Miosis due to opiate use
|Classification and external resources|
Definitions of miosis include:
- Constriction of the pupil that is excessive, relative to the amount of light the pupil receives
- Constriction of the pupil to a diameter of less than two millimeters[not in citation given]
- Constriction of the pupil with causes including both abnormal and physiological ones.[not in citation given]
- Pupillary constriction by abnormal causes.[not in citation given]
Physiology of the photomotor reflex
Light entering the eye strikes three different photoreceptors in the retina: the familiar rods and cones used in image forming and the more newly discovered photosensitive ganglion cells. The ganglion cells give information about ambient light levels, and react sluggishly compared to the rods and cones. Signals from photosensitive ganglion cells have multiple functions including acute suppression of the hormone melatonin, entrainment of the body's circadian rhythms and regulation of the size of the pupil.
The retinal photoceptors convert light stimuli into electric impulses. Nerves involved in the resizing of the pupil connect to the pretectal nucleus of the high midbrain, bypassing the lateral geniculate nucleus and the primary visual cortex. From the pretectal nucleus neurons send axons to neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus whose visceromotor axons run along both the left and right oculomotor nerves. Visceromotor nerve axons (which constitute a portion of cranial nerve III, along with the somatomotor portion derived from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus) synapse on ciliary ganglion neurons, whose parasympathetic axons innervate the iris sphincter muscle, producing miosis. This occurs because sympathetic activity from the ciliary ganglion is lost thus parasympathetics are not inhibited. Image
- senile miosis (a reduction in the size of a person's pupil in old age)
- Horner's syndrome
- Hemorrhage into pons (intracranial hemorrhage)
- Hereditary disorders
- Cluster Headaches with ptosis
- Fatal familial insomnia
- Opioids such as fentanyl, morphine, heroin and methadone (the notable exception being demerol/pethidine)
- products containing nicotine such as cigarettes, chewing tobacco or gum.
- Imidazolines such as clonidine, naphazoline, oxymetazoline and tetrahydrozoline
- Antipsychotics, including risperdal, haloperidol, thorazine, olanzapine, quetiapine and others
- Cholinergic agents such as acetylcholine
- Ondansetron (an anti-emetic) known by its brand name Zofran
- Some cancer chemotherapy drugs, including camptothecin derivatives
- Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA)
- Some MAO Inhibitors.
- Pilocarpine eye drops and all other parasympathomimetics
- In some rare cases, when exposed to mustard gas.
- Farlex medical dictionary citing:
- Miller-Keane Encyclopedia & Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition.
- Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed.
- Seidel, Henry M.; Jane W. Ball; Joyce E. Dains; G. William Benedict (2006-03-29). Mosby's Guide to Physical Examination. Mosby. ISBN 978-0-32-303573-6.
- Farlex medical dictionary citing: Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition.
- Farlex medical dictionary citing: The American Heritage Medical Dictionary. Copyright 2007
- Farlex medical dictionary citing: Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition.