Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq
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|Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq|
|Reign||8 September 1321 – February 1325|
|Coronation||8 September 1321|
|Successor||Muhammad bin Tughluq|
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, or Ghazi Malik (Ghazi means 'fighter for Islam'), (died c. 1325) was the founder of the Turkic Tughluq dynasty in India, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1320 to 1325. He founded the city of Tughluqabad. His reign was cut short after 5 years when he died under mysterious circumstances in 1325. He was succeeded by Muhammad bin Tughluq
Beginning of the reign
Ghiya-su-din thugluq was a "man of humble origin", the son of a Qaraunah Turk, but became a provincial governor of Dipalpur under the Khiljis. Alauddin Khilji had prepared an expedition of 10,000 men under Ghazi to go to Depalpur to fight against the Chagatai Khanate Mongols. Ghazi secured Multan, Uch and Sindh at a time when Khilji died and Aláuddín Khilji’s sons proved incapable and caused confusion in the affairs of the kingdom. Alauddin Khilji’s son Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah was removed from the throne of Delhi by Khusro Khan. But he was unpopular with the Muslim nobles due to perceived liberality towards Hindus. Ghazi Malik and his son Fakhr Malik collected the forces of Sindh and Multan and overthrew Khusro Khan. In 1320, Ghazi Malik was crowned as the Sultan of Delhi with the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq and his son Fakhr Malik was given the title of Muhammad Shah Tughluq.
He founded the Tughluq dynasty and reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1320 to 1325. Ghiyas's policy was harsh against Mongols. He had killed envoys of the Ilkhan Oljeitu and punished Mongol prisoners harshly. He had fought various campaigns against the Mongols defeating them in 1305 at the Battle of Amroha. When Ghiyath Tughluq proceeded from Multan to Delhi, the tribe of Soomro revolted and took possession of Thatta. Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq appointed Tajuddin Malik as governor of Multan and Khwájah Khatír as governor of Bhakkar and he left Malik Ali Sher in charge of Sehwan. In 1323 he appointed his son Muhammad Shah as his heir and successor and took a written promise or agreement to the arrangement from the ministers and nobles of the state.
In 1324, Tughlaq turned his attention towards Bengal, currently in the midst of a civil war. After victory, he placed Nasiruddon on the throne of West Bengal as a vassal state, and East Bengal was annexed. On his way back to Delhi, he conquered Tirhut (north Bihar). At Afghanpur in February 1325, the wooden pavilion used for his reception collapsed, killing him and his second son Prince Mahmud Khan. Ibn Battuta claimed it was a conspiracy, hatched by his heir apparent, Jauna Khan.
- Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 89–92. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
- Peter Jackson, The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 330.
- Tughlaq Shahi Kings of Delhi: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..
- Atlas of World History, General Editor Prof. Jeremy Black, Dorling Kindersley
- Futuh-us-Salatin by Isami, edited by Agha Mahdi Husain and was also published from Aligarh in three volumes (1967-77 ce)
- A Critical Study of Futuh-us-Salatin by Aziz Bano, Head of the Persian Department, Moulana Azad National Urdu University, Hyderabad, India
- Lucy Peck. Delhi - A thousand years of building, Roli Books, ISBN 81-7436-354-8
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|Sultan of Delhi
Muhammad bin Tughluq
|New dynasty||Tughluq dynasty