Flower Drum Song (film)
|Flower Drum Song|
1961 theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Henry Koster|
|Produced by||Ross Hunter|
|Screenplay by||Joseph Fields|
|Based on||Flower Drum Song|
by Oscar Hammerstein II
|Music by||Richard Rodgers|
|Edited by||Milton Carruth|
|Distributed by||Universal Pictures|
|Box office||$5 million (US/ Canada rentals) |
Flower Drum Song is a 1961 film adaptation of the 1958 Broadway musical Flower Drum Song, written by the composer Richard Rodgers and the lyricist/librettist Oscar Hammerstein II. The film and stage play were based on the 1957 novel of the same name by the Chinese American author Chin Yang Lee. It was nominated for five Academy Awards.
Flower Drum Song became the first major Hollywood feature film to have a majority Asian cast in a contemporary Asian-American story. It would be the last film to do so for a third of a century, until 1993's The Joy Luck Club.
A young woman named Mei Li emigrates from China to Chinatown, San Francisco as an illegal immigrant with her father. After landing, the Lis seek the address of Madam Fong, the mother of Sammy Fong, to whom Mei Li has been promised in an arranged marriage. While asking where to find Madam Fong, Mei Li performs a flower drum song to earn money ("A Hundred Million Miracles"). Sammy is the owner of a night club, the Celestial Gardens (inspired by the actual Forbidden City nightclub) and is already romantically involved with his leading showgirl, Linda Low. The Lis arrive at the Celestial Gardens during a show ("Fan Tan Fannie").
Sammy does his best to dissuade Mei Li from marrying him, introducing her to Madame Liang, the sister-in-law of Master Wang. Liang and Wang bemoan the gap between immigrants and their offspring ("The Other Generation") as Master Wang's younger son, Wang San gives his own take on the gap to some younger children. However, dissolving the marriage contract is harder than either of them imagine. Master Wang is persuaded by Madame Liang to allow Mei Li to fall in love naturally with Master Wang's eldest son, Wang Ta, and the Lis move in with Master Wang. But Wang Ta is dazzled by the charms of Linda, who flirts with him ("I Enjoy Being a Girl"). He asks her to go on a date, and she convinces him to give her his fraternity pin to symbolize they are "going steady" during the date.
When Mei Li sees Wang Ta sneaking back in after the date, she mistakes his friendly greeting as a welcome to the household and starts to warm to America ("I Am Going to Like It Here"). Linda plans to use Wang Ta to force a real commitment from Sammy Fong out of jealousy, but Sammy gets wind of her scheme when Linda attends a party to celebrate both Wang Ta's graduation from university and Madame Liang's graduation from citizenship classes. Madame Liang compares the citizens of America to a mix of different ingredients ("Chop Suey"). At the party, Linda has Frankie Wing, the club emcee, pose as her brother to grant permission for Linda to marry Wang Ta. Mei Li, hearing this, becomes discouraged, while Ta and his father argue over his marriage plans. Ta argues that he is old enough to make his own decisions, but the father says that he will be the one to let Ta know when he is old enough.
At the New Year's Parade, Linda rides on a float and sings about Grant Avenue, Chinatown's "western street with eastern manners" ("Grant Avenue"). Sammy, in an effort to keep Linda from marrying Wang Ta, invites Wang Ta and his family to Celestial Gardens, where they see Frankie Wing recall girls he has known ("Gliding Through My Memoree") and Linda's nightclub act ("Fan Tan Fanny"). Wang Ta is shocked at her performance. He leaves, distraught, accompanied by his friend since childhood, the seamstress Helen Chao. Chao also grew up in America and deeply loves Wang Ta. Ta becomes drunk in his misery over Linda, and Helen ends up letting him stay for the night in her apartment, where she declares her unrequited love ("Love, Look Away").
In the morning, Mei Li comes to deliver a burned coat for Helen to mend, and becomes distressed when she discovers Wang Ta's clothing in Helen's kitchen. When Wang Ta wakes up (seconds after Mei Li leaves), he still does not notice Helen's affections, even as she pleads for him to stay, and he leaves quickly. He goes to speak with Mei Li, now realizing that she is a better match for him than Linda Low ("You Are Beautiful"), only to have Mei Li reject him, saying that she once loved him, but not anymore.
She and her father leave Master Wang's house and pursue the marriage contract between Mei Li and Sammy Fong. Sammy has already proposed to Linda, who daydreams about wedded life ("Sunday"). Unfortunately, now that Mei Li is pursuing Sammy again, he and Linda will be unable to marry as the contract with Mei Li is binding. Sammy enumerates his many faults ("Don't Marry Me") in a last-ditch attempt to convince Mei Li to break the contract. Before the wedding, Wang Ta goes to see Mei Li, and they both realize that they are deeply in love with one another. They agree to try to come up with a way to get Mei Li out of her marriage contract.
The day of the wedding, right before she is to sip from a goblet (which would seal her marriage to Sammy), Mei Li declares that, because she entered the United States illegally, the contract is null and void. Wang Ta can thus marry Mei Li, and Sammy decides to marry Linda right there as well, resulting in a double wedding.
- Nancy Kwan – Linda Low (singing dubbed by B.J. Baker), a showgirl at Celestial Gardens, Sammy's nightclub
- James Shigeta – Wang Ta, older son of Master Wang Chi-Yang
- Miyoshi Umeki – Mei Li, arranged bride for Sammy Fong
- Benson Fong – Wang Chi-Yang, master of the Wang household
- Jack Soo – Samuel Adams "Sammy" Fong, owner of the Celestial Gardens nightclub
- Juanita Hall – Madame Liang, sister-in-law of Master Wang Chi-Yang
- Reiko Sato – Helen Chao (singing dubbed by Marilyn Horne), a seamstress raised in America with unrequited love for Wang Ta
- Patrick Adiarte – Wang San, younger son of Master Wang Chi-Yang
- Kam Tong – Dr. Han Li (singing dubbed by John Dodson), Mei Li's father
- Victor Sen Yung – Frankie Wing, emcee at the Celestial Gardens
- Soo Yong – Madame Yen Fong, Sammy's mother
- James Hong – Headwaiter at the Celestial Gardens
Although the score of Flower Drum Song did not produce many hit tunes, the song "I Enjoy Being a Girl" has been recorded by such performers as Doris Day, Peggy Lee, Pat Suzuki, and Phranc, and it has been used in other movies and shows. Parodies of the song including a U.S. Gap company commercial with Sarah Jessica Parker. There are over a dozen versions of the song on YouTube, including parodies based on Harry Potter and Battlestar Galactica.
Compared to the musical on which it is based, the film rearranged the order of the songs. According to David Henry Hwang, the song "Like a God" was dropped from the film because studio executives were worried it could "offend audiences in the American South". Alfred Newman, the conductor and music supervisor, wrote a letter to producer Ross Hunter protesting the excision of music arrangers from the credits during post-production; Hunter agreed to reinsert a credit for Ken Darby, the associate music supervisor.
|Flower Drum Song: The Motion Picture Sound Track|
|Soundtrack album by |
The 1961 soundtrack album from the film was critically praised; Variety lauded Newman's "rousing orchestration". Shortly after its release by Decca Records, both the monaural and stereo versions of the soundtrack charted on the list of bestselling records, according to Billboard Top LP's list. For the film soundtrack album, the performers were credited by role, not name, since "several of the performers in the movie don't do their own singing." The singing voice of the character Linda Low (portrayed by Nancy Kwan) was dubbed by B. J. Baker, a Caucasian studio singer who had worked with Elvis Presley, Frank Sinatra, Bobby Darin, The Righteous Brothers, and Sam Cooke.
The torch song "Love, Look Away" sung by Helen Chao (portrayed by Reiko Sato) was also dubbed in by the American opera singer Marilyn Horne, who was offered the job by Alfred Newman, the film's conductor and musical supervisor, after Horne's triumphant début with the San Francisco Opera in Wozzeck. Horne and Newman were friends through her extensive background singing on film soundtracks. In addition, Dr. Han Li (portrayed by Kam Tong) is dubbed by John Dodson.
All tracks written by Richard Rodgers (music) and Oscar Hammerstein II (lyrics).
|1.||"Main Title—Overture 'Flower Drum Song'" (Instrumental)||Orchestra||5:05|
|2.||"A Hundred Million Miracles"||Mei Li, Dr. Li, Chorus and Orchestra||3:43|
|3.||"The Other Generation"||Wang Chi-Yang, Madam Liang, Sam, and Orchestra||3:27|
|4.||"I Enjoy Being a Girl" (B.J. Baker)||Linda Low and Orchestra||4:10|
|5.||"I Am Going to Like It Here"||Mei Li and Orchestra||2:30|
|6.||"Chop Suey"||Wang Ta, Madam Liang, Sam, Orchestra and Chorus||2:32|
|7.||"Grant Avenue"||Linda Low, Orchestra and Chorus||3:16|
|2.||"Gliding Through My Memoree / Fan Tan Fanny"||Frankie Wing / Linda Low, Chorus and Orchestra||4:31|
|3.||"Love Look Away"||Helen Chao and Orchestra||2:26|
|4.||"Sunday"||Sammy Fong, Linda Low and Orchestra||4:11|
|5.||"You Are Beautiful"||Wang Ta and Orchestra||3:35|
|6.||"Don't Marry Me"||Sammy Fong, Mei Li and Orchestra||3:01|
|7.||"Finale: Wedding Procession + Wedding Ceremony / End Title"||Mei Li, Linda Low, Chorus and Orchestra||3:01|
After the novel was released and became a bestseller, options were offered to author C.Y. Lee to produce a movie or stage adaptation. Lee was torn between the movie offer, which was more lucrative at $50,000, but would force him to give up all rights, or the stage offer from Joseph Fields, which only gave him $3,000 but only relinquished stage rights. After getting drunk the night of the decision, Lee could not remember the offer he chose, but his agent congratulated him on making the right choice the next morning. It turns out Lee had chosen the offer from Fields, who initially wanted to produce a play and eventually a movie, but after Fields mentioned the novel to Rodgers and Hammerstein, they signed on to write the musical.
The 1961 film production of Flower Drum Song was produced by Universal Studios, a break for Rodgers and Hammerstein, who had previously had their films produced by Twentieth Century Fox. The screenplay was written by Joseph Fields, who had previously collaborated with Hammerstein on the libretto for the musical, but had not previously written a major musical film; likewise, the director Henry Koster and producer Ross Hunter were working on their first musical film.
Principal photography began on March 20, 1961; the film was largely shot at Stage 12 of the Universal Studios Lot, on a 51,300 sq ft (4,770 m2) set built to reproduce Chinatown, including the opening scenes at Saint Mary's Square (complete with a replica of the stainless steel statute of Sun Yat-Sen sculpted by Beniamino Bufano), at a cost of $310,000.
The film was notable as the first that featured nearly all Asian American cast members (one of the few speaking Caucasian parts being that of a mugger), including dancers, though three of the singing voices were not Asian ones. The contemporaneous paucity of Asian actors notably forced producers to dress Arnold Stang in yellowface as a Chinese cook for an episode of Wagon Train, since "all of Hollywood's Oriental actors were busy making 'Flower Drum Song'". Starring in the movie were Nancy Kwan, James Shigeta, Benson Fong, James Hong, Reiko Sato and the original Broadway cast members Jack Soo, Miyoshi Umeki, and Juanita Hall (an African American actress who previously played the Pacific Islander Bloody Mary in the Broadway and film productions of Rodgers and Hammerstein's South Pacific).
Anna May Wong had been scheduled to play the part of Madam Liang, but she died in February 1961, before production began. Kwan won the role of Linda Low when she met Ross Hunter, the producer of Flower Drum Song, at a party after he saw her film debut in the 1960 film adaptation of The World of Suzie Wong. Kwan's casting was announced in February 1961.
Changes from musical and novel
Among various changes for the film, the song "Like a God" was changed from a song into a beat poetry presentation. The film (and earlier stage version) is lighter-hearted than the novel upon which it is based. Most notably, while Helen is simply left alone and broken-hearted in the musical and film versions, Ta's rejection of her prompts her to commit suicide in the novel. In the novel, Mei Li does not arrive in Chinatown illegally, nor does she have an arranged marriage with Sammy Fong (whose character was created for the musical and film).
Although set in San Francisco, only a few scenes were actually filmed on location, notably a scene with Kwan and Shigeta on Twin Peaks. But neither Kwan nor Shigeta actually filmed at this location. Doubles stood in for them for the long shots of the car arriving and leaving Twin Peaks. The close-ups of Kwan and Shigeta in the car were process shots filmed at Universal Studios in Hollywood with the view from Twin Peaks projected on a screen behind them.
The film includes scenes from the 1961 San Francisco Chinese New Year Festival and Parade.
Awards and honors
- Best Art Direction-Set Decoration, Color (Alexander Golitzen, Joseph C. Wright, Howard Bristol) (nominee)
- Best Cinematography, Color (nominee)
- Best Costume Design, Color (nominee)
- Best Music, Scoring of a Musical Picture (nominee)
- Best Sound (Waldon O. Watson) (nominee)
The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:
- 2002: AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions – Nominated
- 2004: AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs:
Flower Drum Song premiered in New York City at Radio City Music Hall on November 9, 1961. The initial plan was to have the premiere on November 17 in San Francisco, at the Golden Gate Theatre, to benefit local hospitals, including the San Francisco Chinese Hospital. The Golden Gate Theatre premiere would be followed by a three-day Flower Drum Festival in Chinatown. A private screening was held for President John F. Kennedy and his family at the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis Port on November 24. The film was widely released near Christmastime.
Although it has been asserted the film was the only Hollywood adaptation of a Rodgers and Hammerstein musical to lose money, the production rights were reported as costing $1 million and the budget was $4 million, while gross revenues have been reported as $10.7 million.
The film was first issued on VHS in 1986, then reissued in 1991 followed by a LaserDisc version in 1992 by MCA Home Video. The LaserDisc and VHS versions of the film were cropped to a 1.33:1 ratio using pan and scan with the exception of the "I Enjoy Being a Girl" sequence. After the VHS and LaserDisc versions went out of print, the film was unavailable on home media for many years, while most of the other video versions of Rodgers and Hammerstein movies were released on DVD by other studios.
At present, MGM (via its acquisition of The Samuel Goldwyn Company) owns the theatrical and television rights to this movie, as well as other certain Rodgers and Hammerstein productions, while the original distributor Universal owns only the home video rights. (Universal also holds the copyright to this movie.)
Universal Studios Home Entertainment (in association with the estates of Rodgers and Hammerstein) finally released a DVD version on November 7, 2006, with extra features on the making and casting of the movie. It includes interviews with David Henry Hwang, Pat Suzuki, and Nancy Kwan, and pictures from the 1958 and 2002 Broadway rehearsals and practice sessions, as well as pictures of Rodgers, Hammerstein, and Fields.
Reviewing for The New York Times after the premiere, Bosley Crowther called the film neither "subtle or fragile ... It is gaudy and gaggy and quite melodic." Life called it "gay, tuneful and well worth the admission". However, Variety thought that "much of the fundamental charm, grace and novelty of Rodgers & Hammerstein's "Flower Drum Song" has been overwhelmed by the sheer opulence and glamour [of the film]".
— David Henry Hwang, 2001 Los Angeles Times article
Lewis calls it "a bizarre pastiche of limping mediocracy". He comments that since the 1958 version of the musical was only rarely revived for decades after its initial run, the film "would in future years come to stand for the stage musical it so crassly misrepresented" and would serve as the version that academics and latter-day theatre critics would judge when they analyzed the musical. James Deaville countered that Koster and Hunter "wanted to make the musical more relevant and accessible ... [by] intensify[ing] the generational conflict ... [and] required spelling out much that the musical left to the audience's imagination."
Asian-Americans often found the film offensive in later years due to common tropes and what was seen as miscasting Japanese American actors Shigeta and Umeki in Chinese American roles. David Henry Hwang, who revised the musical for a 2001 revival, "had a secret soft spot for the movie version. 'It was kind of a guilty pleasure ... and one of the only big Hollywood films where you could see a lot of really good Asian actors onscreen, singing and dancing and cracking jokes.'" Writer Joanna Lee praised the film's portrayal of Asian Americans as "prominent and legitimate American citizens".
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- "All-Time Top Grossers". Variety. 8 January 1964. p. 69.
- Robert Ito (8 August 2018). "'Crazy Rich Asians': Why Did It Take So Long to See a Cast Like This?". New York Times.
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- Deaville, James (2017). "The Many Lives of Flower Drum Song (1957–2002): Negotiating Chinese American Identity in Print, on Stage, and on Screen". In Yang, Hon-Lun; Saffle, Michael. China and the West: Music, Representation, and Reception. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. pp. 119–136. doi:10.3998/mpub.5555199. ISBN 978-0-472-90075-6.
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Monaural: #60; Stereo: #42
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Wagon Train has story about Chinese cook, written by Terry Wilson, who plays Bill Hawks here. When it came time to cast this, they found that all of Hollywood’s Oriental actors were busy making "Flower Drum Song," so Arnold Stang (in rubber eyelids) was cast.
- Hodges, Graham Russell Gao (2012). Anna May Wong: from Laundryman's Daughter to Hollywood Legend. Aberdeen, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. pp. 204–205. ISBN 978-988-8139-63-7. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
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- Information about the film
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- McConachie, Bruce A. (October 1994). "The "Oriental" Musicals of Rodgers and Hammerstein and the U.S. War in Southeast Asia". Colonial/Postcolonial Theatre. 46 (3): 385–398. JSTOR 3208614.
- Kim, Chang-Hee (Fall 2013). "Asian performance on the stage of American empire in Flower Drum Song". Cultural Critique. 85: 1–37. doi:10.5749/culturalcritique.85.2013.0001.
- Gill, Brendan (18 November 1961). "The Current Cinema". The New Yorker. p. 207. Retrieved 2 September 2018.(subscription required)
- Fuller, Karla Rae (2010). "4: Comics and Lovers– Postwar Transitions and Interpretations". Hollywood Goes Oriental: CaucAsian Performance in American film. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. pp. 193–200. ISBN 978-0-8143-3467-6. Retrieved 2 September 2018.