Eta Ursae Majoris
Epoch J2000 Equinox J2000
|Right ascension||13h 47m 32.43776s|
|Declination||+49° 18′ 47.7602″|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||+1.86|
|Spectral type||B3 V|
|U−B color index||–0.68|
|B−V color index||–0.19|
|Radial velocity (Rv)||–10.9 km/s|
|Proper motion (μ)|| RA: –121.17 mas/yr |
Dec.: –14.91 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||31.38 ± 0.24 mas|
|Distance||103.9 ± 0.8 ly |
(31.9 ± 0.2 pc)
|Absolute magnitude (MV)||−0.67|
|Mass||6.1 ± 0.1 M☉|
|Luminosity||594 ± 31 L☉|
|Surface gravity (log g)||3.78 cgs|
|Temperature||15,540 ± 1157 K|
|Rotational velocity (v sin i)||150 km/s|
|Age||10.0 ± 2.6 Myr|
Eta Ursae Majoris (η Ursae Majoris, abbreviated Eta UMa, η UMa), also named Alkaid, is a star in the constellation of Ursa Major. It is the most eastern (leftmost) star in the Big Dipper (Plough) asterism. However, unlike most stars of the Big Dipper, it is not a member of the Ursa Major moving group. With an apparent visual magnitude of +1.84, it is the third-brightest star in the constellation and one of the brightest stars in the night sky.
Eta Ursae Majoris is a 10-million-year-old B-type main sequence star with a stellar classification of B3 V. Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified. It has six times the mass; 3.4 times the radius, and is radiating around 594 times as much energy as the Sun. Its outer atmosphere has an effective temperature of about 15,540 K, giving it the blue-white hue of a B-type star. This star is an X-ray emitter with a luminosity of 9.3 × 1028 erg s−1.
Eta Ursae Majoris was listed as a standard star for the spectral type B3 V. It has broadened absorption lines due to its rapid rotation, which is common in stars of this type. However, the lines are very slightly distorted and variable, which may be caused by some emission from a weak disk of material produced by the rapid rotation.
It bore the traditional names Alkaid (or Elkeid from the Arabic القايد القائد) and Benetnash (Benetnasch). Alkaid derives from the Arabic phrase meaning "The leader of the daughters of the bier" (قائد بنات نعش qā'id bināt naʿsh). The daughters of the bier, i.e. the mourning maidens, are the three stars of the handle of the Big Dipper, Alkaid, Mizar, and Alioth; while the four stars of the bowl, Megrez, Phecda, Merak, and Dubhe, are the bier. In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN) to catalog and standardize proper names for stars. The WGSN's first bulletin of July 2016 included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN; which included Alkaid for this star.
It is known as Běidǒuqī (北斗七 - the Seventh Star of the Northern Dipper) or Yáoguāng (瑤光 - the Star of Twinkling Brilliance) in Chinese.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
In Chinese fortune-telling, north is believed to be a very unlucky direction. Northwest is even worse. Hunters and soldiers traditionally did not point guns and weapons in the direction of this star.
- van Leeuwen, Floor (2007), "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 474 (2): 653–664, arXiv:0708.1752v1, Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357 Note: see VizieR catalogue I/311.
- Ducati, J. R. (2002). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of Stellar Photometry in Johnson's 11-color system". CDS/ADC Collection of Electronic Catalogues. 2237: 0. Bibcode:2002yCat.2237....0D.
- Morgan, W. W.; Keenan, P. C. (1973), "Spectral Classification", Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11: 29, Bibcode:1973ARA&A..11...29M, doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.11.090173.000333
- Wielen, R.; et al. (1999), "Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutions", Veröff. Astron. Rechen-Inst. Heidelb, 35 (35): 1, Bibcode:1999VeARI..35....1W
- Anderson, E.; Francis, Ch. (2012), "XHIP: An extended hipparcos compilation", Astronomy Letters, 38 (5): 331, arXiv:1108.4971, Bibcode:2012AstL...38..331A, doi:10.1134/S1063773712050015.
- Tetzlaff, N.; Neuhäuser, R.; Hohle, M. M. (January 2011), "A catalogue of young runaway Hipparcos stars within 3 kpc from the Sun", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 410 (1): 190–200, arXiv:1007.4883, Bibcode:2011MNRAS.410..190T, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17434.x
- Underhill, A. B.; et al. (November 1979), "Effective temperatures, angular diameters, distances and linear radii for 160 O and B stars", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 189 (3): 601–605, Bibcode:1979MNRAS.189..601U, doi:10.1093/mnras/189.3.601
- Baines, E.; Schmitt, H. R.; Zavala, R. T.; Hutter, D.; van Belle, G. T. (2017), "Fundamental Parameters of 87 Stars from the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer", The Astronomical Journal, 155 (1): 30, arXiv:1712.08109, Bibcode:2018AJ....155...30B, doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa9d8b
- Abt, Helmut A.; Levato, Hugo; Grosso, Monica (July 2002), "Rotational Velocities of B Stars", The Astrophysical Journal, 573 (1): 359–365, Bibcode:2002ApJ...573..359A, doi:10.1086/340590
- Rumrill, H. B. (1936). "Star Name Pronunciation". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 48 (283): 139. Bibcode:1936PASP...48..139R. doi:10.1086/124681.
- "IAU Catalog of Star Names". Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Motz, Lloyd; Nathanson, Carol (1988). The Constellations: An Enthusiast's Guide To The Night Sky. Doubleday. p. 39. ISBN 978-0385176002.
- Crawford, D. L.; Barnes, J. V.; Golson, J. C. (1971), "Four-color, H-beta, and UBV photometry for bright B-type stars in the northern hemisphere", The Astronomical Journal, 76: 1058, Bibcode:1971AJ.....76.1058C, doi:10.1086/111220
- Garrison, R. F. (December 1993), "Anchor Points for the MK System of Spectral Classification", Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 25: 1319, Bibcode:1993AAS...183.1710G, retrieved 2012-02-04
- "The Colour of Stars", Australia Telescope, Outreach and Education, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, December 21, 2004, archived from the original on 2012-03-10, retrieved 2012-01-16
- Cassinelli, J. P.; et al. (February 1994), "X-ray emission from near-main-sequence B stars", Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, 421 (2): 705–717, Bibcode:1994ApJ...421..705C, doi:10.1086/173683
- Bopp, B. W; Caplinger, J. R; Crosby, N. A; Mahoney, D. F; O'Brien, S. P; Dempsey, R. C (1989). "Is the MK Standard eta UMa an Incipient be Star?". Information Bulletin on Variable Stars. 3347: 1. Bibcode:1989IBVS.3347....1B.
- Howard, Andrew W; Fulton, Benjamin J (2016). "Limits on Planetary Companions from Doppler Surveys of Nearby Stars". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 128 (969): 114401. arXiv:1606.03134. Bibcode:2016PASP..128k4401H. doi:10.1088/1538-3873/128/969/114401.
- Roberts, Lewis C; Turner, Nils H; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A (2007). "Adaptive Optics Photometry and Astrometry of Binary Stars. II. A Multiplicity Survey of B Stars". The Astronomical Journal. 133 (2): 545. Bibcode:2007AJ....133..545R. doi:10.1086/510335.
- "IAU Working Group on Star Names (WGSN)". Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- "Bulletin of the IAU Working Group on Star Names, No. 1" (PDF). Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Allen, R. H. (1963). Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning (Reprint ed.). New York: Dover Publications Inc. p. 438. ISBN 978-0-486-21079-7. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
- Littleton, C. Scott (2005), Gods, goddesses, and mythology, 11, New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation, p. 1338, ISBN 9780761475590
- Alkaid at Jim Kaler's Stars website