Folland Gnat

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Gnat
HS Gnat T.1 XP515 CFS.A KEM 30.09.74.jpg
Operational Gnat T.1 of the RAF Central Flying School in 1974
Role Fighter and trainer
Manufacturer Folland Aircraft
Designer W.E.W. Petter
First flight 18 July 1955
Introduction 1959 (RAF)
Retired 1979 (RAF)
Status Retired
Primary users Royal Air Force
Indian Air Force
Finnish Air Force
Number built 449 (including HAL Ajeet)
Developed from Folland Midge
Variants HAL Ajeet

The Folland Gnat is a British compact swept-wing subsonic fighter aircraft developed and produced by Folland Aircraft. Envisioned as an affordable light fighter in contrast to the rising cost and size of typical combat aircraft, it was procured as a trainer aircraft for the Royal Air Force (RAF) as well as by export customers, who used the Gnat in both combat and training capacities.

Designed by W.E.W. Petter, the Gnat has its origins in the preceding private venture Folland Midge. The issuing of Operational Requirement OR.303 by the British Air Ministry served to motivate the type's development, the Gnat was later submitted to meet this requirement. Its design allowed for its construction and maintenance tasks to be carried out without specialised tools, making it suitable for use in countries that had not yet become highly industrialised.[1][2] The Gnat has been viewed as a major motivating factor towards the issuing of the NATO NBMR-1 requirement, which sought to make available a common strike/attack light fighter with which to equip the air forces of the various NATO members.

Although never used as a fighter by the Royal Air Force (RAF), the Gnat T.1 jet trainer variant was adopted and operated for some time. In the United Kingdom, the Gnat became well known due to its prominent use as the display aircraft of the RAF's Red Arrows aerobatic team. The Gnat F.1 was exported to Finland, Yugoslavia and India. The Indian Air Force became the largest operator and eventually manufactured the aircraft under licence. Impressed by its performance during combat, India proceeded to develop the improved HAL Ajeet, a modified variant of the Gnat. In British service, the Gnat was replaced by the Hawker Siddeley Hawk.

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

In October 1950, WEW "Teddy" Petter, a British aircraft designer formerly of Westland Aircraft and English Electric, joined Folland Aircraft as its managing director and chief engineer.[3][4] Almost immediately upon joining the firm, Petter conducted a study into the economics behind modern fighter manufacturing, and concluded that many combat aircraft entailed far too great a cost in terms of man-hours and material to be readily mass produced during a major conflict.[4] While the British Air Staff emphasised quality over quantity, the economics involved in the anticipated vast wartime production of many of the RAF's aircraft of the time, such as the Hawker Hunter and the Gloster Javelin interceptors, were viewed as questionable.[4]

Petter examined the prospects for producing a more affordable but capable "light fighter", including a survey of available modern engines to power the type.[4] Having identified suitable powerplant arrangements along with methods of making multiple key design aspects, such as the manufacturing of the fuselage and wings, more affordable, Folland promptly commenced work upon this lightweight fighter concept, financing the project using existing company funds.[4] The light fighter project soon received the Fo-141 designation along with the name Gnat.[3] Development of the Gnat and the specifics of its design were heavily influenced by the issuing of Operational Requirement OR.303, which sought a capable lightweight fighter aircraft. Work to develop the Gnat went ahead, irrespective of any external orders or financing; there was no funding provided to support the type's early development from any British government department, such as the Ministry of Supply.[3][5]

First Gnat F.1 prototype
Gnat F.1 single-seat fighter variant at the 1957 Paris Air Salon

Petter believed that a compact and simplified fighter would offer the advantages of low purchase and operational costs, and that the Gnat should be capable of being manufactured both cheaply and easily.[3] The emergence of new lightweight turbojet engines, several of which were well advanced in their own development process, also enabled the envisioned light fighter concept to be realised.[1] The Gnat was initially intended to be powered by a Bristol BE-22 Saturn turbojet engine, capable of generating 3,800 lbf (16.9 kN 1,724 kgp) of thrust. However, development of the Saturn was cancelled; in its place, the more capable but not immediately available Bristol Orpheus turbojet engine was adopted instead.[3]

In order that the project would not be delayed before reaching the prototype stage, Petter's unarmed proof-of-concept demonstrator for the Gnat was instead powered by the less powerful Armstrong Siddeley Viper 101 turbojet engine, capable of generating 1,640 lbf (7.3 kN / 744 kgp) of thrust.[3] While using a different powerplant from later-built prototypes and production aircraft, the demonstrator still used a nearly-identical airframe along with similar onboard systems so that these could be proved in advance of the Gnat itself being built.[3] This demonstrator was designated Fo-139 Midge. On 11 August 1954, the Midge performed its maiden flight, piloted by Folland's chief test pilot E. A. Tennant.[6] Despite the low-powered engine, the compact jet was able to break Mach 1 while in a dive and proved to be very agile during its flying trials. On 20 September 1955, the Midge was destroyed in a crash, which had possibly been due to human error.[7]

The Midge, partly due to its nature as a private venture, had only a short lifespan, however had served as a proof-of-concept demonstrator for the subsequent aircraft. It had failed to interest the RAF as a combat aircraft at that time, but officers did issue encouragement of the development of a similar aircraft for training purposes.[8] The larger Gnat, which was being developed in parallel with the Midge, was an improved version of the original fighter design; it was differentiated by larger air intakes to suit the Orpheus engine, a slightly larger wing, and provision for the installation of a 30 mm ADEN cannon in each intake lip.[8][9] The first prototype Gnat was built as a private venture by Folland. Subsequently, six further aircraft were ordered by the British Ministry of Supply for evaluation purposes.[8] On 18 July 1955, the Folland prototype, serial number G-39-2, first flew from RAF Boscombe Down, Wiltshire.[a][10]

Although the evaluation by the British brought no orders for the lightweight fighter, orders were placed by Finland and Yugoslavia. India placed a large order for the type, which included a licence for production by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL).[11] Although the Gnat's development is considered a factor which motivated the Mutual Weapons Development Team to issue the NATO NBMR-1 requirement for a low level strike/attack light fighter, the Gnat itself was not evaluated in the competition, which was won by the Fiat G.91.[12] However, the Gnat was evaluated in 1958 by the RAF as a replacement for the de Havilland Venom, as well as other light aircraft such as the BAC Jet Provost.[13] The Hawker Hunter was selected as the eventual winner of the fly-off competition.

Trainer[edit]

Operational Gnat T.1 of No. 4 Flying Training School RAF in 1971

Although RAF interest in the possibilities for using the Gnat as a fighter had waned, Folland identified another potential use for the type as a trainer aircraft. Accordingly, the aircraft was modified to conform with the requirements of Specification T.185D, which had called for an advanced two-seat trainer aircraft that could transition pilots between the current de Havilland Vampire T 11 and operational fighters, such as the supersonic English Electric Lightning.[8]

Folland proposed the two-seat Fo. 144 Gnat Trainer. The trainer model featured several changes, including the adoption of a new wing with additional fuel capacity, which in turn allowed for more internal space within the fuselage to be allocated for additional equipment. A more powerful variant of the Orpheus engine was also used, while the length of the forward fuselage area was increased, and the tail surfaces were enlarged. The inboard ailerons of the fighter variant were reconfigured to an arrangement of outboard ailerons and conventional flaps. On 7 January 1958, an initial contract for 14 pre-production Gnat trainers was issued.[14]

On 31 August 1959, the prototype Gnat Trainer conducted its maiden flight from Chilbolton airfield, Hampshire.[15] The Ministry did not at first place a production order as they were concerned about the size and ability of the company to take on a large order. Following the take over of Folland by Hawker Siddeley Aviation (becoming the Hamble division), further orders for 30, 20 and 41 trainers were placed between February 1960 and March 1962, receiving the designation Gnat T Mk. 1.[16] The final Gnat T.1 for the RAF was delivered in May 1965.

Further development[edit]

Folland sought to develop more capable versions of the Gnat; one of the more substantial of these proposals was tentatively designated as the Gnat Mk.5.[17] This model was to be capable of supersonic speeds and was intended to be made available in both single-seat and twin-seat configurations, enabling its use in the trainer and interceptor role. The Gnat 5 was to be powered by either a pair of Rolls-Royce RB153R engines or two Viper 20 engines instead; in the air interceptor role, it would be also equipped with a Ferranti AI.23 Airpass radar and armed with a pair of de Havilland Firestreak air-to-air missiles.[17] Featuring an estimated maximum speed around Mach 2 and a time to 50,000ft of 3 minutes, Folland estimated that a prototype could be flown as early as the end of 1962 and that the Gnat 5 could be readied for operational service within four or five years.[17]

In 1960, Maurice Brennan joined Folland as its chief engineer and director; due to Brennan's experience of variable-geometry wings, figures within Hawker Siddeley were keen to encourage the application of this expertise to the firm's designs.[11] Under Brennan's direction, a variable geometry wing was applied to the basic Gnat 5 design to produce a pair of layouts - one tailless and one using with a conventional tail - for a multipurpose fighter/strike/trainer, designated as the Fo. 147. The design used a unique mechanism to sweep the wings; this mechanism used a combination of tracks set upon the fuselage sides, the centerline, and on the underside of the wings, and was actuated by hydraulically-driven ball screws positioned at the inner ends of the wings.[17] The wings could be swept from 20 degrees to 70 degrees; at the 70 degree position, longitudinal control was maintained by wing tip-mounted elevons, while this was provided by a retractable canard arrangement when swept at the 20 degree position, using full auto-stabilisation. By providing trimming functionality via the canard, the necessity of a large tailplane was eliminated, which was present on alternative designs that did not feature the canard configuration.[18]

According to Folland, the Fo. 147 was to have been capable of speeds in excess of Mach 2, being limited by the buildup of heat generated by flying at such high speeds.[19] It had a maximum all-up weight of 18,500lb, comparing well with the Gnat 5's more restrictive 11,100lb maximum. According to aviation author Derek Wood, the Fo. 147: "would have provided a first-class flying test-bed for variable geometry theories...even a VG conversion of the standard Gnat Mk 2 fighter would have been an invaluable research tool".[19] However, neither the Fo 147 or its successor, the Fo 148, would be developed to the prototype stage; the RAF showed little interest in possessing a variable geometry trainer, even when it intended to procure the General Dynamics F-111K strike aircraft.[19]

Design[edit]

The Folland Gnat is a purpose-built light fighter aircraft, suitable both as a trainer and combat aircraft, capable of being used in ground attacks and as a day fighter in the latter capacity.[20] According to Folland, the Gnat possessed significant benefits over conventional fighter aircraft, specifically in terms of cost, man-hours, handling, serviceability, and portability.[21] The cockpit was furnished with many of the features expected of standard fighter aircraft, full pressurisation and climate control systems were installed along with a Martin-Baker-built ejection seat.[4] A conventional undercarriage is used, which is capable of operating from austere grass airstrips due to the aircraft's low weight.[4]

The structure of the Gnat is of a conventional metal stressed-skin nature, employing extensive flush-rivetting.[4] Machining of components was deliberately avoided to minimise workload and cost, for the sane reasons, there is only a minimal use of intensive fabrication methods such as forging and casting. The airframe can be constructed using simplistic jigs without any no specialised skills or tooling being required.[4] The layout and construction techniques used for the airframe allows for it to be rapidly disassembled into its major subsections, the entirety of which could be performed without the use of cranes or ladders; the Gnat was vastly easier to service than most other aircraft.[5] Many elements of the airframe showed considerable attention to easy of fabrication and low cost; for example, the wing was reportedly able to be produced at a quarter of the cost and less than one-fifth of the man-hours in comparison to contemporary wings used by typical fighter aircraft of the era.[4]

Operational history[edit]

Finland[edit]

A preserved Gnat Mk.1 in the Aviation Museum of Central Finland

The Finnish Air Force received the first of its 13 Gnats (11 fighters and 2 photo-reconnaissance planes) on 30 July 1958. It was soon found to be a problematic aircraft in service and required a lot of ground maintenance. In early 1957 a licence agreement was reached to allow Valmet to build the Gnat at Tampere in Finland,[22] although in the end none was built. On 31 July 1958, Finnish Air Force Major Lauri Pekuri, a fighter ace of the Second World War, broke the sound barrier for the first time in Finland at Lake Luonetjärvi while piloting a Folland Gnat.[23]

Gnat F.1 proved initially problematic in the Finnish harsh conditions. Finland was the first operational user of Gnat F.1, and the plane had still many issues yet unresolved. All Gnats were grounded for half a year on 26 August 1958 after the destruction of GN-102 due to a technical design error on hydraulic system, and the aircraft soon became the subject of severe criticism. Three other aircraft were also destroyed in other accidents, with two pilots ejecting and one being killed. Once the initial problems were ironed out, the plane proved to be extremely manouevreable and have good performance in the air, but also to be very maintenance intensive. The availability of spare parts was always an issue, and its maintenance a challenge to the conscript mechanics. The Gnats were removed from active service in 1972 when the Häme Wing moved to Rovaniemi, and when the new Saab 35 Drakens were brought into use.[8]

The Finnish Air Force serial codes for Folland Gnat were GN-100..GN-113 and its usual nickname Nutikka ("Stubby"). Several Finnish Gnat F.1s still survive either as museum pieces or memorials. One airframe, GN-113, is in private ownership.

India[edit]

The first 13 aircraft for the Indian Air Force (IAF) were assembled at Hamble-le-Rice, they were followed by partly completed aircraft and then sub-assemblies as Hindustan Aircraft slowly took over first assembly, and then production of the aircraft. The first flight of an Indian Air Force Gnat was in the United Kingdom on 11 January 1958, it was delivered to India in the hold of a C-119, and accepted by the Air Force on 30 January 1958. The first Gnat squadron was the No. 23 (Cheetah), which converted from Vampire FB.52 on 18 March 1960 using six Folland-built Gnats. The first aircraft built from Indian-built parts first flew in May 1962. The last Indian-built Gnat F.1 was delivered on 31 January 1974.

A preserved IAF Folland Gnat on display, this aircraft had been used in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

The Gnat is credited by many independent and Indian sources as having shot down seven Pakistani Canadair Sabres[b] in the 1965 war.[24][25] while two Gnats were downed by PAF fighters. During the initial phase of the 1965 war, an IAF Gnat, piloted by Squadron Leader Brij Pal Singh Sikand, mistakenly landed at an abandoned Pakistani airstrip at Pasrur and was captured by the PAF. Two Lockheed F-104 Starfighters claimed to have forced the Gnat down.[26][27] This Gnat is displayed as a war trophy in the Pakistan Air Force Museum, Karachi. After the ceasefire, one Pakistani Cessna O-1 was shot down on 16 December 1965 by a Gnat.[24]

The Gnats were used again by India in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 against Pakistan.[28][29] The most notable action was the Battle of Boyra where the first dogfights over East Pakistan (Bangladesh) took place. The Indian Air Force (IAF) Gnats downed two PAF Canadair Sabres in minutes and badly damaged one. The Pakistan Air Force claims that one Gnat was shot down, which was proved incorrect. Another notable dogfight involving a Gnat was over Srinagar airfield where a lone Indian pilot held out against six Sabres,[30] scoring hits on two of the Sabres in the process,[31][32] before being shot down. Gnat pilot Nirmal Jit Singh Sekhon was posthumously honoured with the Param Vir Chakra (India's highest gallantry award), becoming the only member of the IAF to be given the award.

By the end of 1971, the Gnat proved to be a frustrating opponent for the larger, heavier and older Sabre. The Gnat was referred to as a "Sabre Slayer" by the IAF since most of its combat "kills" during the two wars were against Sabres.[33][34] The Canadair Sabre Mk 6 was widely regarded as the best dogfighter of its era.[35] Tactics called for Gnats taking on the Sabres in the vertical arena, where the Sabres were at a disadvantage. As the Gnat was lightweight and compact in shape, it was hard to see, especially at the low levels where most dogfights took place.[25] Apart from air defence operations, they performed multiple roles in the Bangladesh Liberation War, including anti-shipping operations, ground attack, bomber/transport escort and close air support with devastating effects on the PAF.[28][29]

The IAF was impressed by the Gnat's performance in the two wars, but the aircraft had problems including hydraulics and unreliable control systems. To address these issues, the IAF issued a requirement for an improved "Gnat II" in 1972, at first specifying that the new version was to be optimized as an interceptor, but then expanding the specification to include the ground-attack role. Over 175 of the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited-built licensed version, the Ajeet ("Unconquerable"), were produced in Bangalore. Several Gnats remain in use in private hands. Some IAF Gnats, one of which had participated in the 1971 war in East Pakistan (present day Bangladesh), were presented to the Bangladesh Air Force.[36]

United Kingdom[edit]

The first production Gnat T.1s for the Royal Air Force were delivered in February 1962 to the Central Flying School at RAF Little Rissington. The major operator of the type was 4 Flying Training School at RAF Valley, the first aircraft being delivered in November 1962. In 1964 4 FTS formed the Yellowjacks aerobatic team with all-yellow painted Gnats. The team reformed in 1965 as part of the Central Flying School as the Red Arrows which operated the Gnat until 1979 as the RAF aerobatic demonstration team.[8] On 14 May 1965 the last Royal Air Force Gnat T.1 to be built was delivered to the Red Arrows.

Privately owned Gnat T.1 displaying at the 2008 Kemble Air Day

Once pilots graduated from basic training on the BAC Jet Provost and gained their wings they were selected for one of three streams: fast jet, multi-engined, or helicopter. Those selected for fast jets were posted to RAF Valley for advanced training on the Gnat T.1, typically 70 hours of flying. Students would then move on to operational training using the Hawker Hunter, followed by a posting to an operational conversion unit for the type of aircraft to be flown.

Following the introduction of the Hawker Siddeley Hawk into the training role as a replacement the Gnats were withdrawn from service.[8] The largest operator 4 FTS retired its last Gnat in November 1978. Most of the retired Gnats were delivered to No. 1 School of Technical Training at RAF Halton and other training establishments to be used as ground training airframes. When the RAF had no need for the Gnats as training airframes they were sold off. Many were bought by private operators and are still flying in 2014.

Yugoslavia[edit]

Yugoslavia ordered two Gnat F.1s for evaluation; the first aircraft flew on 7 June 1958 and both were delivered to Yugoslavia by rail. The aircraft were flown by the flight test centre but no further aircraft were ordered. One aircraft was destroyed in a crash in October 1958 while the other is preserved and on display in Serbia.

Variants[edit]

The third prototype of the Gnat T.1, XM693 at the SBAC show in 1961, showing the short nose of the early aircraft. It now guards the old Folland plant at Hamble, though painted as a Red Arrows aircraft
Folland Gnat at RAF Waterbeach, Cambridgeshire on Battle of Britain Day, 14 September 1963
Fo.140 Gnat
Private-venture prototype fighter, one built.
Fo.141 Gnat
Gnat F.1
Single seat lightweight fighter exported to Finland, India and Yugoslavia, 50 built by Folland at Hamble. This was also built in India under licence as the HAL Gnat.
Gnat FR.1
One aircraft for Finland was built with three nose-mounted 70mm Vinten cameras and designated FR.1, it was joined by a Ministry of Supply aircraft purchased by Folland and modified to the same standard. Both aircraft were delivered to Finland on 12 October 1960.
Fo.142 Gnat / Gnat F.2
This was to be an improved F.1 using a wing with a 6% thickness to chord ratio and powered by a Bristol Orpheus with simplified reheat (BOr.12SR), developing 8000 lbF (35.6 kN) thrust.[37] A prototype wing was built but not mated to a fuselage or engine. It was anticipated that this would be capable of M 1.5 and have a "marked increase in rate of climb"[38] Development was ended because Bristol declined to back development of the reheat.[39]
Fo.143 Gnat / Gnat F.4
Proposed improved F.2 with air intercept radar and ability to carry guided weapons, not built.[40]
Fo.144 Gnat Trainer / Gnat T.1
Two-seat advanced trainer aircraft for the Royal Air Force, 105 built by Hawker Siddeley.
Gnat F.5
Proposed development from January 1960, with larger wing (and flap) area. It was to be powered by two Rolls-Royce RB153 engines with reheat. The design also considered operation from aircraft carriers.[41]
Fo.146
This was a two seat design with variable geometry wings based on a combination of the Gnat Mk5 and the Gnat Trainer. It was to be powered by two Rolls-Royce RB153 engines with reheat and thrust-reversers. it was to be produced as either an advanced trainer with weapons capability or as a fighter. This, and later studies were led by Maurice Brennan.[42]
HAL Ajeet
Indian development of the Gnat F.1
HAL Ajeet Trainer
Two-seat tandem trainer version for the Indian Air Force. This version was derived from the HAL Ajeet and differed considerably from the Gnat T.1 used by the RAF.

Operators[edit]

Folland Gnat Mk.1 (GN-101) in Aviation Museum of Central Finland.
Folland Gnat with markings of SFR Yugoslav Air Force markings in Belgrade Aviation Museum.
A former Red Arrows aircraft, XR537
 Finland
 India
 United Kingdom
 Yugoslavia

Surviving aircraft[edit]

Several Gnats survive including some airworthy examples (particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom) and others on public display.

Specifications (Gnat F.1)[edit]

Folland Gnat Mk I.svg
Folland Gnat ejector seat

Data from The Great Book of Fighters[43]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

  • 2x 30mm ADEN cannons
  • 2x 500 lb (227 kg) bombs or 18x 3 in (76 mm) rockets

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • 31 July 1956 the prototype G-39-2 crashed at Stockbridge and was destroyed after structural failure caused by tailplane flutter which breaks away.[c]
  • 15 October 1958 a development F.1 XK767 fatally crashed at Stapleford in Wiltshire following presumed control failure.
  • 13 April 1966 RAF Gnat T.1 XP507 of 4FTS flew into the sea on approach to RAF Valley.
  • 23 August 1967 RAF Gnat T.1 XP512 abandoned overhead RAF Valley at 3,000 feet (910 m) following seizure of Hobson Unit in tailplane during previous roller landing. Instructor seriously injured; student pilot uninjured. Aircraft subsequently flew for about 5 minutes in large circle before crashing on Rhosneigr beach amongst bathers but inflicting no injuries on the public.
  • 26 March 1969 RAF Gnat T.1 XR573 of the CFS crashed into tree during formation display practice.
  • 20 January 1971 two RAF Gnat T.1s XR545 and XR986 of CFS collided and both crashed during practice display flying at RAF Kemble.
  • 3 September 1975 RAF Gnat T.1 XS103 of the CFS collided with an Italian Air Force Lockheed F-104 Starfighter near Leck, both aircraft landed safely but due to damage the Gnat was written off.
  • 30 April 1976 two RAF Gnat T.1s XP536 and XR983 of 4FTS collided and both crashed over North Wales.
  • 30 June 1976 RAF Gnat T.1 XM707 of the CFS was abandoned near RAF Kemble following loss of control of tailplane.
  • 29 July 2013 Gnat T.1 XS105 (N18GT) Crashed near Georgetown, SC, USA. The aircraft was destroyed.
  • 1 August 2015, Gnat T.1 XP504 (though labelled XS111) of a Gnat display team crashed at the 'CarFest North' motoring festival at Oulton Park in Cheshire, during a display at the event; no ground injuries. Pilot Kevin Whyman died in the incident.[46]

Notable appearances in media[edit]

The Gnat portrayed the fictional carrier-based "Oscar EW-5894 Fallus Tactical Fighter Bomber" flown by U.S. Navy pilots in the 1991 comedy Hot Shots!.[47]

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

The initial version of this article was based on a public domain article from Greg Goebel's Vectorsite.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ It had been moved from the Folland factory at Hamble by road earlier in the day, after a 15-minute flight the Gnat landed at Chilbolton airfield, Hampshire.
  2. ^ Licence-built North American F-86 Sabres with Canadian engines.
  3. ^ The Folland test pilot, Teddy Tennant, bailed out and descended safely, becoming first person to use the Folland/Saab ejection seat in action.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Taylor 1969, p. 365.
  2. ^ Willis 2008, p. 40.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Flight 20 August 1954, p. 228.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Flight 3 April 1953, p. 425.
  5. ^ a b Flight 3 April 1953, p. 426.
  6. ^ Flight 20 August 1954, p. 229.
  7. ^ "The Midge Accident." Flight, 7 October 1955. p. 575.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Frédriksen 2001, p. 133.
  9. ^ Willis 2008, p. 43.
  10. ^ "'Double First' For Folland Gnat", Times, London, ENG, UK: The Times Digital Archive, p. 8, 19 July 1955  .
  11. ^ a b Wood 1975, p. 197.
  12. ^ "Fighter Competition with a Worthwhile Prize". New Scientist, 2(46), 3 October 1957, p. 10. ISSN 0262-4079.
  13. ^ "Bright Future for Light Fighters." New Scientist, 4(80), 29 May 1958, p. 56. ISSN 0262-4079.
  14. ^ Willis 2008, p. 53.
  15. ^ Burnet 1982, p. 62.
  16. ^ Burnet 1982, p. 63.
  17. ^ a b c d Wood 1975, p. 198.
  18. ^ Wood 1975, pp. 198-199.
  19. ^ a b c Wood 1975, p. 199.
  20. ^ Flight 3 April 1953, pp. 425-426.
  21. ^ "The Answer to Europe's Air Defence Problem." Flight, 3 September 1954. p. 129.
  22. ^ "From all Quarters: Finland to build Gnats". Flight. 4 January 1957. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  23. ^ "Stingers Of The North: A Visit to the Gnats of the Finnish Air Force". Flight, 26 July 1962.
  24. ^ a b Rakshak, Bharat. "Indian Air Force Combat Kills, Indo Pakistan War 1965." History. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  25. ^ a b Spick 2002, p. 161.
  26. ^ Mohan, Jagan P V S; Chopra, Samir. "Chapter 3". The India-Pakistan Air War of 1965. ISBN 81-7304-641-7. Retrieved 9 January 2015. .
  27. ^ Tufail, Air Commodore M Kaiser, "Run… It's a 104", Defence Day, PK: Jang (5), p. 5 .
  28. ^ a b Pike, John. "Squadron 22 'Swifts'." Global Security. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  29. ^ a b "Folland Gnat F1." RAF Museum. Retrieved: 4 November 2010.
  30. ^ Mirza. Wg Cdr Salim Baig, PAF. "Air Battles" Bharat Rakshak. December 1971. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  31. ^ "Official Citation of the PVC to NIrmal Jit Singh Sekhon." Bharat Rakshak. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  32. ^ "Param Vir Chakra." Bharat Rakshak. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  33. ^ Bingham 2002.
  34. ^ "Three countries, One people by DS Jafa", India Today (book review), 20 September 1999, retrieved 10 March 2009 .
  35. ^ "Canadair CL-13 Sabre." RCAF. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  36. ^ "Folland/HAL Gnat." Warbirds of India. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  37. ^ "Orpheus a versatile and lightweight turbojet". Flight: 222. 13 February 1959. 
  38. ^ "Britain's Aircraft Industry 1959". Flight (124). 4 September 1959. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  39. ^ Bingham, Victor (2000). Folland Gnat Sabre Slayer and Red Arrow. J&KH Publishing. p. 105. ISBN 1 900511 78 9. 
  40. ^ Bingham, Victor (2000). Folland Gnat Sabre Slayer and Red Arrow. J&KH Publishing. p. 106. ISBN 1 900511 78 9. 
  41. ^ Bingham (2002), p. 106-108.
  42. ^ Bingham (2002), p. 114-118,143.
  43. ^ Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. The Great Book of Fighters. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1194-3.
  44. ^ "Gnat Mk 1". Flight: 800. 22 November 1957. 
  45. ^ "Folland Aircraft Ltd Gnat Mk 1date=29 August 1958". Flight: 316. 
  46. ^ Pilot Kevin Whyman killed in CarFest crash in Cheshire BBC, 1 August 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
  47. ^ "Hot Shots! (1991)." IMDB. Retrieved 7 August 2011.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bingham, Victor. Folland Gnat: Red Arrow and Sabre Slayer. Hailsham, East Sussex, UK: J&KH Publishing, 2002. ISBN 1-900511-78-9.
  • Burnet, Charles. "Folland's (G)Natty Fighters." AIR Enthusiast Twenty-four, April–July 1984. Bromley, Kent, UK: Pilot Press, 1984.
  • Chopra, Pushpindar. "Fly with a Sting." Air International, Volume 7, No. 2, August 1974.
  • "Folland Midge: The Viper Powered Precursor of the Gnat begins Flying Trials." Flight, 20 August 1954, Vol. 66, No. 2378. pp. 228–229.
  • Frédriksen, John C. International Warbirds: An Illustrated Guide to World Military Aircraft, 1914–2000. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2001. ISBN 1-57607-364-5.
  • Ross, Andrew L. The Political Economy of Defense: Issues and Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1991. ISBN 0-313-26462-7.
  • Spick, Mike. Illustrated Directory of Fighters. Osceola, WI: Zenith Press, 2002. ISBN 0-7603-1343-1.
  • Taylor, John W.R. "Folland Gnat." Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the present. New York: GP Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
  • "Thoughts on the Gnat." Flight, 3 April 1953. pp. 425–426.
  • Willis, David. "The Folland Gnat (Database)." Aeroplane, September 2008.
  • Wood, Derek. Project Cancelled. Macdonald and Jane's Publishers, 1975. ISBN 0-356-08109-5.

External links[edit]