|A moderate case of dermatitis of the hands|
|Symptoms||Itchiness, red skin, rash|
|Causes||Atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, stasis dermatitis|
|Diagnostic method||Based on symptom|
|Similar conditions||Scabies, psoriasis, dermatitis herpetiformis, lichen simplex chronicus|
|Treatment||Moisturizers, steroid creams, antihistamines|
|Frequency||245 million (2015)|
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin. These diseases are characterized by itchiness, red skin, and a rash. In cases of short duration there may be small blisters while in long-term cases the skin may become thickened. The area of skin involved can vary from small to the entire body.
Dermatitis is a group of skin conditions that includes atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis. The exact cause of dermatitis is often unclear. Cases are believed to often involve a combination of irritation, allergy, and poor venous return. The type of dermatitis is generally determined by the person's history and the location of the rash. For example, irritant dermatitis often occurs on the hands of people who frequently get them wet. Allergic contact dermatitis, however, can occur following brief exposures to substances a person is sensitive to.
Treatment of atopic dermatitis is typically with moisturizers and steroid creams. The steroid creams should generally be of mid- to high strength and used for less than two weeks at a time as side effects can occur. Antibiotics may be required if there are signs of skin infection. Contact dermatitis is typically treated by avoiding the allergen or irritant. Antihistamines may help with sleep and to decrease nighttime scratching.
Dermatitis was estimated to affect 245 million people globally in 2015. Atopic dermatitis is the most common type and generally starts in childhood. In the United States it affects about 10-30% of people. Contact dermatitis is twice as common in females than males. Allergic contact dermatitis affects about 7% of people at some point in time. Irritant contact dermatitis is common, especially among people who do certain jobs; exact rates are unclear.
- 1 Signs and symptoms
- 2 Cause
- 3 Diagnosis
- 4 Pathophysiology
- 5 Prevention
- 6 Management
- 7 Prognosis
- 8 Epidemiology
- 9 History
- 10 Society and culture
- 11 Research
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Signs and symptoms
Dermatitis symptoms vary with all different forms of the condition. They range from skin rashes to bumpy rashes or including blisters. Although every type of dermatitis has different symptoms, there are certain signs that are common for all of them, including redness of the skin, swelling, itching and skin lesions with sometimes oozing and scarring. Also, the area of the skin on which the symptoms appear tends to be different with every type of dermatitis, whether on the neck, wrist, forearm, thigh or ankle. Although the location may vary, the primary symptom of this condition is itchy skin. More rarely, it may appear on the genital area, such as the vulva or scrotum. Symptoms of this type of dermatitis may be very intense and may come and go. Irritant contact dermatitis is usually more painful than itchy.
Although the symptoms of atopic dermatitis vary from person to person, the most common symptoms are dry, itchy, red skin. Typical affected skin areas include the folds of the arms, the back of the knees, wrists, face and hands. Perioral dermatitis refers to a red bumpy rash around the mouth.
Dermatitis herpetiformis symptoms include itching, stinging and a burning sensation. Papules and vesicles are commonly present. The small red bumps experienced in this type of dermatitis are usually about 1 cm in size, red in color and may be found symmetrically grouped or distributed on the upper or lower back, buttocks, elbows, knees, neck, shoulders, and scalp. Less frequently, the rash may appear inside the mouth or near the hairline.
The symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis, on the other hand, tend to appear gradually, from dry or greasy scaling of the scalp (dandruff) to hair loss. In severe cases, pimples may appear along the hairline, behind the ears, on the eyebrows, on the bridge of the nose, around the nose, on the chest, and on the upper back. In newborns, the condition causes a thick and yellowish scalp rash, often accompanied by a diaper rash.
The cause of dermatitis is unknown but is presumed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
The hygiene hypothesis postulates that the cause of asthma, eczema, and other allergic diseases is an unusually clean environment. It is supported by epidemiologic studies for asthma. The hypothesis states that exposure to bacteria and other immune system modulators is important during development, and missing out on this exposure increases risk for asthma and allergy.
While it has been suggested that eczema may sometimes be an allergic reaction to the excrement from house dust mites, with up to 5% of people showing antibodies to the mites, the overall role this plays awaits further corroboration.
Eczema occurs about three times more frequently in individuals with celiac disease and about two times more frequently in relatives of those with celiac disease, potentially indicating a genetic link between the conditions.
Diagnosis of eczema is based mostly on the history and physical examination. In uncertain cases, skin biopsy may be useful. Those with eczema may be especially prone to misdiagnosis of food allergies.
The term "eczema" refers to a set of clinical characteristics. Classification of the underlying diseases has been haphazard with numerous different classification systems, and many synonyms being used to describe the same condition.
A type of dermatitis may be described by location (e.g., hand eczema), by specific appearance (eczema craquele or discoid), or by possible cause (varicose eczema). Further adding to the confusion, many sources use the term eczema interchangeably for the most common type: atopic dermatitis.
The European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) published a position paper in 2001, which simplifies the nomenclature of allergy-related diseases, including atopic and allergic contact eczemas. Non-allergic eczemas are not affected by this proposal.
Others use the term eczema to specifically mean atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis is also known as atopic eczema. In some languages, dermatitis and eczema mean the same thing, while in other languages dermatitis implies an acute condition and eczema a chronic one.
- Atopic dermatitis is an allergic disease believed to have a hereditary component and often runs in families whose members have asthma. Itchy rash is particularly noticeable on head and scalp, neck, inside of elbows, behind knees, and buttocks. It is very common in developed countries, and rising. Irritant contact dermatitis is sometimes misdiagnosed as atopic dermatitis.
- Contact dermatitis is of two types: allergic (resulting from a delayed reaction to an allergen, such as poison ivy, nickel, or Balsam of Peru), and irritant (resulting from direct reaction to a detergent, such as sodium lauryl sulfate, for example).
- Some substances act both as allergen and irritant (wet cement, for example). Other substances cause a problem after sunlight exposure, bringing on phototoxic dermatitis. About three quarters of cases of contact eczema are of the irritant type, which is the most common occupational skin disease. Contact eczema is curable, provided the offending substance can be avoided and its traces removed from one's environment. (ICD-10 L23; L24; L56.1; L56.0)
- Xerotic eczema (asteatotic eczema, eczema craquele, eczema craquelatum, winter itch, pruritus hiemalis) is dry skin that becomes so serious it turns into eczema. It worsens in dry winter weather, and limbs and trunk are most often affected. The itchy, tender skin resembles a dry, cracked, river bed. This disorder is very common among the older population. Ichthyosis is a related disorder. (ICD-10 L30.8A; L85.0)
- Seborrhoeic dermatitis or seborrheic dermatitis ("cradle cap" in infants) is a condition sometimes classified as a form of eczema that is closely related to dandruff. It causes dry or greasy peeling of the scalp, eyebrows, and face, and sometimes trunk. In newborns it causes a thick, yellow, crusty scalp rash called cradle cap, which seems related to lack of biotin and is often curable. (ICD-10 L21; L21.0)
Less common types
- Dyshidrosis (dyshidrotic eczema, pompholyx, vesicular palmoplantar dermatitis) only occurs on palms, soles, and sides of fingers and toes. Tiny opaque bumps called vesicles, thickening, and cracks are accompanied by itching, which gets worse at night. A common type of hand eczema, it worsens in warm weather. (ICD-10 L30.1)
- Discoid eczema (nummular eczema, exudative eczema, microbial eczema) is characterized by round spots of oozing or dry rash, with clear boundaries, often on lower legs. It is usually worse in winter. Cause is unknown, and the condition tends to come and go. (ICD-10 L30.0)
- Venous eczema (gravitational eczema, stasis dermatitis, varicose eczema) occurs in people with impaired circulation, varicose veins, and edema, and is particularly common in the ankle area of people over 50. There is redness, scaling, darkening of the skin, and itching. The disorder predisposes to leg ulcers. (ICD-10 I83.1)
- Dermatitis herpetiformis (Duhring's disease) causes intensely itchy and typically symmetrical rash on arms, thighs, knees, and back. It is directly related to celiac disease, can often be put into remission with appropriate diet, and tends to get worse at night. (ICD-10 L13.0)
- Neurodermatitis (lichen simplex chronicus, localized scratch dermatitis) is an itchy area of thickened, pigmented eczema patch that results from habitual rubbing and scratching. Usually there is only one spot. Often curable through behavior modification and anti-inflammatory medication. Prurigo nodularis is a related disorder showing multiple lumps. (ICD-10 L28.0; L28.1)
- Autoeczematization (id reaction, autosensitization) is an eczematous reaction to an infection with parasites, fungi, bacteria, or viruses. It is completely curable with the clearance of the original infection that caused it. The appearance varies depending on the cause. It always occurs some distance away from the original infection. (ICD-10 L30.2)
- There are eczemas overlaid by viral infections (eczema herpeticum or vaccinatum), and eczemas resulting from underlying disease (e.g., lymphoma). Eczemas originating from ingestion of medications, foods, and chemicals, have not yet been clearly systematized. Other rare eczematous disorders exist in addition to those listed here.
All eczemas are characterized by spongiosis which allows inflammatory mediators to accumulate. Different dendritic cells subtypes, such as Langerhans cells, inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells have a role to play.
There is no good evidence that a mother's diet during pregnancy, the formula used, or breastfeeding changes the risk. There is tentative evidence that probiotics in infancy may reduce rates but it is insufficient to recommend its use.
There is no known cure for some types of dermatitis, with treatment aiming to control symptoms by reducing inflammation and relieving itching. Contact dermatitis is treated by avoiding what is causing it.
Bathing once or more a day is recommended. It is a misconception that bathing dries the skin in people with eczema. Soaps should be avoided as they tend to strip the skin of natural oils and lead to excessive dryness. It is not clear whether dust mite reduction helps with eczema.
There has not been adequate evaluation of changing the diet to reduce eczema. There is some evidence that infants with an established egg allergy may have a reduction in symptoms if eggs are eliminated from their diets. Benefits have not been shown for other elimination diets, though the studies are small and poorly executed. Establishing that there is a food allergy before dietary change could avoid unnecessary lifestyle changes.
People can wear clothing designed to manage the itching, scratching and peeling.
Moisturizing agents (also known as emollients) are recommended at least once or twice a day. Oilier formulations appear to be better and water-based formulations are not recommended. It is unclear if moisturizers that contain ceramides are more or less effective than others. Products that contain dyes, perfumes, or peanuts should not be used. Occlusive dressings at night may be useful.
There is little evidence for antihistamine; they are thus not generally recommended. Sedative antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine, may be tried in those who are unable to sleep due to eczema.
If symptoms are well controlled with moisturizers, steroids may only be required when flares occur. Corticosteroids are effective in controlling and suppressing symptoms in most cases. Once daily use is generally enough. For mild-moderate eczema a weak steroid may be used (e.g., hydrocortisone), while in more severe cases a higher-potency steroid (e.g., clobetasol propionate) may be used. In severe cases, oral or injectable corticosteroids may be used. While these usually bring about rapid improvements, they have greater side effects.
Long term use of topical steroids may result in skin atrophy, stria, telangiectasia. Their use on delicate skin (face or groin) is therefore typically with caution. They are, however, generally well tolerated. Red burning skin, where the skin turns red upon stopping steroid use, has been reported among adults who use topical steroids at least daily for more than a year.
Topical immunosuppressants like pimecrolimus and tacrolimus may be better in the short term and appear equal to steroids after a year of use. Their use is reasonable in those who do not respond to or are not tolerant of steroids. Treatments are typically recommended for short or fixed periods of time rather than indefinitely. Tacrolimus 0.1% has generally proved more effective than pimecrolimus, and equal in effect to mid-potency topical steroids. There is no link to increased risk of cancer from topical use of 1% pimecrolimus cream.
When eczema is severe and does not respond to other forms of treatment, systemic immunosuppressants are sometimes used. Immunosuppressants can cause significant side effects and some require regular blood tests. The most commonly used are ciclosporin, azathioprine, and methotrexate.
Light therapy using ultraviolet light has tentative support but the quality of the evidence is not very good. A number of different types of light may be used including UVA and UVB; in some forms of treatment, light sensitive chemicals such as psoralen are also used. Overexposure to ultraviolet light carries its own risks, particularly that of skin cancer.
Limited evidence suggests that acupuncture may reduce itching in those affected by atopic dermatitis. There is currently no scientific evidence for the claim that sulfur treatment relieves eczema. It is unclear whether Chinese herbs help or harm. Dietary supplements are commonly used by people with eczema. Neither evening primrose oil nor borage seed oil taken orally have been shown to be effective. Both are associated with gastrointestinal upset. Probiotics do not appear to be effective. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of zinc, selenium, vitamin D, vitamin E, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), sea buckthorn oil, hempseed oil, sunflower oil, or fish oil as dietary supplements.
Chiropractic spinal manipulation lacks evidence to support its use for dermatitis. There is little evidence supporting the use of psychological treatments. While dilute bleach baths have been used for infected dermatitis there is little evidence for this practice.
Globally dermatitis affected approximately 230 million people as of 2010 (3.5% of the population). Dermatitis is most commonly seen in infancy, with female predominance of eczema presentations occurring during the reproductive period of 15–49 years. In the UK about 20% of children have the condition, while in the United States about 10% are affected.
Although little data on the rates of eczema over time exists prior to the 1940s, the rate of eczema has been found to have increased substantially in the latter half of the 20th Century, with eczema in school-aged children being found to increase between the late 1940s and 2000. In the developed world there has been rise in the rate of eczema over time. The incidence and lifetime prevalence of eczema in England has been seen to increase in recent times.
Dermatitis affected about 10% of U.S. workers in 2010, representing over 15 million workers with dermatitis. Prevalence rates were higher among females than among males, and among those with some college education or a college degree compared to those with a high school diploma or less. Workers employed in healthcare and social assistance industries and life, physical, and social science occupations had the highest rates of reported dermatitis. About 6% of dermatitis cases among U.S. workers were attributed to work by a healthcare professional, indicating that the prevalence rate of work-related dermatitis among workers was at least 0.6%.
Society and culture
||The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The terms "hypoallergenic" and "doctor tested" are not regulated, and no research has been done showing that products labeled "hypoallergenic" are less problematic than any others.
- Nedorost, Susan T. (2012). Generalized Dermatitis in Clinical Practice. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 1–3, 9, 13–14. ISBN 9781447128977. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Handout on Health: Atopic Dermatitis (A type of eczema)". NIAMS. May 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Ferri, Fred F. (2010). Ferri's differential diagnosis : a practical guide to the differential diagnosis of symptoms, signs, and clinical disorders (2nd ed. ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Mosby. p. Chapter D. ISBN 0323076998.
- McAleer, MA; Flohr, C; Irvine, AD (23 July 2012). "Management of difficult and severe eczema in childhood". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 345: e4770. PMID 22826585. doi:10.1136/bmj.e4770.
- GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. PMC . PMID 27733282. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6.
- Habif (2015). Clinical Dermatology (6 ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 171. ISBN 9780323266079. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
- Mowad, CM; Anderson, B; Scheinman, P; Pootongkam, S; Nedorost, S; Brod, B (June 2016). "Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 74 (6): 1043–54. PMID 27185422. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2015.02.1144.
- Lurati, AR (February 2015). "Occupational risk assessment and irritant contact dermatitis.". Workplace health & safety. 63 (2): 81–7; quiz 88. PMID 25881659. doi:10.1177/2165079914565351.
- Adkinson, N. Franklin (2014). Middleton's allergy : principles and practice. (8 ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. p. 566. ISBN 9780323085939.
- "128.4". Rook's Textbook of Dermatology, 4 Volume Set (9 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. 2016. ISBN 9781118441176. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Frosch, Peter J. (2013). Textbook of Contact Dermatitis (2 ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 42. ISBN 9783662031049.
- "Neurodermatitis (lichen simplex)". DermNet New Zealand Trust. 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- "Neurodermatitis". Mayo Clinic. 2015. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- "Periorificial dermatitis". DermNet New Zealand Trust. 2017. Retrieved 2017-01-29.
- "Dermatitis herpetiformis". DermNet New Zealand Trust. 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- "Seborrheic dermatitis". DermNet New Zealand Trust. 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- "Overview of Dermatitis (Eczema)". Merck Manual, Consumer Version. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- Bufford, JD; Gern JE (May 2005). "The hygiene hypothesis revisited". Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America. 25 (2): 247–262. PMID 15878454. doi:10.1016/j.iac.2005.03.005.
- Carswell F, Thompson S (1986). "Does natural sensitisation in eczema occur through the skin?". Lancet. 2 (8497): 13–5. PMID 2873316. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(86)92560-2.
- Henszel Ł, Kuźna-Grygiel W (2006). "[House dust mites in the etiology of allergic diseases]". Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis (in Polish). 52 (2): 123–7. PMID 17633128.
- Atopic Dermatitis at eMedicine
- Paternoster, L; et al. (25 December 2011). "Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies three new risk loci for atopic dermatitis.". Nature Genetics. 44 (2): 187–92. PMC . PMID 22197932. doi:10.1038/ng.1017.
- Caproni, M; Bonciolini, V; d'Errico, A; Antiga, E; Fabbri, P (2012). "Celiac Disease and Dermatologic Manifestations: Many Skin Clue to Unfold Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy". Gastroenterol. Res. Pract. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. 2012: 1–12. PMC . PMID 22693492. doi:10.1155/2012/952753.
- Ciacci, C; Cavallaro R; Iovino P; Sabbatini F; Palumbo A; Amoruso D; Tortora R; Mazzacca G. (June 2004). "Allergy prevalence in adult celiac disease". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 113 (6): 1199–203. PMID 15208605. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2004.03.012.
- "Eczema". University of Maryland Medical Center.
- Atkins D (March 2008). "Food allergy: diagnosis and management". Primary Care. 35 (1): 119–40, vii. PMID 18206721. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2007.09.003.
- Jeanne Duus Johansen; Peter J. Frosch; Jean-Pierre Lepoittevin (2010-09-29). Contact Dermatitis. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
- Alexander A. Fisher. Fisher's Contact Dermatitis. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
- Johansson SG, Hourihane JO, Bousquet J, et al. (September 2001). "A revised nomenclature for allergy. An EAACI position statement from the EAACI nomenclature task force". Allergy. 56 (9): 813–24. PMID 11551246. doi:10.1034/j.1398-9995.2001.t01-1-00001.x.
- "Eczema". ACP medicine. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- Bershad, SV (1 November 2011). "In the clinic. Atopic dermatitis (eczema)". Annals of Internal Medicine. 155 (9): ITC51–15; quiz ITC516. PMID 22041966. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-155-9-201111010-01005.
- ICD 10: Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (L00-L99) – Dermatitis and eczema (L20-L30)
- Ring, Johannes; Przybilla, Bernhard; Ruzicka, Thomas (2006). Handbook of atopic eczema. Birkhäuser. p. 4. ISBN 978-3-540-23133-2. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- "Balsam of Peru contact allergy". Dermnetnz.org. 28 December 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- Allam, JP; Novak, N (January 2006). "The pathophysiology of atopic eczema.". Clinical and experimental dermatology. 31 (1): 89–93. PMID 16309494. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2230.2005.01980.x.
- Ulf, Darsow; Eyerich, Kilian; Ring, Johannes (October 2007). "Eczema Pathophysiology - World Allergy Organization". www.worldallergy.org. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
- Torley, D; Futamura, M; Williams, HC; Thomas, KS (Jul 2013). "What's new in atopic eczema? An analysis of systematic reviews published in 2010–11". Clinical and experimental dermatology. 38 (5): 449–56. PMID 23750610. doi:10.1111/ced.12143.
- Kalliomäki, M; Antoine, JM; Herz, U; Rijkers, GT; Wells, JM; Mercenier, A (Mar 2010). "Guidance for substantiating the evidence for beneficial effects of probiotics: prevention and management of allergic diseases by probiotics". The Journal of Nutrition. 140 (3): 713S–21S. PMID 20130079. doi:10.3945/jn.109.113761.
- "CDC Smallpox | Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Contraindications (Info for Clinicians)". Emergency.cdc.gov. 2007-02-07. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
- "Daily Skin Care Essential to Control Atopic Dermatitis article at American Academy of Dermatology's EczemaNet website". Retrieved 2009-03-24.
- Gutman, Ari Benjamin; Kligman, Albert M.; Sciacca, Joslyn; James, William D. (1 December 2005). "Soak and Smear". Archives of Dermatology. 141 (12). doi:10.1001/archderm.141.12.1556.
- Bath-Hextall, F; Delamere, FM; Williams, HC (23 January 2008). Bath-Hextall, Fiona J, ed. "Dietary exclusions for established atopic eczema". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (1): CD005203. PMID 18254073. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005203.pub2.
- Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. "Eczema: Can eliminating particular foods help?". Informed Health Online. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Ricci G, Patrizi A, Bellini F, Medri M (2006). "Use of textiles in atopic dermatitis: care of atopic dermatitis". Current Problems in Dermatology. Current Problems in Dermatology. 33: 127–43. ISBN 3-8055-8121-1. PMID 16766885. doi:10.1159/000093940.
- Jungersted, JM; Agner, T (Aug 2013). "Eczema and ceramides: an update". Contact dermatitis. 69 (2): 65–71. PMID 23869725. doi:10.1111/cod.12073.
- Hoare C, Li Wan Po A, Williams H (2000). "Systematic review of treatments for atopic eczema". Health Technology Assessment. 4 (37): 1–191. PMID 11134919.
- Bewley A; Dermatology Working, Group (May 2008). "Expert consensus: time for a change in the way we advise our patients to use topical corticosteroids". The British Journal of Dermatology. 158 (5): 917–20. PMID 18294314. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2008.08479.x.
- Oakley, M.D., Amanda. "Topical corticosteroid withdrawal". DermNet NZ. DermNet New Zealand Trust.
- Shams, K; Grindlay, DJ; Williams, HC (Aug 2011). "What's new in atopic eczema? An analysis of systematic reviews published in 2009–2010". Clinical and experimental dermatology. 36 (6): 573–7; quiz 577–8. PMID 21718344. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2230.2011.04078.x.
- Carr, WW (Aug 2013). "Topical calcineurin inhibitors for atopic dermatitis: review and treatment recommendations". Paediatric drugs. 15 (4): 303–10. PMC . PMID 23549982. doi:10.1007/s40272-013-0013-9.
- "Atopic eczema - Treatment". NHS Choices, London, UK. 12 February 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- "Medication Guide. Elidel® (pimecrolimus) Cream, 1%" (PDF). US Food and Drug Administration. March 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- Gambichler, T (Mar 2009). "Management of atopic dermatitis using photo(chemo)therapy". Archives of dermatological research. 301 (3): 197–203. PMID 19142651. doi:10.1007/s00403-008-0923-5.
- Meduri, NB; Vandergriff, T; Rasmussen, H; Jacobe, H (Aug 2007). "Phototherapy in the management of atopic dermatitis: a systematic review". Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine. 23 (4): 106–12. PMID 17598862. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0781.2007.00291.x.
- Stöppler MC (31 May 2007). "Psoriasis PUVA Treatment Can Increase Melanoma Risk". MedicineNet. Retrieved 2007-10-17.
- Vieira, BL; Lim, NR; Lohman, ME; Lio, PA (July 2016). "Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Atopic Dermatitis: An Evidence-Based Review". American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (Review). 17: 1–25. PMID 27388911. doi:10.1007/s40257-016-0209-1.
- "Sulfur". University of Maryland Medical Center. 1 April 2002. Retrieved 2007-10-15.
- Armstrong NC, Ernst E (August 1999). "The treatment of eczema with Chinese herbs: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 48 (2): 262–4. PMC . PMID 10417508. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.1999.00004.x.
- Bath-Hextall, FJ; Jenkinson, C; Humphreys, R; Williams, HC (15 February 2012). Bath-Hextall, Fiona J, ed. "Dietary supplements for established atopic eczema". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online). 2: CD005205. PMID 22336810. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005205.pub3.
- Bamford, JT; Ray, S; Musekiwa, A; van Gool, C; Humphreys, R; Ernst, E (30 April 2013). Bamford, Joel TM, ed. "Oral evening primrose oil and borage oil for eczema". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 4: CD004416. PMID 23633319. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004416.pub2.
- Boyle RJ, Bath-Hextall FJ, Leonardi-Bee J, Murrell DF, Tang ML (2008). Boyle, Robert John, ed. "Probiotics for treating eczema". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD006135. PMID 18843705. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006135.pub2.
- Eldred DC, Tuchin PJ (November 1999). "Treatment of acute atopic eczema by chiropractic care. A case study". Australasian Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 8 (3): 96–101. PMC . PMID 17987197.
- Ersser, Steven J.; Cowdell, Fiona; Latter, Sue; Gardiner, Eric; Flohr, Carsten; Thompson, Andrew Robert; Jackson, Karina; Farasat, Helen; Ware, Fiona (2014-01-07). "Psychological and educational interventions for atopic eczema in children". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD004054. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 24399641. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004054.pub3.
- Barnes, TM; Greive, KA (Nov 2013). "Use of bleach baths for the treatment of infected atopic eczema.". The Australasian journal of dermatology. 54 (4): 251–8. PMID 23330843. doi:10.1111/ajd.12015.
- Vos, T; et al. (15 Dec 2012). "Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2163–96. PMID 23245607. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2.
- Osman M, Hansell AL, Simpson CR, Hollowell J, Helms PJ (February 2007). "Gender-specific presentations for asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in primary care". Primary Care Respiratory Journal. 16 (1): 28–35. PMID 17297524. doi:10.3132/pcrj.2007.00006.
- Taylor B, Wadsworth J, Wadsworth M, Peckham C (December 1984). "Changes in the reported prevalence of childhood eczema since the 1939–45 war". Lancet. 2 (8414): 1255–7. PMID 6150286. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(84)92805-8.
- Simpson CR, Newton J, Hippisley-Cox J, Sheikh A (2009). "Trends in the epidemiology and prescribing of medication for eczema in England". J Roy Soc Med. 102 (3): 108–117. PMC . PMID 19297652. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2009.080211.
- Luckhaupt, SE; Dahlhamer, JM; Ward, BW; Sussell, AL; Sweeney, MH; Sestito, JP; Calvert, GM (June 2013). "Prevalence of dermatitis in the working population, United States, 2010 National Health Interview Survey". Am J Ind Med. 56 (6): 625–634. PMID 22674651. doi:10.1002/ajim.22080.
- Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott. "Ekzema". A Greek-English Lexicon. Tufts University: Perseus.
- Textbook of Atopic Dermatitis. Taylor & Francis. 2008-05-01. p. 1. ISBN 9780203091449.
- "Definition of ECZEMA". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- Murphy LA, White IR, Rastogi SC (May 2004). "Is hypoallergenic a credible term?". Clinical and Experimental Dermatology. 29 (3): 325–7. PMID 15115531. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2230.2004.01521.x.
- Lauffer, F; Ring, J (2016). "Target-oriented therapy: Emerging drugs for atopic dermatitis.". Expert opinion on emerging drugs. 21 (1): 81–9. PMID 26808004. doi:10.1517/14728214.2016.1146681.
|Look up dermatitis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dermatitis.|