Golden Temple Mail

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Golden Temple Mail
12903 Frontier Mail (2).jpg
Service type Superfast
First service 1 September 1928
Current operator(s) Western Railways
Start Mumbai Central
Stops 34 as 12903 Golden Temple Mail, 35 as 12904 Golden Temple Mail
End Amritsar
Distance travelled 1,891 km (1,175 mi)
Average journey time 32 hours 15 minutes as 12903 Golden Temple Mail, 31 hours 55 minutes as 12904 Golden Temple Mail
Service frequency daily
Train number(s) 12903 / 12904
On-board services
Class(es) AC 1st Class, AC 2 tier, AC 3 tier, Sleeper Class, General Unreserved
Seating arrangements Yes
Sleeping arrangements Yes
Catering facilities Available, Pantry Car attached
Observation facilities No rake sharing but maintains 4 separate rakes for service
Rolling stock Standard Indian Railway coaches
Track gauge 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in)
Operating speed 110 km/h (68 mph) maximum
58.94 km/h (37 mph), including halts
Route map
Golden Temple Mail Express (Amritsar - Mumbai) Route map.jpg

The 12903/12904 Golden Temple Mail is a Superfast express train belonging to Indian Railways that runs daily between Mumbai Central and Amritsar in Punjab. The train ran as the Frontier Mail between 1928 and 1996, ferrying passengers arriving by Steamer from Europe directly from Ballard Pier in Bombay to the city of Peshawar on India's North-West Frontier before the Partition of India.[1]

It operates as train number 12903 from Mumbai Central to Amritsar Junction and as train number 12904 in the reverse direction.


The 12903/04 Golden Temple Mail has 1 first AC cum second ac, 2 AC 2 tier, 5 AC 3 tier, 9 Sleeper Class, 2 General unreserved coaches, 2 General cum baggage coaches. It also has 1 Railway Mail service coach and 1 Pantry Car & 1 HCPV.

It has a total 24 Coaches.

As with most train services in India, Coach composition may be amended at the discretion of Indian Railways depending on demand.


The Golden Temple Mail runs between Mumbai Central and Amritsar Junction. It is a daily service covering the distance of 1891 km in 32 hours 15 mins as 12903 Golden Temple Mail averaging 58.64 km/hr & 31 hours 55 mins as 12904 Golden Temple Mail averaging 59.25 km/hr.


Earlier Dual traction WCAM 2/2P locos would haul the train between Mumbai Central and Vadodara after which a Vadodara based WAP 4 would take over until Hazrat Nizamuddin following which a WDM 3A from Tughlakabad takes over until Amritsar Junction.

Since Western Railways completed DC Electric Conversion to AC on 5 February 2012, it is now regularly hauled by a Vadodara based WAP 4 to Amritsar Junction.


The 12903 / 04 Mumbai Central Amritsar Golden Temple Mail runs from Mumbai Central via Surat, Vadodara Junction, Ratlam Junction, Kota Junction, Gangapur City, Mathura Junction, Hazrat Nizamuddin,Meerut City Junction, Ghaziabad, Saharanpur, Ambala Cantonment Junction, Ludhiana Junction to Amritsar Junction

Train history[edit]

  • The Golden Temple Mail was until September 1996 known as Frontier Mail.
  • Prior the Partition of India, it would run up to Peshawar on British India's frontier with Afghanistan from which it derived its name.
  • During the autumn months between September and December, the train used to depart from the Ballard Pier Mole station. This was for the convenience of the British who arrived in India by steamer.
  • The Frontier Mail also finds a place in romanticized biographies of film actor Prithviraj Kapoor who is believed to have travelled to Bombay from his hometown of Peshawar by the Frontier Mail in 1928 to act in films.
  • Hunterwali, probably India's first action heroine, has acted in the film Miss Frontier Mail.
  • The Frontier Mail was the first air conditioned train in the Indian Peninsula, when it got an air-conditioned compartment in 1934.
  • The radio facility was provided for the first time in the Golden Temple Mail.

Time table[edit]

12903 Golden Temple Mail leaves Mumbai Central every day at 21:30 hrs IST and reaches the Amritsar Junction at 05:45 hrs IST the third day.

On return, the 12904 Golden Temple Mail leaves Amritsar Junction every day at 21:25 hrs IST and reaches Mumbai Central at 05:20 hrs IST the third day.


External links[edit]