelligence, issue 1, published by the U.S Central Intelligence Agency, 1998, p.109
  10. ^ Uncertain horizons:Canadians and their world in 1945, ed by Greg Donaghy, published by Canadian Committee for the History of the Second World War 1997, p.54
  11. ^ Flee the Captor, by Herbert Ford, published by Review & Herald Publishing 1994, p.243
  12. ^ The Lindemans Affair, by Anne Lambert under the pen name Anne Laurens, published by Allan Wingate, 1971, p.39
  13. ^ The Wiener Library Bulletin, published by Wiener Library 1956, Volume 10, p.9
  14. ^ "Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, 14 November 1945-1 October 1946 Documents and other material in evidence, Numbers 257-F to 180-L", vol XXXVII, published at Nuremberg, Germany, 1949, p.298-9
  15. ^ "Les oubliés de Romainville", by Thomas Fontaine, published by Tallandier Editions, 2005, p.92
  16. ^ Camp 20 MI5 and the Nazi spies, introduction by Oliver Hoare, Public Record Office, 2000, p.327
  17. ^ "German Intelligence Agents and Suspected Agents, Christian LINDEMANS, alias Christian BRANT, German codename KING KONG", 1944 Nov 10-1944 Nov 19, Reference KV 2/233, National Archives
  18. ^ London Calling North Pole, by Hermann J.Giskes, published by William Kimber, London, 1953
  19. ^ "Gerhardt HUNTERMANN: German. As an Abwehr officer in Holland and deputy to GISKES, HUNTERMANN was closely involved with 'Nordpol', the operation in which a number of SOE agents were turned into German double agents. He was interrogated at Camp 020 in 1945", 1945 May 07-1945 Aug 31, Reference KV 2/967, National Archives
  20. ^ To Win the Winter Sky:The Air War Over the Ardennes,1944-1945, by Danny.S Parker, published by Combined Publishing 1999, p.120
  21. ^ Killer Elite, by Michael Smith, published by Weidenfeld and Nicolson 2006
  22. ^ "Saturday at M.I.9 The Classic Account of the WW2 Allied Escape Organisation", by Airey Neave, published by Pen and Sword Military 2010, p.260
  23. ^ Shot Down and on the Run, by Graham Pitchfork, published by Dundurn Group Ltd 2003 p.12
  24. ^ "The Guy Liddell Diaries Vol.II,1942-1945, MI5's Director of Counter-Espionage in World War II", edited by Rupert Allason under the pen name Nigel West, published by Routledge, p. 266
  25. ^ "H. R. H. Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands: An Authorized Biography", by Alden Hatch, published by Harrap, London 1962, p.124
  26. ^ "H. R. H. Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands: An Authorized Biography", by Alden Hatch, published by Harrap, London 1962, p.115
  27. ^ "The Changing Commonwealth Proceedings of the fourth unofficial Commonwealth Relations Conference held at Bigwin Inn, Ontario, Canada, September 8–18, 1949", by Frederic Hubert Soward, published by Oxford University Press, 1950, p.239
  28. ^ Uncertain horizons: Canadians and their world in 1945, ed by Greg Donaghy, published by Canadian Committee for the History of the Second World War 1997, p.57
  29. ^ "H. R. H. Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands: An Authorized Biography", by Alden Hatch, published by Harrap, London 1962, p.116
  30. ^ A Bridge Too Far, by Cornelius Ryan, published by Simon and Schuster, p.155
  31. ^ Battle for Antwerp the liberation of the city and the opening of the Scheldt 1944, by James Louis Moulton, Published by Ian Allan, London 1978, p.18
  32. ^ Confession of Faith, P.131, by Peter Baker published by Falcon Press 1946
  33. ^ MI 9 The British Secret Service that Fostered Escape and Evasion 1939-1945, and Its American Counterpart, by Langley J.M and Foot M.R.D, London 1979, p.222
  34. ^ Fight Another Day, by Langley J.M, published by Collins London 1974, p.222-3.
  35. ^ Les grandes décisions de la deuxiéme Guerre mondiale 1944-1945, by Jacques de Launay, published by Edito-service 1975,volume 3, p.181
  36. ^ A Bridge Too Far, by Cornelius Ryan, published by Simon and Schuster, p.156
  37. ^ Operation Market-Garden Then and Now, edited by Karel Margry, published by After The Battle 2002, Volume 1, p.173.
  38. ^ U.S.A. Airborne 50th Anniversary 1940–1990, by Bart Hagerman, Turner Publishing Company 1990, p.123
  39. ^ Arnhem, by Major-General R.E .Urquart, published by Cassel and Co Ltd London 1958, p.42
  40. ^ The Siefried Line Campaign, by Charles B. MacDonald, published by Center of Military History United States Army Washington, D.C, 1993, p.141
  41. ^ Office of The Chief Historian (German Branch), Manuscript B-117, General Kurt Student's Post-War Interrogation Report, pp.10–11
  42. ^ British Intelligence in the Second World War, Security and Counter-Intelligence, by F.H. Hinsley and C.A.G. Simkins , published by Stationery Office Books 1990, volume 4, p.377.
  43. ^ MI6: The History of the Secret Intelligence Service 1909–1949, by Keith Jeffery, published by Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 2010, p.544
  44. ^ The Knickerbocker, The Magazine of the Low Countries, Volume 5, Numéro 2, Atlantic observer 1945, p.9
  45. ^ Uncertain Horizons:Canadians and their world in 1945, ed by Greg Donaghy, published by Canadian Committee For The History of The Second World War, 1997, p.58
  46. ^ Studied in intelligence, numero 1, published by the U.S Central Intelligence Agency, 1998, p.111
  47. ^ Studied in intelligence, numero 1, published by the U.S Central Intelligence Agency, 1998, p.116
  48. ^ "My Testament", p. 118
  49. ^ Was Arnhem Betrayed ?, by Loe de Jong, article published in Encounter, June 1981.
  50. ^ Uncertain horizons:Canadians and their world in 1945, ed by Greg Donaghy, published by Canadian Committee for the History of the Second World War 1997, p.62
  51. ^ "La ligne de démarcation: Un acte de foi dans la Patrie, Tome XVI, by Colonel Rémy, published by Librairie académique Perrin, 1969
  52. ^ The Sword of St.Michael:The 82nd Airborne Division in World War II, by Guy Lofaro, published by Da Capo Press
  53. ^ I5 files reveal how 'King Kong' betrayed Allies, The Independent, 20 April 2000.
  54. ^ Pinto, Oreste (1972) Spy Catcher, Thomas Nelson & Sons, Ltd. pp 136–137, ISBN 0-176-35054-3
  55. ^ British Intelligence in the Second World War, Its Influence on Strategy and Operations, by F.H. Hinsley, E.E. Thomas, C.A.G. Simkins and C.F.G. Ramsom, published by Stationery Office Books 1988, volume 3, part 2, p.385
  56. ^ "My Testament", p. 116
  57. ^ Was Arnhem Betrayed ?, by Loe de Jong, article published in Encounter, June 1981
  58. ^ "German Intelligence Agents and Suspected Agents, Christian LINDEMANS, alias Christian BRANT, German codename KING KONG", 1944 Nov 10-1944 Nov 19, Reference KV 2/233, National Archives
  59. ^ "Trial of King Kong Vital But File Has Disappeared". The Miami News. 16 June 1950. p. 8. 
  60. ^ "The Guy Liddell Diaries Vol.II,1942-1945, MI5's Director of Counter-Espionage in World War II", edited by Nigel West, published by Routledge, p. 239
  61. ^ "Uncertain Horizons:Canadians and their world in 1945", ed by Greg Donaghy, published by Canadian Committee for the History of the Second World War 1997, p. 58
  62. ^ "Uncertain Horizons: Canadians and their world in 1945", ed by Greg Donaghy, published by Canadian Committee for the History of the Second World War 1997, p. 58
  63. ^ London Calling North Pole, by Hermann J.Giskes, published by William Kimber, London, 1953
  64. ^ "German Intelligence Officers, Herman GISKES", 1945 Jul 26-1947 Feb 26, Reference KV 2/963, National Archives
  65. ^ "Trial of King Kong Vital But File Has Disappeared". The Miami News. 16 June 1950. p. 8. 
  66. ^ "Cornelis Johannes Antonius Verloop: Dutch, operating mainly in Belgium and Northern France", 1944 Oct 05-1944 May 06, Reference KV 2/139, National Archives
  67. ^ "A thread of deceit: espionage myths of World War II", by Nigel West, published by Random House 1985, p. 112
  68. ^ "Spycatcher, by Lieutenant-Colonel Oreste Pinto, published by T. Werner Laurie Ltd 1952
  69. ^ "No thumbscrews were needed to make King Kong talk". The Courier-Mail. 25 May 1950. p. 2. 
  70. ^ Was Arnhem Betrayed ?, by Loe de Jong, article published in Encounter, June 1981
  71. ^ The News Media and The Law, volume 7, Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press 1986, p.233
  72. ^ "My Testament", p.113-4
  73. ^ The Knickerbocker, The Magazine of the Low Countries, volume 6, Atlantic observer 1946
  74. ^ Associated Press, Paul Verschuur, 4 January 1986, Dutch Council Rules On Wartime Spy Case Disclosure
  75. ^ The News Media and The Law, volume 7, Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press 1986, p.234
  76. ^ "Exhumation to confirm death of war traitor". The Sydney Morning Herald. 17 June 1986. p. 7. 
  77. ^ "Status of Dutch double agent remains mystery". Ottawa Citizen. 14 June 1986. p. 11. 
  78. ^ "Cornelis Johannes Antonius Verloop: Dutch, operating mainly in Belgium and Northern France", 1944 Oct 05-1944 May 06, Reference KV 2/139, National Archives
  79. ^ "Cornelis Johannes Antonius Verloop: Dutch, operating mainly in Belgium and Northern France", 1944 Oct 05-1944 May 06, Reference KV 2/139, National Archives
  80. ^ "Cornelis Johannes Antonius Verloop: Dutch, operating mainly in Belgium and Northern France", 1944 Oct 05-1944 May 06, Reference KV 2/139, National Archives
  81. ^ "Experts bid to solve riddle of Arnhem traitor". The Glasgow Herald. 16 June 1986. p. 4. 
  82. ^ "As Chance Would Have it, A Study in Coincidences", by H.C Moolenburgh, published by The C.W Daniel Company Limited, 1998
  83. ^ "Exhumation confirms war traitor is dead". The Glasgow Herald. 18 June 1986. p. 4. 
  84. ^ The Courier, Examination confirms identity of double agent's body, 17 June 1986
  85. ^ Operation Market-Garden Then and Now, volume 1 by Karel Magry published by After the Battle, 2002

External links[edit]