Gearing-class destroyer

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Gearing-class destroyer
USS Gearing (DD-710) in the Mediterranean Sea in 1960.
USS Gearing in 1960
Class overview
Name: Gearing class
Builders:
Operators:
Preceded by: Allen M. Sumner class
Succeeded by: Mitscher class
Planned: 156
Completed: 98
Cancelled: 58
Active: 1
Laid up: 2
Retired: 98
Preserved: 7
General characteristics as originally built
Type: Destroyer
Displacement: 2,616 tons standard; 3,460 tons full load
Length: 390.5 ft (119.0 m)
Beam: 40.9 ft (12.5 m)
Draft: 14.3 ft (4.4 m)
Propulsion: 2 shaft; General Electric steam turbines; 4 boilers; 60,000 shp
Speed: 36.8 knots (68.2 km/h)
Range: 4,500 nmi (8,300 km; 5,200 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph)
Complement: 350 as designed
Armament:

The Gearing class is a group of 98 destroyers built for the U.S. Navy during and shortly after World War II. The Gearing design was a minor modification of the immediately preceding Allen M. Sumner class. The hull was lengthened 14 ft (4.3 m) amidships, creating more storage space for fuel, thus giving the ships a longer operating range than the Allen M. Sumners.

The first Gearings were not ready for service until mid-1945, so they saw relatively little wartime service. They continued serving, with a series of upgrades, until the 1970s. At that time many were sold to other nations, where they served many more years.

Ten Gearing-class ships still exist. ARM Netzahualcóyotl (ex-Steinaker), was active in the Mexican Navy until 2014. As of April 2012 two were laid up in non-operational condition in Kaohsiung, Taiwan: ROCS Chien Yang (ex-James E. Kyes) and ROCS Sheng Yang, (ex-Power). The other seven are museum ships: ROKS Kang Won, (ex-William R. Rush), near Busan, South Korea; TCG Gayret, (ex-Eversole), in Izmit, Turkey; ROKS Jeong Buk, (ex-Everett F. Larson), near Gangneung, South Korea; ROCS Te Yang, (ex-Sarsfield), in Tainan, Taiwan; USS Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. in Fall River, Massachusetts; ROKS Jeong Ju, (ex-Rogers), near Cheonan, South Korea and USS Orleck in Lake Charles, Louisiana.

Procurement and construction[edit]

31 vessels were authorised on 9 July 1942:

  • DD-710 to DD-721 awarded to Federal Shipbuilding, Kearny.
  • DD-742 to DD-743 awarded to Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine.
  • DD-763 to DD-769 awarded to Bethlehem Steel, San Francisco.
  • DD-782 to DD-791 awarded to Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle.

4 vessels were authorised on 13 May 1942:

  • DD-805 to DD-808 awarded to Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine.

3 vessels were authorised on 27 March 1943 under the Vinson–Trammell Act:

  • DD-809 to DD-811 awarded to Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine. (later cancelled)

118 vessels were authorised on 19 July 1943 under the 70% Expansion Act:

  • DD-812 awarded to Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine. (later cancelled)
  • DD-813 to DD-814 awarded to Bethlehem Steel, Staten Island. (later cancelled)
  • DD-815 to DD-825 awarded to Consolidated Steel, Orange. (815 and 816 later cancelled)
  • DD-826 to DD-850 awarded to Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine.
  • DD-851 to DD-853 awarded to Bethlehem Steel, Fore River Shipyard, Quincy.
  • DD-854 to DD-856 awarded to Bethlehem Steel, Staten Island. (later cancelled)
  • DD-858 to DD-861 awarded to Bethlehem Steel, San Pedro.
  • DD-862 to DD-872 awarded to Bethlehem Steel, Staten Island.
  • DD-873 to DD-890 awarded to Consolidated Steel, Orange.
  • DD-891 to DD-893 awarded to Federal Shipbuilding, Kearny. (later cancelled)
  • DD-894 to DD-895 awarded to Consolidated Steel, Orange. (later cancelled)
  • DD-896 to DD-904 awarded to Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine. (later cancelled)
  • DD-905 to DD-908 awarded to Boston Navy Yard. (later cancelled)
  • DD-909 to DD-916 awarded to Bethlehem Steel, Staten Island. (later cancelled)
  • DD-917 to DD-924 awarded to Consolidated Steel, Orange. (later cancelled)
  • DD-925 to DD-926 awarded to Charleston Navy Yard. (later cancelled)

(Of the missing numbers in this sequence - 722 to 741, 744 to 762, 770 to 781, and 857 were allocated to orders for Allen M. Sumner-class destroyers; 792 to 804 were awarded to orders for Fletcher-class destroyers.)

Cancelled vessels[edit]

In March 1945, the orders for 36 of the above vessels were cancelled, and 11 more orders were cancelled in August 1945. Following the close of World War II, 6 further vessels were cancelled in 1946, while another 4 (DD-927 to DD-930) were redesigned and emerged as the Mitscher class destroyer leaders:

  • Castle (DD-720) and Woodrow R. Thomson (DD-721), the last pair of the twelve vessels launched by Federal Shipbuilding at Kearny, were cancelled on 11 February 1946. They were sold on 29 August 1955 and scrapped.
  • Lansdale (DD-766) and Seymour D. Owen (DD-767), both launched by Bethlehem at San Francisco, were cancelled on 7 January 1946. Their bows were used for repair to other destroyers, and their remains were scrapped in 1958-59.
  • Hoel (DD-768) and Abner Read (ii) (DD-769), both building by Bethlehem at San Francisco, were cancelled on 12 September 1946 prior to launch and broken up on the slip.
  • Four unnamed vessels (DD-809 to DD-812) awarded to Bath Iron Works, five others (DD-813, DD-814, and DD-854 to DD-856) awarded to Bethlehem at Staten Island, and two more (DD-815 and DD-816) awarded to Consolidated Steel Corporation at Orange, were all cancelled on 12 August 1945. DD-815 would have been named Charles H. Roan (the name was re-allocated to DD-853).
  • Three more unnamed vessels (DD-891 to DD-893) awarded to Federal Shipbuilding at Kearney, were cancelled 8 March 1945.
  • Ten more unnamed vessels (DD-894, DD-895, and DD-917 to DD-924) awarded to Consolidated Steel Corporation at Orange, and four more (DD-905 to DD-908) awarded to Boston Navy Yard, and another two (DD-925 and DD-926) awarded to Charleston Navy Yard, were all cancelled on 27 March 1945.
  • Nine more unnamed vessels (DD-896 to DD-904) awarded to Bath Iron Works, and another eight (DD-909 to DD-916) awarded to Bethlehem at Staten Island, were all cancelled on 28 March 1945.

Design[edit]

The first ship was laid down in August 1944, while the last was launched in March 1946. In that time the United States produced 98 Gearing-class destroyers. The Gearing class was a seemingly minor improvement of the previous Allen M. Sumner class, which were built from 1943 until 1945. The main difference was that the Gearings were 14 feet (4.3 m) longer in the midship section, allowing for increased fuel tankage for greater range, an important consideration in Pacific War operations. More importantly in the long run, the Gearings' increased size made them much more suitable for upgrades than the Allen M. Sumners, as seen in the wartime radar picket subclass, the 1950s radar picket destroyer (DDR) and escort destroyer (DDE) conversions, and the Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization (FRAM) conversions 1960-65. As designed, the Gearings' armament was identical to that on the Allen M. Sumner class. Three twin 5-inch (127 mm)/38 caliber Mark 38 dual purpose (DP) mounts constituted the main battery. The 5-inch guns were guided by a Mark 37 Gun Fire Control System with a Mark 25 fire control radar linked by a Mark 1A Fire Control Computer stabilized by a Mark 6 8,500 rpm gyro. This fire control system provided effective long-range anti-aircraft (AA) or anti-surface fire. Twelve 40 mm guns in two quad and two twin mounts and 11 20 mm guns in single mounts were also equipped. The initial design retained the Sumners' heavy torpedo armament of 10 21" (533mm) tubes in two quintuple mounts, firing the Mark 15 torpedo. As the threat from kamikaze aircraft mounted in 1945, and with few remaining Japanese warships to use torpedoes on, most of the class had the after quintuple 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tube mount replaced by an additional 40 mm quadruple mount (prior to completion on later ships) for 16 total 40 mm guns. 26 ships (DD-742-745, 805-808, 829-835, and 873-883) were ordered without torpedo tubes to allow for radar picket equipment; these were redesignated as DDRs in 1948.[1][2][3][4]

1946-59 upgrades[edit]

Chart showing the development of the Gearing class.

Following World War II most of the class had their AA and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) armament upgraded. The 40 mm and 20 mm guns were replaced by 2-6 3-inch (76 mm)/50 caliber guns in up to two twin and one single mounting. One depth charge rack was removed and two Hedgehog ASW mortar mounts added. The K-guns were retained. Nine additional (for a total of 35) ships were converted to radar picket destroyers (DDR) in the early 1950s; these typically received only one 3-inch/50 caliber twin mount to save weight for radar equipment, as did the wartime radar pickets. Nine ships were converted to escort destroyers (DDE), emphasizing ASW. Carpenter was the most thorough DDE conversion, with 4 3-inch/70 caliber guns in twin enclosed mounts, two Weapon Alpha launchers, four new 21-inch torpedo tubes for the Mark 37 ASW torpedo, and one depth charge rack.[5]

FRAM I upgrade[edit]

Sarsfield (top) as delivered and Rowan (bottom) after FRAM I.

In the late 1950s and early 1960s 78 of the Gearing-class destroyers underwent extensive modernization overhauls, known as FRAM I, which were designed to convert them from an anti-aircraft destroyer to an anti-submarine warfare platform. FRAM I removed all of the DDR and DDE equipment, and these ships were redesignated as DDs. FRAM I and FRAM II conversions were completed 1960-65. Eventually all but four Gearings received FRAM conversions.[6]

The FRAM I program was an extensive conversion for the Gearing-class destroyers. This upgrade included rebuilding the ship's superstructure, electronic systems, radar, sonar, and weapons. The second twin 5" gun mount and all previous AA guns and ASW equipment were removed. (On several ships the two forward 5-inch mounts remained and the aft 5-inch mount was removed.) Upgraded systems included SQS-23 sonar, SPS-10 surface search radar, two triple Mark 32 torpedo tubes, an 8-cell Anti-Submarine Rocket (ASROC) box launcher, and one QH-50C DASH ASW drone helicopter, with its own landing pad and hangar. Both the Mk 32 torpedo tubes and ASROC launched Mk 44 homing ASW torpedoes. ASROC could also launch a nuclear depth charge. On 11 May 1962, Agerholm tested a live nuclear ASROC in the "Swordfish" test.[7][8][9]

In Navy slang, the modified destroyers were called "FRAM cans", "can" being a contraction of "tin can", the slang term for a destroyer or destroyer escort.[citation needed]

The Gyrodyne QH-50C DASH was an unmanned anti-submarine helicopter, controlled remotely from the ship. The drone could carry two Mk.44 homing ASW torpedoes. During this era the ASROC system had an effective range of only 5 nautical miles (9.3 km; 5.8 mi), but the DASH drone allowed the ship to deploy ASW attack to sonar contacts as far as 22 nautical miles (41 km; 25 mi) away.[10]

An upgraded version of DASH, QH-50D, remained in use by the United States Army until May 2006.[11]

FRAM II upgrade[edit]

Norris after FRAM II.

The FRAM II program was designed primarily for the Sumner-class destroyers, but sixteen Gearings were upgraded as well. This upgrade program included life-extension refurbishment, a new radar system, Mark 32 torpedo tubes, DASH ASW drone, and variable depth sonar (VDS). Importantly, it did not include ASROC. FRAM II ships included six DDRs and six DDEs that retained their specialized equipment (1960–61), as well as four DDRs that were converted to DDs and were nearly identical to the Allen M. Sumner-class FRAM IIs (1962–63). The FRAM II ships retained all six 5-inch guns, except the DDEs retained four 5-inch guns and a trainable Hedgehog in the No. 2 position. All FRAM IIs retained two Hedgehogs alongside either the No. 2 5-inch mount or the trainable Hedgehog mount. The four DDRs converted to DDs were armed with two new 21-inch torpedo tubes for the Mark 37 ASW homing torpedo. Photographs of the six retained DDRs show no markings on the DASH landing deck, as well as a much smaller deckhouse than was usually provided for DASH, so they may not have been equipped with DASH.

Service and disposition[edit]

Many of the Gearings provided significant gunfire support in the Vietnam War. They also served as escorts for Carrier Battle Groups (carrier strike groups from 2004) and Amphibious Ready Groups (Expeditionary Strike Groups from 2006). DASH was withdrawn from ASW service in 1969 due to poor reliability. Lacking ASROC, the FRAM II ships were disposed of in 1969-74. With ASROC continuing to provide a standoff ASW capability, the Gearing FRAM Is were retained in service for several years, with most being decommissioned and transferred to foreign navies 1973-80. They were replaced as ASW ships by the Spruance-class destroyers, which were commissioned 1975-83. These had the same ASW armament as a Gearing FRAM destroyer, with the addition of improved sonar and a piloted helicopter, initially the Kaman SH-2 Seasprite and from 1984 the Sikorsky SH-60 Seahawk. Some Gearings served in the Naval Reserve Force (NRF) from 1973, remaining in commission with a partial active crew to provide training for Naval reservists. The last Gearing-class destroyer in US naval service was William C. Lawe, a FRAM I, decommissioned and struck 1 October 1983 and expended as a target 14 July 1999.[12]

Yang class[edit]

The Taiwanese destroyer Liao Yang in 1993 (ex Hanson).

After the Gearing-class ships were retired from USN service, many were sold abroad, including over a dozen to the Republic of China Navy (ROCN) in Taiwan. These ships, along with Fletcher and Allen M. Sumner-class destroyers also acquired then, were upgraded under the Wu Chin (Chinese: 武進) I, II, and III programs and known throughout the ROCN as the Yang-class (Chinese: 陽字號) destroyers as they were assigned names that all end with the word "Yang". The last batch of 7 WC-III program vessels, all of them Gearing class, were retired in early 2000s.[13]

Under the most advanced Wu Chin III upgrade program, all World War II vintage weapons were removed and replaced with four Hsiung Feng II surface-to-surface missiles, ten SM-1 (box launchers), one 8-cell ASROC, one Otobreda 76 mm (3 in) gun, two Bofors 40 mm (1.6 in)/70 AA, one 20 mm Phalanx CIWS and two triple 12.75 in (324 mm) torpedo tubes. The DASH ASW drones were not acquired, but hangar facilities aboard those ships that had them were later used to accommodate ASW versions of MD 500 Defender helicopters.

After the Yang-class destroyers were decommissioned, the SM-1 launch boxes were moved to Chi Yang-class frigates to improve their anti-air capability.

Ships in class[edit]

Ship name Hull no. Builder Laid down Commissioned Decommissioned
Gearing DD-710 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 10 August 1944 3 May 1945 2 July 1973
Eugene A. Greene DD-711 17 August 1944 8 June 1945 31 August 1972
Gyatt DD-712 15 April 1945 2 July 1945 22 October 1969
Kenneth D. Bailey DD-713 21 September 1944 31 July 1945 20 January 1970
William R. Rush DD-714 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Newark, New Jersey 19 October 1944 21 September 1945 1 July 1978
William M. Wood DD-715 2 November 1944 24 November 1945 1 December 1976
Wiltsie DD-716 13 March 1945 12 January 1946 23 January 1976
Theodore E. Chandler DD-717 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 23 April 1945 22 March 1946 1 April 1975
Hamner DD-718 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Newark, New Jersey 25 April 1945 12 July 1946 1 October 1979
Epperson DD-719 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey 20 June 1945 19 March 1949 1 December 1975
Frank Knox DD-742 Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine 8 May 1944 11 December 1944 30 January 1971
Southerland DD-743 27 May 1944 22 December 1944 26 February 1981
William C. Lawe DD-763 Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, San Francisco, California 12 March 1944 18 December 1946 1 October 1983
Lloyd Thomas DD-764 26 March 1944 21 March 1947 12 October 1972
Keppler DD-765 23 April 1944 23 May 1947 1 July 1972
Rowan DD-782 Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle, Washington 25 March 1944 31 March 1945 18 December 1975
Gurke DD-783 1 July 1944 12 May 1945 30 January 1976
McKean DD-784 15 September 1944 9 June 1945 1 October 1981
Henderson DD-785 27 October 1944 4 August 1945 30 September 1980
Richard B. Anderson DD-786 1 December 1944 26 October 1945 20 December 1975
James E. Kyes DD-787 27 December 1944 8 February 1946 31 March 1973
Hollister DD-788 18 January 1945 29 March 1946 31 August 1979
Eversole DD-789 28 February 1945 10 May 1946 11 July 1973
Shelton DD-790 31 May 1945 21 June 1946 31 March 1973
Chevalier DD-805 Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine 12 June 1944 9 January 1945 5 July 1972
Higbee DD-806 26 June 1944 27 January 1945 15 July 1979
Benner DD-807 10 July 1944 13 February 1945 20 November 1970
Dennis J. Buckley DD-808 24 July 1944 2 March 1945 2 July 1973
Corry DD-817 Consolidated Steel Corporation, Orange, Texas 5 April 1945 27 February 1946 27 February 1981
New DD-818 14 April 1945 5 April 1946 1 July 1976
Holder DD-819 23 April 1945 18 May 1946 1 October 1976
Rich DD-820 16 May 1945 3 July 1946 10 November 1977
Johnston DD-821 26 March 1945 23 August 1946 27 February 1981
Robert H. McCard DD-822 20 June 1945 23 October 1946 5 June 1980
Samuel B. Roberts DD-823 27 June 1945 22 December 1946 2 November 1970
Basilone DD-824 7 July 1945 26 July 1949 1 November 1977
Carpenter DD-825 30 July 1945 15 December 1949 20 February 1981
Agerholm DD-826 Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine 10 September 1945 20 June 1946 1 December 1978
Robert A. Owens DD-827 29 October 1945 5 November 1949 16 February 1982
Timmerman DD-828 1 October 1945 26 September 1952 27 July 1956
Myles C. Fox DD-829 14 August 1944 20 March 1945 1 October 1979
Everett F. Larson DD-830 4 September 1944 6 April 1945 30 October 1972
Goodrich DD-831 18 September 1944 24 April 1945 30 November 1969
Hanson DD-832 7 October 1944 11 May 1945 31 March 1973
Herbert J. Thomas DD-833 30 October 1944 29 May 1945 4 December 1970
Turner DD-834 13 November 1944 12 June 1945 26 September 1969
Charles P. Cecil DD-835 2 December 1944 29 June 1945 1 October 1979
George K. MacKenzie DD-836 21 December 1944 13 July 1945 30 September 1976
Sarsfield DD-837 15 January 1945 31 July 1945 1 October 1977
Ernest G. Small DD-838 30 January 1945 21 August 1945 13 November 1970
Power DD-839 26 February 1945 13 September 1945 1 October 1977
Glennon DD-840 12 March 1945 4 October 1945 1 October 1976
Noa DD-841 26 March 1945 2 November 1945 31 October 1973
Fiske DD-842 9 April 1945 28 November 1945 5 June 1980
Warrington DD-843 23 April 1945 20 December 1945 30 September 1972
Perry DD-844 14 May 1945 17 January 1946 1 July 1973
Bausell DD-845 28 May 1945 7 February 1946 30 May 1978
Ozbourn DD-846 16 June 1945 5 March 1946 30 May 1975
Robert L. Wilson DD-847 2 July 1945 28 March 1946 30 September 1974
Witek DD-848 16 July 1945 23 April 1946 19 August 1968
Richard E. Kraus DD-849 31 July 1945 23 May 1946 1 July 1976
Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. DD-850 Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, Fore River Shipyard, Quincy, Massachusetts 2 April 1945 15 December 1945 2 July 1973
Rupertus DD-851 2 May 1945 8 March 1946 10 July 1973
Leonard F. Mason DD-852 2 May 1945 28 June 1946 2 November 1976
Charles H. Roan DD-853 2 April 1945 12 September 1946 21 September 1973
Fred T. Berry DD-858 Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, San Pedro, California 16 July 1944 12 May 1945 15 September 1970
Norris DD-859 29 August 1944 9 June 1945 4 December 1970
McCaffery DD-860 1 October 1944 26 July 1945 30 September 1973
Harwood DD-861 29 October 1944 28 September 1945 1 February 1971
Vogelgesang DD-862 Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Staten Island, New York 3 August 1944 28 April 1945 24 February 1982
Steinaker DD-863 1 September 1944 26 May 1945 24 February 1982
Harold J. Ellison DD-864 3 October 1944 23 June 1945 1 October 1983
Charles R. Ware DD-865 1 November 1944 21 July 1945 30 November 1974
Cone DD-866 30 November 1944 18 August 1945 1 October 1982
Stribling DD-867 15 January 1945 29 September 1945 1 July 1976
Brownson DD-868 13 February 1945 17 November 1945 30 September 1976
Arnold J. Isbell DD-869 14 March 1945 5 January 1946 4 December 1973
Fechteler DD-870 12 April 1945 2 March 1946 11 September 1970
Damato DD-871 10 May 1945 27 April 1946 30 September 1980
Forrest Royal DD-872 8 June 1945 29 June 1946 27 March 1971
Hawkins DD-873 Consolidated Steel Corporation, Orange, Texas 14 May 1944 10 February 1945 1 October 1979
Duncan DD-874 22 May 1944 25 February 1945 15 January 1971
Henry W. Tucker DD-875 29 May 1944 12 March 1945 3 December 1973
Rogers DD-876 3 June 1944 26 March 1945 1 October 1980
Perkins DD-877 19 June 1944 4 April 1945 15 January 1973
Vesole DD-878 3 July 1944 23 April 1945 1 December 1976
Leary DD-879 11 August 1944 7 May 1945 31 October 1973
Dyess DD-880 17 August 1944 21 May 1945 27 January 1981
Bordelon DD-881 9 September 1944 5 June 1945 1 February 1977
Furse DD-882 23 September 1944 10 July 1945 31 August 1972
Newman K. Perry DD-883 10 October 1944 26 July 1945 27 February 1981
Floyd B. Parks DD-884 30 October 1944 31 July 1945 2 July 1973
John R. Craig DD-885 17 November 1944 20 August 1945 27 July 1979
Orleck DD-886 28 November 1944 15 September 1945 1 October 1982
Brinkley Bass DD-887 20 December 1944 1 October 1945 3 December 1973
Stickell DD-888 5 January 1945 31 October 1945 1 July 1972
O'Hare DD-889 27 January 1945 29 November 1945 31 October 1973
Meredith DD-890 27 January 1945 31 December 1945 29 June 1979

References[edit]

  1. ^ ."The Sumner Class As Built Retrieved 25 August 2009."
  2. ^ Friedman, Norman US Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History (Revised Edition), pp. 129-131, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis:2004, ISBN 1-55750-442-3.
  3. ^ Silverstone, Paul H. "U.S. Warships of World War II", Ian Allan Ltd., London:1965.
  4. ^ Gardiner, Robert and Chesneau, Roger, Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922-1946, pp. 133-134, Conway Maritime Press, London:1980, ISBN 0-83170-303-2.
  5. ^ Friedman, p. 510-513.
  6. ^ Gardiner and Chumbley, pp. 562-563
  7. ^ "FRAM". Gyrodynehelicopters.com. 1962-09-01. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  8. ^ Gardiner, Robert and Chumbley, Stephen, Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947-1995, pp. 562-563, 594, Conway Maritime Press, London:1995, ISBN 1-55750-132-7.
  9. ^ Bauer, K. Jack; Roberts, Stephen S. (1991). Register of Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1775-1990: Major Combatants. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 201–206. ISBN 0-313-26202-0. 
  10. ^ "QH-50C". Gyrodynehelicopters.com. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  11. ^ "Gyrodyne Today". Gyrodynehelicopters.com. 2006-05-09. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  12. ^ Friedman
  13. ^ John Pike. "Chao Yang-class [Gearing] Destroyer - Republic of China [Taiwan] Navy". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 

External links[edit]