Delta Ursae Majoris
Epoch J2000 Equinox J2000
|Right ascension||12h 15m 25.56063s|
|Declination||+57° 01′ 57.4156″|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||+3.312|
|Spectral type||A3 V|
|U−B color index||+0.067|
|B−V color index||+0.075|
|Radial velocity (Rv)||-20.2 km/s|
|Proper motion (μ)||RA: +143.42 mas/yr
Dec.: -129.88 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||55.82 ± 0.25 mas|
|Distance||58.4 ± 0.3 ly
(17.91 ± 0.08 pc)
|Surface gravity (log g)||4.49 cgs|
|Temperature||9,480 ± 570 K|
|Rotational velocity (v sin i)||233 km/s|
Delta Ursae Majoris (Delta UMa, δ Ursae Majoris, δ UMa) is the Bayer designation for a star in the northern circumpolar constellation of Ursa Major. It has the traditional names Megrez //, and Kaffa. Megrez has an apparent magnitude of +3.3, making it the dimmest of the seven stars in the Big Dipper asterism. Parallax measurements yield a distance estimate of 58.4 light-years (17.9 parsecs) from Earth.
Megrez has 63% more mass of the Sun and is about 1.4 times the Sun's radius. It has a stellar classification of A3 V, which means it is an A-type main sequence star that is generating energy at its core through the nuclear fusion of hydrogen. It shines at 14 times the luminosity of the Sun, with this energy being emitted from its outer envelope at an effective temperature of 9,480 K. This gives it the white hue typical of an A-type star.
This star has an excess emission of infrared radiation, indicating the presence of circumstellar matter. This forms a debris disk around an orbital radius of 16 Astronomical Units from the star. This radius is unusually small for the estimated age of the disk, which may be explained by drag from the Poynting–Robertson effect causing the dust to spiral inward.
Megrez is a marginally outlying member of the Ursa Major moving group, an association of stars that share a common motion through space and likely formed in the same molecular cloud. The space velocity components of Delta Ursae Majoris in the galactic coordinate system are [U, V, W] = [+15.35, +1.17, –11.52] km s−1.
Name and etymology
The traditional name Megrez comes from the Arabic Arabic: المغرز al-maghriz "the base [of the bear's tail]". The Proper Name Kaffa for the star appeared in a 1951 publication, Atlas Coeli (Skalnate Pleso Atlas of the Heavens) by Czech astronomer Antonín Bečvář. Professor Paul Kunitzch has been unable to find any clues as to the origin of the name.
- This star as Atri, one of the Seven Rishis.
- In Chinese, 北斗 (Běi Dǒu), meaning Northern Dipper, refers to an asterism consisting of δ Ursae Majoris, α Ursae Majoris, β Ursae Majoris, γ Ursae Majoris, ε Ursae Majoris, ζ Ursae Majoris and η Ursae Majoris. Consequently, δ Ursae Majoris itself is known as 北斗四 (Běi Dǒu sì, English: the Fourth Star of Northern Dipper) and 天權 (Tiān Quán, English: Star of Celestial Balance).
- van Leeuwen, F. (November 2007), "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction", Astronomy and Astrophysics 474 (2): 653–664, arXiv:0708.1752, Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357
- Oja, T., "UBV photometry of stars whose positions are accurately known. III", Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series 65 (2): 405–4
- Cowley, A.; et al. (April 1969), "A study of the bright A stars. I. A catalogue of spectral classifications", Astronomical Journal 74: 375–406, Bibcode:1969AJ.....74..375C, doi:10.1086/110819
- Wielen, R.; et al. (1999), Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutions (35), Astronomisches Rechen-Institut Heidelberg, Bibcode:1999VeARI..35....1W
- Shaya, Ed J.; Olling, Rob P. (January 2011), "Very Wide Binaries and Other Comoving Stellar Companions: A Bayesian Analysis of the Hipparcos Catalogue", The Astrophysical Journal Supplement 192 (1): 2, arXiv:1007.0425, Bibcode:2011ApJS..192....2S, doi:10.1088/0067-0049/192/1/2
- Malagnini, M. L.; Morossi, C. (November 1990), "Accurate absolute luminosities, effective temperatures, radii, masses and surface gravities for a selected sample of field stars", Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series 85 (3): 1015–1019, Bibcode:1990A&AS...85.1015M
- Royer, F.; et al. (2002), "Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin i in the northern hemisphere", Astronomy and Astrophysics 393 (3): 897–911, arXiv:astro-ph/0205255, Bibcode:2002A&A...393..897R, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020943
- Wyatt, M. C.; et al. (July 2007), "Steady State Evolution of Debris Disks around A Stars", The Astrophysical Journal 663 (1): 365–382, arXiv:astro-ph/0703608, Bibcode:2007ApJ...663..365W, doi:10.1086/518404
- "MEGREZ -- Variable Star", SIMBAD (Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg), retrieved 2012-02-04
- "The Colour of Stars", Australia Telescope, Outreach and Education (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation), December 21, 2004, retrieved 2012-01-16
- King, Jeremy R.; et al. (April 2003), "Stellar Kinematic Groups. II. A Reexamination of the Membership, Activity, and Age of the Ursa Major Group", The Astronomical Journal 125 (4): 1980–2017, Bibcode:2003AJ....125.1980K, doi:10.1086/368241
- Kunitzch, Paul; Smart, Tim (2006) . A Dictionary of Modern Star Names: A Short Guide to 254 Star Names and Their Derivations. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Sky Publishing Corporation. pp. 56, 62. ISBN 978-1-931559-44-7.
- Allen, R. H. (1963). Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning (Reprint ed.). New York: Dover Publications Inc. p. 438. ISBN 0-486-21079-0. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
- (Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 15 日