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Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of civilization (anti-civ) that advocates a return to non-civilized ways of life through deindustrialization, abolition of the division of labor or specialization, and abandonment of large-scale organization and high technology. Anarcho-primitivists critique the origins and progress of the Industrial Revolution and industrial society.[1] According to anarcho-primitivism, the shift from hunter-gatherer to agricultural subsistence during the Neolithic Revolution gave rise to coercion, social alienation, and social stratification.[2][3]

Many classical anarchists reject the critique of civilization while some such as Wolfi Landstreicher endorse the critique without considering themselves anarcho-primitivists.[4] Anarcho-primitivists are distinguished by the focus on the praxis of achieving a feral state of being through "rewilding".[5]



Walden (1854) by Henry David Thoreau, an influential early green-anarchist work.

In the United States, anarchism started to have an ecological view mainly in the writings of Henry David Thoreau. In his book Walden (1854), he advocates simple living and self-sufficiency among natural surroundings in resistance to the advancement of industrial civilization.[6] "Many have seen in Thoreau one of the precursors of ecologism and anarcho-primitivism represented today by John Zerzan. For George Woodcock, this attitude can also be motivated by the idea of resistance to progress and the rejection of the increasing economic materialism that characterized North American society in the mid-19th century."[6] Zerzan himself included the text "Excursions" (1863) by Thoreau in his edited compilation of anti-civilization writings called Against Civilization: Readings and Reflections from 1999.[7]

In the late 19th century, anarchist naturism appeared as the union of anarchist and naturist philosophies.[8][9] It mainly was important within anarcho-individualist circles[6] in Spain,[6][8][9] France,[6] and Portugal.[10] Important influences in it were Henry David Thoreau,[6] Leo Tolstoy,[8] and Élisée Reclus.[11] Anarcho-naturism advocated vegetarianism, free love, nudism, and an ecological worldview within anarchist groups and outside them.[8]

Anarcho-naturism promoted an ecological worldview, small ecovillages, and most prominently nudism as a way to avoid the artificiality of the industrial mass society of modernity.[8] Naturist individualist anarchists saw the individual in his biological, physical, and psychological aspects, and avoided and tried to eliminate social determinations.[12] Their ideas were important in individualist anarchist circles in France but also in Spain, where Federico Urales (pseudonym of Joan Montseny), promotes the ideas of Gravelle and Zisly in La Revista Blanca (1898–1905).[13]

This tendency was strong enough as to call the attention of the CNTFAI in Spain. Daniel Guérin, in Anarchism: From Theory to Practice, reports how "Spanish anarcho-syndicalism had long been concerned to safeguard the autonomy of what it called "affinity groups". There were many adepts of naturism and vegetarianism among its members, especially among the poor peasants of the south. Both these ways of living were considered suitable for the transformation of the human being in preparation for a stateless society. At the Zaragoza congress, the members did not forget to consider the fate of groups of naturists and nudists, "unsuited to industrialization". As these groups would be unable to supply all their own needs, the Congress anticipated that their delegates to the meetings of the Confederation of communes would be able to negotiate special economic agreements with the other agricultural and industrial communes. On the eve of a vast, bloody, social transformation, the CNT did not think it foolish to try to meet the infinitely varied aspirations of individual human beings."[14]

Recent themes[edit]

Anarchists contribute to an anti-authoritarian push,[15] which challenges all abstract power on a fundamental level, striving for egalitarian relationships and promoting communities based upon mutual aid.[16] Primitivists, however, extend ideas of non-domination to all life, not just human life, going beyond the traditional anarchist's analysis. Using the work of anthropologists, primitivists look at the origins of civilization so as to understand what they are up against and how current society formed in order to inform a change in direction. Inspired by the Luddites, primitivists rekindle an anti-technological orientation.[17] Insurrectionalists do not believe in waiting for critiques to be fine-tuned, instead spontaneously attacking civilization's current institutions.

Primitivists may owe much to the Situationists and their critique of the ideas in The Society of the Spectacle and alienation from a commodity-based society. Deep ecology informs the primitivist perspective with an understanding that the well-being of all life is linked to the awareness of the inherent worth and intrinsic value of the non-human world, independent of its economic value. Primitivists see deep ecology's appreciation for the richness and diversity of life as contributing to the realization that present human interference with the non-human world is coercive and excessive.

Bioregionalists bring the perspective of living within one's bioregion, and being intimately connected to the land, water, climate, plants, animals, and general patterns of their bioregion.[18]

Some primitivists have been influenced by the various Indigenous cultures. Primitivists attempt to learn and incorporate sustainable techniques for survival and healthier ways of interacting with life. Some are also inspired by the feral subculture, where people abandon domestication and re-integrate themselves with the wild.

Some theorists posit that the fact that anarcho-primitivism has existed as a political ideology consistently for so long points to dissatisfaction with civilization and a desire to return to nature felt across cultures and generations. They argue that the width of the divide between civilization and nature, or the perception thereof, is a factor that feeds the desire to destroy civilization, and by extension, supports the continued relevance of anarcho-primitivist thought.[19]

Main concepts[edit]

"Anarchy is the order of the day among hunter-gatherers. Indeed, critics will ask why a small face-to-face group needs a government anyway. [...] If this is so we can go further and say that since the egalitarian hunting-gathering society is the oldest type of human society and prevailed for the longest period of time – over thousands of decades – then anarchy must be the oldest and one of the most enduring kinds of polity. Ten thousand years ago everyone was an anarchist."

Harold Barclay, American anthropologist[20]

Some anarcho-primitivists state that prior to the advent of agriculture humans lived in small, nomadic bands which were socially, politically, and economically egalitarian. Being without hierarchy, these bands are sometimes viewed as embodying a form of anarchism.

Primitivists hold that following the emergence of agriculture the growing masses of humanity became evermore beholden to technology ("technoaddiction") [21] and abstract power structures arising from the division of labor and hierarchy. Primitivists disagree over what degree of horticulture might be present in an anarchist society, with some arguing that permaculture could have a role but others advocating a strictly hunter-gatherer subsistence.

Primitivism has drawn heavily upon cultural anthropology and archaeology. From the 1960s forward, societies once viewed as "barbaric" were reevaluated by academics, some of whom now hold that early humans lived in relative peace and prosperity in what has been called the "original affluent society". Frank Hole, an early-agriculture specialist, and Kent Flannery, a specialist in Mesoamerican civilization, have noted that, "No group on earth has more leisure time than hunters and gatherers, who spend it primarily on games, conversation and relaxing."[22] Jared Diamond, in the article "The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race",[23] said hunter-gatherers practice the most successful and longest-lasting life style in human history, in contrast with agriculture, which he described as a "mess" and that it is "unclear whether we can solve it". Based on evidence that life expectancy has decreased with the adoption of agriculture, the anthropologist Mark Nathan Cohen has called for the need to revise the traditional idea that civilization represents progress in human well-being.[24]

Scholars such as Karl Polanyi and Marshall Sahlins characterized primitive societies as gift economies with "goods valued for their utility or beauty rather than cost; commodities exchanged more on the basis of need than of exchange value; distribution to the society at large without regard to labor that members have invested; labor performed without the idea of a wage in return or individual benefit, indeed largely without the notion of 'work' at all."[25]

An anarcho-primitivist slogan, illustrating the perceived severity of the danger posed by civilization

Civilization and violence[edit]

Based on several anthropological references, they further state that hunter-gatherer societies are less susceptible to war, violence, and disease.[26][27][28]

However, some – such as Lawrence Keely – contest this, citing that many tribe-based people are more prone to violence than developed states.[29]


Anarcho-primitivists, such as John Zerzan, define domestication as "the will to dominate animals and plants", claiming that domestication is "civilization's defining basis".[30]

It also involved the destruction, enslavement, or assimilation of other groups of early people who did not make such a transition.

To primitivists, domestication enslaves both the domesticated species as well as the domesticators. Advances in the fields of psychology, anthropology, and sociology allow humans to quantify and objectify themselves, until they too become commodities.

Consumerism and mass society[edit]

Brian Sheppard asserts that anarcho-primitivism is not a form of anarchism at all. In Anarchism vs. Primitivism he says: "In recent decades, groups of quasi-religious mystics have begun equating the primitivism they advocate (rejection of science, rationality, and technology often lumped together under a blanket term "technology") with anarchism. In reality, the two have nothing to do with each other."[31]

Andrew Flood agrees with this assertion and points out that primitivism clashes with what he identifies as the fundamental goal of anarchism: "the creation of a free mass society".[32]

Primitivists do not believe that a "mass society" can be free. They believe industry and agriculture inevitably lead to hierarchy and alienation. They argue that the division of labor techno-industrial societies require to function forces people into reliance on factories and the labor of other specialists to produce their food, clothing, shelter, and other necessities and that this dependence forces them to remain a part of this society, whether they like it or not.[3]

Critique of mechanical time and symbolic culture[edit]


Regarding those primitivists who have extended their critique of symbolic culture to language itself, Georgetown University professor Mark Lance describes this particular theory of primitivism as "literally insane, for proper communication is necessary to create within the box a means to destroy the box".[34]

Criticism and counter-criticism[edit]

Notable critics of anarcho-primitivism include post-left anarchists Wolfi Landstreicher[4] and Jason McQuinn,[35] Ted Kaczynski (the "Unabomber"),[36] and especially libertarian socialist Murray Bookchin, as seen in his polemical work entitled Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism.

Wording and semantics[edit]

Activist writer Derrick Jensen wrote in Walking on Water that he is often classified as a "Luddite" and "an anarcho-primitivist. Both of these labels fit well enough, I suppose."[37] Others, too, have designated his work with the latter term;[38][39] however, more recently, Jensen began to categorically reject the "primitivist" label, describing it as a "racist way to describe indigenous peoples". He prefers to be called "indigenist" or an "ally to the indigenous".[40]


A common criticism is of hypocrisy, i.e. that people rejecting civilization typically maintain a civilized lifestyle themselves, often while still using the very industrial technology that they oppose in order to spread their message. Jensen counters that this criticism merely resorts to an ad hominem argument, attacking individuals but not the actual validity of their beliefs.[41] He further responds that working to entirely avoid such hypocrisy is ineffective, self-serving, and a convenient misdirection of activist energies.[42] Primitivist John Zerzan admits that living with this hypocrisy is a necessary evil for continuing to contribute to the larger intellectual conversation.[43] Jason Godesky holds that the charge of hypocrisy is a generalization, affirming that "not all primitivists are against technology in and of itself; only some. Many primitivists hold a view that technology is ambiguous ... So, the charge of hypocrisy only holds up if we extend the beliefs of some primitivists to all primitivists, or to primitivism itself."[44]

Glorification of indigenous societies[edit]

Wolfi Landstreicher and Jason McQuinn, post-leftists, have both criticized the romanticized exaggerations of indigenous societies and the pseudoscientific (and even mystical) appeal to nature they perceive in anarcho-primitivist ideology and deep ecology.[35][45] Zerzan has countered that the anarcho-primitivist view is not idealizing the indigenous, but rather "has been the mainstream view presented in anthropology and archaeology textbooks for the past few decades. It sounds utopian, but it's now the generally accepted paradigm".[46]

Ted Kaczynski has also argued that certain anarcho-primitivists have exaggerated the short working week of primitive society, arguing that they only examine the process of food extraction and not the processing of food, creation of fire and childcare, which adds up to over 40 hours a week.[47]

Criticism from social anarchists[edit]

Besides Murray Bookchin, many class struggle oriented and social anarchists criticize primitivism as offering "no way forwards in the struggle for a free society" and that "often its adherents end up undermining that struggle by attacking the very things, like mass organization, that are a requirement to win it".[48] Other social anarchists have also argued that abandoning technology will have dangerous consequences, pointing out that around 50% of the population of the United Kingdom requires glasses and would be left severely impaired. Radioactive waste would need to be monitored for tens of thousands of years with high-tech equipment to prevent it from leaking into ecosystems, the millions of people who need regular treatment for illnesses would die and the removal of books, recorded music, medical equipment, central heating, and sanitation would result in a rapid decline in the quality of life. Furthermore, social anarchists contend that without advanced agriculture the Earth's surface would not be able to support billions of people, meaning that building a primitivist society would require the death of billions.[49]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ el-Ojeili, Chamsy; Taylor, Dylan (2 April 2020). ""The Future in the Past": Anarcho-primitivism and the Critique of Civilization Today". Rethinking Marxism. 32 (2): 168–186. doi:10.1080/08935696.2020.1727256. ISSN 0893-5696. S2CID 219015323.
  2. ^ Jeihouni, Mojtaba; Maleki, Nasser (12 December 2016). "Far from the madding civilization: Anarcho-primitivism and revolt against disintegration in Eugene O'Neill's The Hairy Ape". International Journal of English Studies. 16 (2): 61. doi:10.6018/ijes/2016/2/238911. ISSN 1989-6131.
  3. ^ a b Wilson, Chris (2001). "Against Mass Society". Green Anarchy, no. 6., via Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  4. ^ a b Landstreicher, Wolfi (2007). "A Critique, Not a Program: For a Non-Primitivist Anti-Civilization Critique".
  5. ^ Olson, Miles (9 October 2012). Unlearn, rewild. Gabriola, BC, Canada. ISBN 978-0-86571-721-3. OCLC 795624647.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Diez, Xavier Diez. "La Insumisión Voluntaria: El Anarquismo Individualista Español Durante La Dictadura Y La Segunda República (1923–1938)" [Draft Avoidance: Spanish Individualistic Anarchism During the Dictatorship and the Second Republic (1923–1938)] (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 26 May 2006. Su obra más representativa es Walden, aparecida en 1854, aunque redactada entre 1845 y 1847, cuando Thoreau decide instalarse en el aislamiento de una cabaña en el bosque, y vivir en íntimo contacto con la naturaleza, en una vida de soledad y sobriedad. De esta experiencia, su filosofía trata de transmitirnos la idea que resulta necesario un retorno respetuoso a la naturaleza, y que la felicidad es sobre todo fruto de la riqueza interior y de la armonía de los individuos con el entorno natural. Muchos han visto en Thoreau a uno de los precursores del ecologismo y del anarquismo primitivista representado en la actualidad por John Zerzan. Para George Woodcock(8), esta actitud puede estar también motivada por una cierta idea de resistencia al progreso y de rechazo al materialismo creciente que caracteriza la sociedad norteamericana de mediados de siglo XIX.
    Translated: "His most representative work is Walden, published in 1854, although redacted between 1845 and 1847 when Thoreau decided to move to an isolated cabin in the woods and live in intimate contact with nature in a solitary and sober life. His philosophy, from this experience, attempts to transmit the idea that a return to respecting nature is necessary, and that happiness is, above all, a fruit of inner richness and harmony between individuals and the natural environment. Many have seen Thoreau as a precursor to ecologism and anarcho-primitivism, actualized by John Zerzan. For Woodcock (8), this attitude can also be motivated by the idea of resistance to progress and the rejection of the increasing materialism that characterized North American society in the mid-19th century."
  7. ^ Zerzan, John, ed. (2005). Against Civilization: Readings and Reflections. Feral House. ISBN 0-922915-98-9.
  8. ^ a b c d e Roselló, Josep Maria. "El Naturismo Libertario (1890–1939)" [Libertarian Naturism (1890–1939)] (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 January 2016.
  9. ^ a b Ortega, Carlos. "Anarchism, Nudism, Naturism". Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  10. ^ Freire, João (2002). "Anarchisme et naturisme au Portugal, dans les années 1920" [Anarchism and naturism in Portugal in the 1920s]. Les anarchistes du Portugal [The Anarchists of Portugal] (in French). ISBN 2-9516163-1-7.
  11. ^ "The pioneers". Natustar. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012.
  12. ^ "El individuo es visto en su dimensión biológica -física y psíquica- dejándose la social." (Roselló)
  13. ^ Morán, Agustín. "Los origenes del naturismo libertario" [The origins of libertarian naturism] (in Spanish).
  14. ^ Guérin, Daniel. Anarchism: From theory to practice.
  15. ^ Jun, Nathan (September 2009). "Anarchist Philosophy and Working Class Struggle: A Brief History and Commentary". WorkingUSA. 12 (3): 505–519. doi:10.1111/j.1743-4580.2009.00251.x. ISSN 1089-7011.
  16. ^ Guérin, Daniel (1970). Anarchism : from theory to practice. New York: Monthly Review Press. ISBN 0-85345-128-1. OCLC 81623.
  17. ^ Gardenier, Matthijs (2016). "Le courant'anti-tech', entre anarcho-primitivisme et néo-luddisme". Sociétés. 131 (1): 97–106. doi:10.3917/soc.131.0097. ISSN 0765-3697.
  18. ^ Perrin, Coline (2020), "Social Justice in Spatial Planning: How Does Bioregionalism Contribute?", Bioregional Planning and Design: Volume I, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 97–110, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-45870-6_6, ISBN 978-3-030-45869-0, S2CID 226615444, retrieved 11 October 2020
  19. ^ "Western Political Science Association 2011 Meeting". Political Research Quarterly. 63 (4): 933. 30 November 2010. doi:10.1177/1065912910389134. ISSN 1065-9129. S2CID 220982306.
  20. ^ Barclay, Harold (1996). People Without Government: An Anthropology of Anarchy. Kahn & Averill. ISBN 1-871082-16-1.
  21. ^ Boyden, Stephen Vickers (1992). "Biohistory: The interplay between human society and the biosphere, past and present". Man and the Biosphere Series. Paris: UNESCO. 8 (supplement 173). doi:10.1021/es00028a604.
  22. ^ Gowdy, John M. (1998). Limited Wants, Unlimited Means: A Reader on Hunter-Gatherer Economics. Island Press. p. 265. ISBN 1-55963-555-X.
  23. ^ Diamond, Jared (May 1987). "The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race". Discover Magazine.
  24. ^ Nathan Cohen, Mark (1991). Health and the Rise of Civilization. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05023-2.
  25. ^ Zerzan, John (1994). Future Primitive and Other Essays. Autonomedia. ISBN 1-57027-000-7. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.
  26. ^ Schultz, Emily; Lavenda, Robert. "The Consequences of Domestication and Sedentism". Archived from the original on 15 July 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2007.
  27. ^ Elman, Service (1972). The Hunters. Prentice Hall. ASIN B000JNRGPK.
  28. ^ Kelly, Robert L. (1995). The Foraging Spectrum: Diversity in Hunter-Gatherer Lifeways. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 1-56098-465-1.
  29. ^ Keely, Lawrence (1996). War Before Civilization: the Myth of the Peaceful Savage. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199880706.
  30. ^ Zerzan, John (2008). Twilight of the Machines. Feral House. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-932595-31-4.
  31. ^ Sheppard, Brian. "Anarchism vs. Primitivism".
  32. ^ Flood, Andrew (2005). "Is primitivism realistic? An anarchist reply to John Zerzan and others". Anarchist Newswire.
  33. ^ The Green Anarchy Collective. "An Introduction to Anti-Civilization Anarchist Thought". Archived from the original on 12 December 2008.
  34. ^ Lance, Mark from lecture Anarchist Practice, Rational Democracy, and Community NCOR (2004). Audio files Archived 21 April 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ a b McQuinn, Jason. Why I am not a Primitivist.
  36. ^ Kaczynski, Ted. "The Truth About Primitive Life: A Critique of Anarchoprimitivism". "It seems obvious, for example, that the politically correct portrayal of hunter-gatherers is motivated in part by an impulse to construct an image of a pure and innocent world existing at the dawn of time, analogous to the Garden of Eden," and calls the evidence of the violence of hunter-gatherers "incontrovertible".
  37. ^ Jensen, Derrick (2005). Walking on Water. p. 223. ISBN 9781931498784.
  38. ^ Esbjörn-Hargens, Sean; Zimmerman, Michael E. (2009). Integral Ecology: Uniting Multiple Perspectives on the Natural World. Shambhala Publications. p. 492. ISBN 9781590304662.
  39. ^ Torres, Bob (2007). Making a Killing: The Political Economy of Animal Rights. p. 68. ISBN 9781904859673.
  40. ^ Blunt, Zoe (2011). "Uncivilized". Canadian Dimension. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
  41. ^ Jensen, Derrick (2006). The Problem of Civilization. Endgame. Vol. 1. New York: Seven Stories Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-1-58322-730-5.
  42. ^ Jensen, 2006, pp. 173–174: "[Although it's] vital to make lifestyle choices to mitigate damage caused by being a member of industrial civilization... to assign primary responsibility to oneself, and to focus primarily on making oneself better, is an immense copout, an abrogation of responsibility. With all the world at stake, it is self-indulgent, self-righteous, and self-important. It is also nearly ubiquitous. And it serves the interests of those in power by keeping our focus off them."
  43. ^ "Anarchy in the USA". The Guardian. London. 20 April 2001.
  44. ^ "5 Common Objections to Primitivism". The Anarchist Library. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  45. ^ "The Network of Domination".
  46. ^ Harmon, James L., ed. (2010). "unknown+to+most" Take My Advice: Letters to the Next Generation from People Who Know a Thing or Two. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780743242875.
  47. ^ Kaczynski, Theodore (2008). The Truth About Primitive Life: A Critique of Primitivism.
  48. ^ "Civilisation, primitivism and anarchism - Andrew Flood". Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  49. ^ "Primitivism, anarcho-primitivism and anti-civilisationism - critique". 12 October 2006.


Further reading[edit]




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