|Cranberry bush with fruit partially submerged|
Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium. In Britain, cranberry may refer to the native species Vaccinium oxycoccos, while in North America, cranberry may refer to Vaccinium macrocarpon. Vaccinium oxycoccos is cultivated in central and northern Europe, while Vaccinium macrocarpon is cultivated throughout the northern United States, Canada and Chile. In some methods of classification, Oxycoccus is regarded as a genus in its own right. They can be found in acidic bogs throughout the cooler regions of the northern hemisphere.
Cranberries are low, creeping shrubs or vines up to 2 metres (7 ft) long and 5 to 20 centimetres (2 to 8 in) in height; they have slender, wiry stems that are not thickly woody and have small evergreen leaves. The flowers are dark pink, with very distinct reflexed petals, leaving the style and stamens fully exposed and pointing forward. They are pollinated by bees. The fruit is a berry that is larger than the leaves of the plant; it is initially white, but turns a deep red when fully ripe. It is edible, with an acidic taste that can overwhelm its sweetness.
Cranberries are a major commercial crop in certain American states and Canadian provinces (see cultivation and uses below). Most cranberries are processed into products such as juice, sauce, jam, and sweetened dried cranberries, with the remainder sold fresh to consumers. Cranberry sauce is a traditional accompaniment to turkey at Christmas dinner in the United Kingdom and Thanksgiving dinners in the United States and Canada.
- 1 Species and description
- 2 Etymology and history
- 3 Cultivation
- 4 Food uses
- 5 Research
- 6 Marketing and economics
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Species and description
There are three to four species of cranberry, classified in two sections:
- Subgenus Oxycoccus, sect. Oxycoccus
- Vaccinium oxycoccos or Oxycoccus palustris (common cranberry, northern cranberry or cranberry) is widespread throughout the cool temperate northern hemisphere, including northern Europe, northern Asia and northern North America. It has small 5–10 mm leaves. The flowers are dark pink, with a purple central spike, produced on finely hairy stems. The fruit is a small pale pink berry, with a refreshing sharp acidic flavour.
- Vaccinium microcarpum or Oxycoccus microcarpus (small cranberry) occurs in northern North America, northern Europe and northern Asia, and differs from V. oxycoccos in the leaves being more triangular, and the flower stems hairless. Some botanists include it within V. oxycoccos.
- Vaccinium macrocarpon or Oxycoccus macrocarpus (large cranberry, American cranberry, bearberry) native to northern North America across Canada, and eastern United States, south to North Carolina at high altitudes). It differs from V. oxycoccos in the leaves being larger, 10–20 mm long, and in its slightly apple-like taste.
- Subgenus Oxycoccus, sect. Oxycoccoides
- Vaccinium erythrocarpum or Oxycoccus erythrocarpus (southern mountain cranberry) native to southeastern North America at high altitudes in the southern Appalachian Mountains, and also in eastern Asia.
Cranberries are related to bilberries, blueberries, and huckleberries, all in Vaccinium subgenus Vaccinium. These differ in having stouter, woodier stems forming taller shrubs, and in the bell-shaped flowers, the petals not being reflexed.
Cranberries are susceptible to false blossom, a harmful but controllable phytoplasma disease common in the eastern production areas of Massachusetts and New Jersey.
Etymology and history
The name cranberry derives from "craneberry", first named by early European settlers in America who felt the expanding flower, stem, calyx, and petals resembled the neck, head, and bill of a crane. Another name used in northeastern Canada is mossberry. The traditional English name for Vaccinium oxycoccos, fenberry, originated from plants found growing in fen (marsh) lands. In 17th-century New England cranberries were sometimes called "bearberries" as bears were often seen feeding on them.
In North America, Native Americans were the first to use cranberries as food. Native Americans used cranberries in a variety of foods, especially for pemmican, wound medicine, and dye. Calling the red berries Sassamanash, Algonquian peoples may have introduced cranberries to starving English settlers in Massachusetts who incorporated the berries into traditional Thanksgiving feasts. American Revolutionary War veteran Henry Hall is credited as first to farm cranberries in the Cape Cod town of Dennis around 1816. In the 1820s cranberries were shipped to Europe. Cranberries became popular for wild harvesting in the Nordic countries and Russia. In Scotland the berries were originally wild-harvested but, with the loss of suitable habitat, the plants have become so scarce that this is no longer done.
Geography and bog method
Cranberries are a major commercial crop in the U.S. states of Massachusetts, New Jersey, Oregon, Washington, and Wisconsin, as well as in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Quebec. British Columbia's Fraser River Valley region produces an annual volume of 17 million kg of cranberries from 1,150 hectares, about 95% of total Canadian production. In the United States, Wisconsin is the leading producer of cranberries, with over half of U.S. production. Massachusetts is the second largest U.S. producer. Small volume production occurs in southern Argentina, Chile and the Netherlands.
Historically, cranberry beds were constructed in wetlands. Today's cranberry beds are constructed in upland areas with a shallow water table. The topsoil is scraped off to form dykes around the bed perimeter. Clean sand is hauled into a depth of four to eight inches. The surface is laser leveled flat to provide even drainage. Beds are frequently drained with socked tile in addition to the perimeter ditch. In addition to making it possible to hold water, the dykes allow equipment to service the beds without driving on the vines. Irrigation equipment is installed in the bed to provide irrigation for vine growth and for spring and autumn frost protection.
A common misconception about cranberry production is that the beds remain flooded throughout the year. During the growing season cranberry beds are not flooded, but are irrigated regularly to maintain soil moisture. Beds are flooded in the autumn to facilitate harvest and again during the winter to protect against low temperatures. In cold climates like Wisconsin, Maine, and eastern Canada, the winter flood typically freezes into ice, while in warmer climates the water remains liquid. When ice forms on the beds, trucks can be driven onto the ice to spread a thin layer of sand that helps to control pests and rejuvenate the vines. Sanding is done every three to five years.
Cranberry vines are propagated by moving vines from an established bed. The vines are spread on the surface of the sand of the new bed and pushed into the sand with a blunt disk. The vines are watered frequently during the first few weeks until roots form and new shoots grow. Beds are given frequent light application of nitrogen fertilizer during the first year. The cost of establishment for new cranberry beds is estimated to be about US$70,000 per hectare (approx. $28,300 per acre).
Cranberries are harvested in the fall when the fruit takes on its distinctive deep red color. This is usually in September through the first part of November. To harvest cranberries, the beds are flooded with six to eight inches of water above the vines. A harvester is driven through the beds to remove the fruit from the vines. For the past 50 years, water reel type harvesters have been used. Harvested cranberries float in the water and can be corralled into a corner of the bed and conveyed or pumped from the bed. From the farm, cranberries are taken to receiving stations where they are cleaned, sorted, and stored prior to packaging or processing.
Although most cranberries are wet-picked as described above, 5–10% of the US crop is still dry-picked. This entails higher labor costs and lower yield, but dry-picked berries are less bruised and can be sold as fresh fruit instead of having to be immediately frozen or processed. Originally performed with two-handed comb scoops, dry picking is today accomplished by motorized, walk-behind harvesters which must be small enough to traverse beds without damaging the vines.
White cranberry juice is made from regular cranberries that have been harvested after the fruits are mature, but before they have attained their characteristic dark red color. Yields are lower on beds harvested early and the early flooding tends to damage vines, but not severely.
Cranberries for fresh market are stored in shallow bins or boxes with perforated or slatted bottoms, which deter decay by allowing air to circulate. Because harvest occurs in late autumn, cranberries for fresh market are frequently stored in thick walled barns without mechanical refrigeration. Temperatures are regulated by opening and closing vents in the barn as needed. Cranberries destined for processing are usually frozen in bulk containers shortly after arriving at a receiving station.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||46 kcal (190 kJ)|
|Dietary fiber||4.6 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.||
|Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Raw cranberries have moderate levels of vitamin C, dietary fiber and the essential dietary mineral, manganese (each nutrient having more than 10% of the Daily Value per 100 g serving; see right table), as well as other essential micronutrients in minor amounts.
Cranberry juice is usually sweetened or blended with other fruit juices to reduce its natural tartness. Many cocktails, including the Cosmopolitan, are made with cranberry juice. At one teaspoon of sugar per ounce, cranberry juice cocktail is more highly sweetened than even soda drinks that have been linked to obesity.
Usually cranberries as fruit are cooked into a compote or jelly, known as cranberry sauce. Such preparations are traditionally served with roast turkey, as a staple of English Christmas dinners, and the Canadian and US holiday Thanksgiving. The berry is also used in baking (muffins, scones, cakes and breads). In baking it is often combined with orange or orange zest. Less commonly, cranberries are used to add tartness to savory dishes such as soups and stews.
Fresh cranberries can be frozen at home, and will keep up to nine months; they can be used directly in recipes without thawing.
Urinary tract infections
Raw cranberries are a source of phytochemicals, particularly polyphenols which are under active research for possible effects on the cardiovascular system, immune system and cancer, such as in isolated prostate cancer cells. However, there is no confirmation from human studies that consuming cranberry polyphenols provides health benefits.
Cranberry juice contains a high molecular weight non-dializable material that is under research for its potential to affect formation of plaque by Streptococcus mutans pathogens that cause tooth decay. Cranberry juice components are also being studied for possible effects on kidney stone formation.
Cranberry juice is an abundant food source of proanthocyanidins and flavonols and quercetin, which are being studied in vitro. However, their effectiveness in humans remains unknown, and is limited by poor absorption into cells and rapid excretion.
Problems may arise with the lack of validation for quantifying of A-type proanthocyanidins (PAC) extracted from cranberries. For instance, PAC extract quality and content can be performed using different methods including the European Pharmacopoeia method, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, or a modified 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde colorimetric method. Variations in extract analysis can lead to difficulties in assessing the quality of PAC extracts from different cranberry starting material, such as by regional origin, ripeness at time of harvest and post-harvest processing. Assessments show that quality varies greatly from one commercial PAC extract product to another.
Possible safety concerns
Caution from the Committee on Safety of Medicines, the UK agency dealing with drug safety, advised patients taking warfarin not to drink cranberry juice after adverse effects (such as increased incidence of bruising) were reported, possibly resulting from the presence of salicylic acid native to polyphenol-rich plants such as the cranberry. However, case reports and pilot studies failed to confirm this effect, collectively indicating no statistically significant interaction between daily consumption of 250 mL cranberry juice and warfarin in the general population. Other safety concerns from consuming large quantities of cranberry juice or using cranberry supplements include potential for increasing stomach inflammation, sugar intake or kidney stone formation.
Marketing and economics
||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (November 2010)|
In 1550, James White Norwood made reference to Native Americans using cranberries. In James Rosier's book The Land of Virginia there is an account of Europeans coming ashore and being met with Native Americans bearing bark cups full of cranberries. In Plymouth, Massachusetts, there is a 1633 account of the husband of Mary Ring auctioning her cranberry-dyed petticoat for 16 shillings. In 1640's Key Into the Language Roger Williams described cranberries, referring to them as "bearberries" because bears ate them. In 1648, preacher John Elliott was quoted in Thomas Shepard's book Clear Sunshine of the Gospel with an account of the difficulties the Pilgrims were having in using the Indians to harvest cranberries as they preferred to hunt and fish. In 1663, the Pilgrim cookbook appears with a recipe for cranberry sauce. In 1667, New Englanders sent to King Charles ten barrels of cranberries, three barrels of codfish and some Indian corn as a means of appeasement for his anger over their local coining of the Pine Tree shilling. In 1669, Captain Richard Cobb had a banquet in his house (to celebrate both his marriage to Mary Gorham and his election to the Convention of Assistance), serving wild turkey with sauce made from wild cranberries. In the 1672 book New England Rarities Discovered author John Josselyn described cranberries, writing:
"Sauce for the Pilgrims, cranberry or bearberry, is a small trayling [sic] plant that grows in salt marshes that are overgrown with moss. The berries are of a pale yellow color, afterwards red, as big as a cherry, some perfectly round, others oval, all of them hollow with sower [sic] astringent taste; they are ripe in August and September. They are excellent against the Scurvy. They are also good to allay the fervor of hoof diseases. The Indians and English use them mush, boyling [sic] them with sugar for sauce to eat with their meat; and it is a delicate sauce, especially with roasted mutton. Some make tarts with them as with gooseberries."
The Compleat Cook's Guide, published in 1683, made reference to cranberry juice. In 1703, cranberries were served at the Harvard University commencement dinner. In 1787, James Madison wrote Thomas Jefferson in France for background information on constitutional government to use at the Constitutional Convention. Jefferson sent back a number of books on the subject and in return asked for a gift of apples, pecans and cranberries. William Aiton, a Scottish botanist, included an entry for the cranberry in volume II of his 1789 work Hortus Kewensis. He notes that Vaccinium macrocarpon (American cranberry) was cultivated by James Gordon in 1760. In 1796, cranberries were served at the first celebration of the landing of the Pilgrims, and Amelia Simmons (an American orphan) wrote a book entitled American Cookery which contained a recipe for cranberry tarts. In 1816, Henry Hall first commercially grew cranberries in East Dennis, Massachusetts on Cape Cod. In 1843, Eli Howes planted his own crop of cranberries on Cape Cod, using the "Howes" variety. In 1847, Cyrus Cahoon planted a crop of "Early Black" variety near Pleasant Lake, Harwich, Massachusetts. In 1860, Edward Watson, a friend of Henry David Thoreau, wrote a poem called "The Cranberry Tart."
In the U.S., large scale cranberry cultivation has been developed as opposed to other countries. American cranberry growers have a long history of cooperative marketing. As early as 1904, John Gaynor, a Wisconsin grower, and A.U. Chaney, a fruit broker from Des Moines, Iowa, organized Wisconsin growers into a cooperative called the Wisconsin Cranberry Sales Company to receive a uniform price from buyers. Growers in New Jersey and Massachusetts were also organized into cooperatives, creating the National Fruit Exchange that marketed fruit under the Eatmor brand. The success of cooperative marketing almost led to its failure. With consistent and high prices, area and production doubled between 1903 and 1917 and prices fell. In 1918, US$54,000 was spent on advertising, leading to US$1 million in increased sales.
With surplus cranberries and changing American households some enterprising growers began canning cranberries that were below-grade for fresh market. Competition between canners was fierce because profits were thin. The Ocean Spray cooperative was established in 1930 through a merger of three primary processing companies: Ocean Spray Preserving company, Makepeace Preserving Co, and Cranberry Products Co. The new company was called Cranberry Canners, Inc. and used the Ocean Spray label on their products. Since the new company represented over 90% of the market, it would have been illegal (cf. antitrust) had attorney John Quarles not found an exemption for agricultural cooperatives. Morris April Brothers were the producers of Eatmor brand cranberry sauce, in Tuckahoe, New Jersey; Morris April Brothers brought an action against Ocean Spray for violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act and won $200,000 in real damages plus triple damages, in 1958, just in time for the Great Cranberry Scare of 1959. As of 2006, about 65% of the North American industry belongs to the Ocean Spray cooperative. (The percentage may be slightly higher in Canada than in the U.S.)
A turning point for the industry occurred on 9 November 1959, when the secretary of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Arthur S. Flemming announced that some of the 1959 crop was tainted with traces of the herbicide aminotriazole. The market for cranberries collapsed and growers lost millions of dollars. However, the scare taught the industry that they could not be completely dependent on the holiday market for their products: they had to find year-round markets for their fruit. They also had to be exceedingly careful about their use of pesticides.
After the aminotriazole scare, Ocean Spray reorganized and spent substantial sums on product development. New products such as cranberry/apple juice blends were introduced, followed by other juice blends.
A Federal Marketing Order that is authorized to synchronize supply and demand was approved in 1962. The order has been renewed and modified slightly in subsequent years, but it has allowed for more stable marketing. The market order has been invoked during six crop years: 1962 (12%), 1963 (5%), 1970 (10%), 1971 (12%), 2000 (15%), and 2001 (35%). Even though supply still exceeds demand, there is little will to invoke the Federal Marketing Order out of the realization that any pullback in supply by U.S. growers would easily be filled by Canadian production.
Prices and production increased steadily during the 1980s and 1990s. Prices peaked at about $65.00 per barrel (29 ¢/kg—a cranberry barrel equals 100 pounds or 45.4 kg.) in 1996 then fell to $18.00 per barrel (8.2 ¢/kg) in 2001. The cause for the precipitous drop was classic oversupply. Production had outpaced consumption leading to substantial inventory in freezers or as concentrate.
Cranberry handlers (processors) include Ocean Spray, Cliffstar Corporation, Northland Cranberries Inc.[Sun Northland LLC], Clement Pappas & Co., Decas Cranberry Products as well as a number of small handlers and processors.
Cranberry Marketing Committee
The Cranberry Marketing Committee of the United States of America is an organization that represents 100% of the United States cranberry handlers in four marketing order districts. The committee was established in 1963 as a Federal Marketing Order to safeguard the orderly supply of a quality product. The Cranberry Marketing Committee, based in Wareham, Massachusetts, represents 18 cranberry handlers which represents about 1,200 United States cranberry growers located in Oregon, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Washington, and Wisconsin. The authority for the actions taken by the Cranberry Marketing Committee is provided in Chapter IX, Title 7, Code of Federal Regulations which is called the Federal Cranberry Marketing Order. The Order is part of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, identifying cranberries as a commodity good that can be regulated by Congress. The Federal Cranberry Marketing Order has been altered over the years to expand the Cranberry Marketing Committee's ability to develop projects in the United States and around the world. The Cranberry Marketing Committee currently runs promotional programs in the United States, China, India, Mexico, Pan-Europe, Russia and South Korea.
- Stace, Clive (2010), New Flora of the British Isles (3rd ed.), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, p. 512, ISBN 978-0-521-70772-5
- "Vaccinium macrocarpon". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "How Cranberries Grow: "Cranberries 101" - An Introduction". Cape Cod Cranberry Growers' Association. 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- Steven Clemants. "Vaccinium oxycoccos: Small Cranberry, Technical Page". Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
- "About Cranberries". Cranberry Institute. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
- Carol Cloud Bailey (19 November 2009). "Garden Tips: Give thanks for cranberries, grown with a taste of Florida". TCPalm.com. Scripps Interactive Newspapers Group. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
- "Cranberries: How Ocean Spray made them the world’s most successful superfruit". New Nutrition Business. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- "Newsroom – 'Superfruits' the future of health". HortResearch. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "borealforest.org". Lakehead University Faculty of Natural Resources Management.
- "History". Cranberries.org. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
- "Cranberries". BC Ministry of Agriculture. 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- United States Department of Agriculture (18 August 2010). "Wisconsin -Cranberries" (PDF). Retrieved 31 July 2011.
- "Cranberry Terschelling BV". Retrieved 19 November 2011.
- "Nutrition facts for raw cranberries". Nutritiondata.com. Conde Nast. 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- Zeldes, Leah A. (25 November 2009). "Eat this! Cranberries more than a thanksgiving condiment". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
- "The American Cranberry-Basic Information on Cranberries". Library.wisc.edu. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
- Calvan, Bobby Caina. "Cranberry industry seeks to avoid school ban." Boston Globe, 25 June 2012.
- "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061" (PDF). EFSA Journal (European Food Safety Authority) 12 (5): 3657. 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Jepson, RG; Williams, G; Craig, JC (17 Oct 2012). Jepson, Ruth G, ed. "Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 10: CD001321. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001321.pub5. PMID 23076891.
- Seifried HE, Anderson DE, Fisher EI, Milner JA (September 2007). "A review of the interaction among dietary antioxidants and reactive oxygen species". J Nutr Biochem. 18 (9): 567–79. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2006.10.007. PMID 17360173.
- Halliwell B (January 2007). "Dietary polyphenols: good, bad, or indifferent for your health?". Cardiovasc Res. 73 (2): 341–7. doi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2006.10.004. PMID 17141749.
- MacLean, MA; Scott, BE; Deziel, BA; Nunnelley, MC; Liberty, AM; Gottschall-Pass, KT; Neto, CC; Hurta, RA (Jan 2011). "North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) stimulates apoptotic pathways in DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro". Nutr Cancer 63 (1): 109–20.
- "Blocking tooth decay". Webmd.com. 23 November 2005. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
- Koo, H., Nino de Guzman, P., Schobel, B.D., Vacca Smith, A.V. & Bowen W.H. (January 2006). "Influence of Cranberry Juice on Glucan-Mediated Processes Involved in Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Development.". Caries Research 40 (1): 20–27. doi:10.1159/000088901.
- McHarg T, Rodgers A, Charlton K (November 2003). "Influence of cranberry juice on the urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation". BJU Int. 92 (7): 765–8. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2003.04472.x. PMID 14616463.
- Kessler T, Jansen B, Hesse A (October 2002). "Effect of blackcurrant-, cranberry- and plum juice consumption on risk factors associated with kidney stone formation". Eur J Clin Nutr 56 (10): 1020–3. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601442. PMID 12373623.
- Vvedenskaya, Irina O; Vorsa, Nicholi (2004). "Flavonoid composition over fruit development and maturation in American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait". Plant Science 167 (5): 1043. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.06.001.
- Duthie SJ, Jenkinson AM, Crozier A; et al. (March 2006). "The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers". Eur J Nutr 45 (2): 113–22. doi:10.1007/s00394-005-0572-9. PMID 16032375.
- Zheng W, Wang SY (January 2003). "Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberries". J Agric Food Chem. 51 (2): 502–9. doi:10.1021/jf020728u. PMID 12517117.
- Cancer Research Society Newsletter : The Cranberry – A Natural and Delicious Antidote
- Neto CC (June 2007). "Cranberry and blueberry: evidence for protective effects against cancer and vascular diseases". Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (6): 652–64. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200600279. PMID 17533651.
- Ferguson PJ, Kurowska EM, Freeman DJ, Chambers AF, Koropatnick J (2006). "In vivo inhibition of growth of human tumor lines by flavonoid fractions from cranberry extract". Nutr Cancer 56 (1): 86–94. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5601_12. PMID 17176222.
- Seeram NP, Adams LS, Zhang Y; et al. (December 2006). "Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro". J Agric Food Chem. 54 (25): 9329–39. doi:10.1021/jf061750g. PMID 17147415.
- Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, Liu RH (December 2002). "Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits". J Agric Food Chem. 50 (25): 7449–54. doi:10.1021/jf0207530. PMID 12452674.
- Inhibition of a-amylase and glucoamylase by tannins extracted from cocoa, pomegranates, cranberries and grapes. Ann Barrett, Christine A Hughey, Christine Straut, Amy B. Howell, Tshinanne Ndou, Zifei Dai, and Gonul Kaletunc. J. Agric. Food Chem. doi:10.1021/jf304876g Publication Date (Web): 5 January 2013
- Tarascou, Isabelle; Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Cunningham, David; Nojeim, Steve; Cheynier, Véronique; Fulcrand, Hélène (2011). "Characterisation of genuine and derived cranberry proanthocyanidins by LC–ESI-MS". Food Chemistry 128 (3): 802. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.062.
- Prior, Ronald L; Fan, Ellen; Ji, Hongping; Howell, Amy; Nio, Christian; Payne, Mark J; Reed, Jess (2010). "Multi-laboratory validation of a standard method for quantifying proanthocyanidins in cranberry powders". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 90 (9): 1473–8. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3966. PMID 20549799.
- Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Bartolomé, Begoña; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J.; Anderson, Mark; Howell, Amy; Monagas, María (2012). "Comprehensive Assessment of the Quality of Commercial Cranberry Products. Phenolic Characterization and in Vitro Bioactivity". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60 (13): 3396–408. doi:10.1021/jf204912u. PMID 22439747.
- Li Z, Seeram NP, Carpenter CL, Thames G, Minutti C, Bowerman S (December 2006). "Cranberry does not affect prothrombin time in male subjects on warfarin". J Am Diet Assoc 106 (12): 2057–61. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2006.09.012. PMID 17126638.
- Pham DQ, Pham AQ (March 2007). "Interaction potential between cranberry juice and warfarin". Am J Health Syst Pharm 64 (5): 490–4. doi:10.2146/ajhp060370. PMID 17322161.
- "Cranberry". MedlinePlus, US National Library of Medicine. 14 February 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- ""Cranberry Blues" 1959 recording (mp3 file) by Robert Williams and the Groovers". Retrieved 25 November 2009.
- Roper TR, Vorsa N (1997). "Cranberry: Botany and Horticulture". In Janick J. Horticultural Reviews (PDF). New York: Wiley. pp. 215–6. ISBN 0-471-18907-3.
- "About the Cranberry Marketing Committee". US Cranberry Marketing Committee. 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- Cole, S. / Gifford, L. (2009). The Cranberry: Hard Work and Holiday Sauce. Tilbury House Publishers. ISBN 978-0-88448-316-8
- Trehane, J. (2009). Blueberries, Cranberries and Other Vacciniums. Timber Press. ISBN 978-1-60469-072-9
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cranberries.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Cranberry.|
- Germplasm Resources Information Network: Sect. Oxycoccus and Sect. Oxycoccoides
- University of Massachusetts Amherst Cranberry Station for information on cranberry research
- Cranberry Library Page Hosted by the University of Wisconsin-Madison
- Wikimapia An overhead view of a cranberry farm near Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin
- Cranberry research at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
- University of Massachusetts Cranberry Station Hosted by the University of Massachusetts - Amherst