Ciudad Bolívar

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Ciudad Bolívar
Angostura
City
Ciudad Bolívar
Ciudad Bolívar historical zone.jpg
House of the Congress of Angostura.jpg
Salto la Llovizna, Bolívar, Venezuela (2).JPG
Ciudad Bolivar.JPG
Cathedral of Ciudad Bolivar.jpg
Ciudad Bolívar Vista Area.jpg
Flag of Ciudad Bolívar
Flag
Nickname(s): La puerta del sur de Venezuela
(English:"The gate to southern Venezuela")
Motto(s): No encontrarás otra de más variada riqueza
(English:"You won't find another with such a variety of wealth")[1]
Heres Municipality in Bolívar State
Heres Municipality in Bolívar State
Country  Venezuela
State Bolívar
Municipality Heres
Founded 22 May 1764
Government
 • Mayor Sergio Hernández (PSUV)[1][2]
Area
 • City 209,52 km2 (8,090 sq mi)
Elevation 54 m (177 ft)
Population
 • City 350,691
 • Density 1,633.63/km2 (4,231.1/sq mi)
 • Metro 380,953
 • Demonym Bolivarense
Time zone UTC– 4:30 (VST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC– 4:30
Postal code 8001
Area code(s) 0285
Climate Aw
Website Official Site.
The area and population figures are for the city.

Ciudad Bolívar (Spanish pronunciation: [sjuˈðað βoˈliβaɾ]; Spanish for "Bolivar City"), formerly known as Angostura[3] and St. Thomas de Guyana,[4] is the capital of Venezuela's southeastern Bolívar State. It lies at the spot where the Orinoco River narrows to about 1 mile (1.6 km) in width, is the site of the first bridge across the river, and is a major riverport for the eastern regions of Venezuela.

Historic Angostura gave its name to the Congress of Angostura, to the Angostura tree, to the House of Angostura, and to Angostura bitters. Modern Ciudad Bolívar has a well-preserved historic center; a cathedral and other original colonial buildings surround the Plaza Bolívar.

History[edit]

View of Ciudad Bolívar in 1912.

Originally a Spanish settlement, it was called Saint Thomas of Guyana. The settlement was a fortified port which had to be moved on three occasions because it was constantly attacked by Carib natives and European rivals, such as the Dutch and English.[5]

Saint Thomas of Guyana was first located in present day Ciudad Guayana near the Caroní River until Dutch forces led by Captain Adrian Janson destroyed the town in 1579.[5] The second settlement was founded by Don Antonio de Berrío, who had arrived from the New Granada with the mission of colonizing Guiana, and was moved eastward down the Carońi about 66 kilometres (41 mi).[5] One of Walter Raleigh's expeditions sacked the second settlement in 1617, resulting in the death of his son Watt Raleigh.[5][6]

The third and present day city was officially founded in 1764 by Don Joacquin Moreno de Mendoza as San Tomas de la Nueva Guayana[5][7] or Santo Tomé de Guayana de Angostura del Orinoco, named in honor of its diocese and for its position at the first narrows of the Orinoco River. The Spanish relied on trade from the Dutch colony of Essequibo further down the Caroní River until 1771.[5]

Ciudad Bolívar was the site of the Congress of Angostura from 1819 to 1821. It was responsible for the creation of Gran Colombia in its first year of operation.[7] Angostura bitters were invented in the city in 1824, although the company which produced them later moved to Trinidad and Tobago.[8]

The city was renamed in honor of Simon Bolivar in 1846.

The Venezuelan artist Jesús Rafael Soto was a native of the city. The Jesús Soto Museum of Modern Art, named in his honor and designed by Venezuelan architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva, was opened in 1973.

Law and government[edit]

Ciudad Bolívar's municipal government is led by the mayor. Its local legislature is the Municipal Council, made up of seven councillors. A municipal comptroller oversees the public finances, and the Local Public Planning Council manages the municipality's development.[9]

Geography[edit]

Vegetation[edit]

Moriche palms and scrub oaks are found on the shores of the river. Species including the carob tree, the sarrapia (tonka bean), and the merecure are prevalent. Local fauna include capybaras, turtles, herons, parrots, limpets, and iguanas, and others. Fish in the area include Salminus hilarii (a species of Salminus) and Pygocentrus palometa.

Climate[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Ciudad Bolívar has a tropical savanna climate (Aw) with distinctive dry and wet seasons. The average temperature is 28.5 °C (83.3 °F) which remains fairly constant throughout the year, varying between 27.6 °C (81.7 °F) in January to 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) in October. The dry season, which runs from December to April has little precipitation during these months and temperatures tend to be cooler than the wet season but still hot, regularly reaching 32 °C (90 °F) during the day and dropping to 22 °C (72 °F) during the night. The wet season which runs from May to early November sees and increase in precipitation levels although days without any precipitation are common. Temperatures tend to be slightly warmer than the dry season. On average, Ciudad Bolívar receives 977 mm (38.5 in) of precipitation per year and there are 89.3 days with measureable rainfall. The city is fairly sunny, averaging almost 2900 hours of bright sunshine or an average of 7.9 hours of sunshine per day, ranging from a high of 260.4 hours in October (8.4 hours of sunshine per day) to a low of 201.0 hours in June (or 6.7 hours of sunshine per day).[10]

Climate data for Ciudad Bolívar Airport (1970–1998)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.1
(98.8)
39.8
(103.6)
39.2
(102.6)
39.7
(103.5)
40.4
(104.7)
37.4
(99.3)
37.3
(99.1)
37.6
(99.7)
38.0
(100.4)
37.9
(100.2)
38.2
(100.8)
37.6
(99.7)
40.4
(104.7)
Average high °C (°F) 32.3
(90.1)
33.2
(91.8)
34.3
(93.7)
35.0
(95)
34.4
(93.9)
32.7
(90.9)
32.4
(90.3)
32.9
(91.2)
33.6
(92.5)
33.6
(92.5)
33.4
(92.1)
32.5
(90.5)
33.4
(92.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.6
(81.7)
28.0
(82.4)
28.9
(84)
29.5
(85.1)
29.4
(84.9)
28.2
(82.8)
27.9
(82.2)
28.4
(83.1)
28.8
(83.8)
28.9
(84)
28.8
(83.8)
28.0
(82.4)
28.5
(83.3)
Average low °C (°F) 22.8
(73)
22.7
(72.9)
23.5
(74.3)
24.0
(75.2)
24.3
(75.7)
23.7
(74.7)
23.4
(74.1)
23.8
(74.8)
24.0
(75.2)
24.1
(75.4)
24.1
(75.4)
23.4
(74.1)
23.7
(74.7)
Record low °C (°F) 17.9
(64.2)
18.1
(64.6)
20.0
(68)
18.6
(65.5)
17.7
(63.9)
18.2
(64.8)
18.2
(64.8)
17.8
(64)
18.0
(64.4)
18.5
(65.3)
19.2
(66.6)
18.0
(64.4)
17.7
(63.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 21.7
(0.854)
13.3
(0.524)
8.9
(0.35)
26.8
(1.055)
102.3
(4.028)
165.1
(6.5)
183.2
(7.213)
160.1
(6.303)
95.7
(3.768)
97.3
(3.831)
61.7
(2.429)
40.9
(1.61)
977.0
(38.465)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 3.9 2.3 1.6 2.4 9.0 15.3 14.9 11.8 8.2 7.4 6.2 6.3 89.3
Average relative humidity (%) 69.5 67.5 66.0 66.5 69.5 73.5 73.5 72.5 70.5 71.0 71.5 72.0 70.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 248.0 235.2 263.5 234.0 226.3 201.0 232.5 248.0 252.0 260.4 249.0 244.9 2,894.8
Source #1: Instituto Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología (INAMEH)[11][12]
Source #2: NOAA (extremes, sun, precipitation days 1961–1990),[10] World Meteorological Organization (precipitation, 1961–1990)[13]

Economy[edit]

The Bolívar state economy is dominated by agriculture and animal husbandry, particularly cattle and pigs. Agricultural products of the area include maize, cassava, mango, yam, and watermelon. Tourism has become increasingly important to the area.

Local mass media include the television stations Bolívar Visión and TV Río, and newspapers El Bolivarense, El Expreso, El Progreso, and El Luchador.

Education[edit]

Universities[edit]

Universidad de Oriente[edit]

Universidad de Oriente (UDO) Núcleo de Bolívar, is the main public institution located in Ciudad Bolivar and in other cities of eastern Venezuela. On 20 February 1960, by resolution of the University Council, is created the Bolívar Nucleus, since that is become the most important university in the country South-Eastern.

Universidad de Oriente Logo.

Today, this UDO nucleus has a Basic Courses School, Health Sciences School "Dr. Francisco Battistini Casalta" and Earth Sciences School, undergraduate degrees in Industrial Engineering, Geological Engineering, Civil Engineering, Mining Engineering, Geology, Medicine, Nursing and Bioanalysis.[14]

Universidad Nacional Experimental de Guayana[edit]

UNEG Logo.

Universidad Nacional Experimental de Guayana (UNEG) is another public institution in Ciudad Bolívar, founded 9 March 1982 by resolution N° 1.432 of President Luis Herrera Campins. This university was conceived as a center of superior education regional.

The original name of the university project was South University the Dr. Carlos Grüber Hernández (1931–2007) cas one of the pioneers in the fight for the University of South, he was the Founder President of the University of Southern Pro Guiana Committee.[15]

The UNEG Ciudad Bolívar offers undergraduate degrees in Administration and accounting, Education and Tourism.

Other universities[edit]

Culture[edit]

Ciudad Bolívar Cathedral and Paseo Orinoco at night
A Colonial street in the city's historic district
Ciudad Bolívar is a historical city

Ciudad Bolívar's historic district is a popular tourist attraction, featuring houses and buildings that date from the colonial period. The Jesús Soto Museum of Modern Art—named after the city's native sculptor and painter Jesús Soto—features a collection of modern works by Venezuelan and international artists. Ciudad Bolívar is also the birthplace of musicians Antonio Lauro, Cheo Hurtado, Iván Pérez Rossi, and the home of the musical group Serenata Guayanesa.

Traditional local cuisine includes desserts and preserves made of cashew nuts, eaten alone or roasted with salt. The cassava bread prepared in the area is well known, as well as several meals made of tortoise meat such as the Carapacho de Morrocoy Guayanés (baked tortoise in its shell). Locals also use the juice of cassava to create the spicy Catara sauce, an alleged aphrodisiac.

Gallery Images[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Angostura Bridge over the Orinoco river at Ciudad Bolívar

Buses are the main means of public transport in the city.

The José Tomás de Heres Airport is located in the center of the city.

The Angostura Bridge connects the city to the rest of Venezuela. The freeway that connects Ciudad Bolívar with Ciudad Guayana is a major regional road.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-22. 
  2. ^ Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela
  3. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ciudad Bolívar". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 401. 
  4. ^ Cotton, Henry (1831). A Typographical Gazetteer. Oxford University. p. 113. Guyana, or St. Thomas de Guyana, also called Angostura, the capital of the province of Spanish Guyana in South America, is a considerable town, seated on the river Oroonoko, not far from its mouth. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Alexander von Humboldt, Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of America During the Years 1799-1804, (chapter 25). Henry G. Bohn, London, 1853.
  6. ^ John Hemming, The Search For El Dorado, Phoenix Press; 2nd ed. December 31, 2001; Ch. 10. ISBN 1842124455
  7. ^ a b EB (1878).
  8. ^ Loeb, Katie M. (2012). Shake, Stir, Pour: Fresh Homegrown Cocktails. Beverly, MA: Quarry Books. p. 146. ISBN 9781592537976. OCLC 806490659. 
  9. ^ Law and government Archived 15 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ a b "Ciudad Bolivar Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  11. ^ "Estadísticos Básicos Temperaturas y Humedades Relativas Máximas y Mínimas Medias" (PDF). INAMEH (in Spanish). Archived from the original (pdf) on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  12. ^ "Estadísticos Básicos Temperaturas y Humedades Relativas Medias" (PDF). INAMEH (in Spanish). Archived from the original (pdf) on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  13. ^ "World Weathr Information Service – Cd. Bolivar". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  14. ^ http://www.bolivar.udo.edu.ve/index.php/component/content/article?id=71
  15. ^ El Expreso Foro de los Lunes "Anhelo de la Colectividad. Creación de la Universidad de Guayana" pag.3 Ciudad Bolívar 17 December 1979

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]