French colonial architecture
French colonial architecture includes several styles of architecture used by the French during colonization. Many former French colonies, especially those in Southeast Asia, have previously been reluctant to promote their colonial architecture as an asset for tourism; however, in recent times, the new generation of local authorities has somewhat "embraced" the architecture and has begun to advertise it. French Colonial architecture has a long history, beginning in North America in 1604 and being most active in the Western Hemisphere (Caribbean, Guiana, Canada, Louisiana) until the 19th century, when the French turned their attention more to Africa, Asia, and the Pacific.
French settlements in Canada date back to the mid-16th century until the French defeat in Seven Years' War where New France was annexed by the British Crown in 1763 as a result of the Treaty of Paris. The settlements in the regions were extensive, hence the abundant architectural legacy from that period shows itself particularly in Quebec City but also in the city of Montreal, which has a significant Canadien population. Most buildings constructed during the French colonial period utilized a heavy timber frame of logs installed vertically on a sill, poteaux-sur-sol, or into the earth, poteaux-en-terre. An infill of lime mortar or clay mixed with small stones (pierrotage) or a mixture of mud, moss, and animal hair (bousillage) was used to pack between the logs. Many times the infill would later be replaced with brick. This method of construction was used in the Illinois Country as well as Louisiana. General characteristics of a French Colonial dwelling included a raised basement which would support the floor of the home's primary living quarters. Exterior stairs were another common element; the stairs would often climb up to a distinctive, full-length veranda or "gallery," on a home's façade. The roof over the veranda was normally part of the overall roof. French Colonial roofs were either a steep hipped roof, with a dormer or dormers, or a side-gabled roof. The veranda or gallery was often accessed via French doors. French Colonial homes in the American South commonly had stuccoed exterior walls.
Old Quebec (City) was listed as a UNESCO Heritage Site in 1985
The manoir Boucher-De Niverville, located in Trois-Rivières, in Quebec province was built in the mid-17th century
The Château Ramezay, is one of the best preserved mansion in Montreal, built in 1705.
LeBer-LeMoyne House, was an important trading post when it was built in the late 17th century. It is today in historical museum of Montreal.
Cathedral-Basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec, started in 1647, is the oldest church in the Americas north of the Spanish colonies in Florida and New Mexico.
In the United States
French Colonial was one of four domestic architectural styles that developed during the colonial period in what would become the United States. The other styles were Colonial Georgian, Dutch Colonial, and Spanish Colonial. French Colonial developed in the settlements of the Illinois Country and French Louisiana. It is believed to have been primarily influenced by the building styles of French Canada and the Caribbean. It had its beginnings in 1699 with the establishment of French Louisiana but continued to be built after Spain assumed control of the colonial territory in 1763. Styles of building that evolved during the French colonial period include the Creole cottage, Creole townhouse, and French Creole plantation house.
Ursuline Convent in New Orleans, built c. 1752. It is the oldest-surviving building from the French colonial period in New Orleans. It is an example of stuccoed brick construction.
Gabriel Peyroux House in New Orleans, built c. 1780, is an example of briquette-entre-poteaux (brick-between-post) construction.
Destrehan Plantation near Destrehan, St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, built c. 1787, portions were altered in 1840 to reflect the Greek Revival style.
Bequette-Ribault House in Ste. Geneviève, Missouri, c. 1789 is an example of poteaux-en-terre construction.
Louis Bolduc House Museum, in Ste. Geneviève, Missouri, c. 1792 is an example of poteaux-sur-sol construction.
Parlange Plantation House in Mix, Louisiana, was built c. 1754 and is an early example of French Colonial architecture in the United States.
In Southeast Asia
French colonisation of three countries in mainland Southeast Asia—Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, known as Indochina in the 19th and 20th centuries, left a lasting architectural legacy. Most French colonial buildings, now mostly transformed for public use, are located in large urban areas, namely Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam), and Phnom Penh (Cambodia).
Various colonial buildings and constructions have become popular tourist destinations. Major landmarks that have become icons of cities including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City include:
Hanoi, Presidential Palace
Hanoi, Long Biên Bridge
Hanoi, Grand Palais built for the Hanoi Exhibition 1902-1903, destroyed during WWII
Hanoi, Tonkin Palace, formerly housing the French governor of Tonkin
Hanoi Opera House modeled on the Palais Garnier in Hanoi
Hanoi, State Bank of Vietnam headquarters in art-deco style
Hanoi, National Museum of Vietnamese History, formerly the first École française d'Extrême-Orient
Hanoi, a corner of Hôtel Metropole
Hanoi, St. Joseph's Cathedral resembling Notre Dame de Paris
Hanoi, campus of Indochina Medical College and Université Indochinoise
Hanoi, a local police station in a colonial building by Hoàn Kiếm lake
Hanoi, a French villa in Ba Đình District
Hanoi, a government office (Fatherland Front HQ)
Ho Chi Minh City, Municipal Theatre
Ho Chi Minh City, Central Post Office
Ho Chi Minh City, Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica
- In Phnom Penh:
Railway station in Battambang
Building in Kampot
A typical colonial house in Luang Prabang
A French-style Arts and Crafts house in Vientiane
19th and early 20th-century French colonial architecture is typical of the European districts of most Algerian and Tunisian cities, as well as Casablanca, Morocco. In the mid-20th-century, Algiers became an important center for Modernist architecture.
Notre-Dame d'Afrique basilica, Algiers, Algeria
French colonial architecture is found in many large and mid-sized West African cities, with a particularly significant concentration in the former capital city, Saint-Louis, Senegal.
Brazzaville, the capital of Congo, and Douala, the largest city of Cameroon have many French colonial buildings.
- American colonial architecture, which states that by 1770 the briquette-entre-poteaux replaced earlier types of French Colonial construction.
- Creole cottage
- ^ About Ho Chi Minh City. eng.hochiminhcity.gov.vn.
- ^ "Architecture and Urbanism in the French Atlantic Empire | McGill-Queen's University Press". www.mqup.ca.
- ^ Bigolin, Steve. "The Landmarks of Barb City"[permanent dead link], Daily Chronicle, 28 February 2005. Retrieved 15 February 2007.
- ^ Gamble, Robert Historic architecture in Alabama: a guide to styles and types, 1810-1930, page 180. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press, 1990. ISBN 0-8173-1134-3.
- ^ "French Creole Architecture". Louisiana Division of Historic Preservation. National Park Service's National Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 2008-08-02.
- ^ "Top 10 Colonial Buildings in Phnom Penh". Going Colonial. 2018-09-12. Retrieved 2019-11-15.