Groom of the Chamber

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Groom of the Chamber was a position in the Household of the monarch in early modern England. Other Ancien Régime royal establishments in Europe had comparable officers, often with similar titles. In France, the Duchy of Burgundy, and in England while French was still the language of the court, the title was varlet or valet de chambre. In German, Danish and Russian the term was "Kammerjunker" and in Swedish the similar "Kammarjunkare".

In England after the Restoration, appointments in the King's Household included Groom of the Great Chamber, Groom of the Privy Chamber and Groom of the Bedchamber.[1] The first two positions were appointed by Lord Chamberlain's warrant; the third, of greater importance, was a Crown appointment.

Medieval and early-modern England[edit]

Traditionally, the English Court was organized into three branches or departments:

  1. the Household, primarily concerned with fiscal more than domestic matters, the "royal purse;"
  2. the Chamber, concerned with the Presence Chamber, the Privy chamber, and other more public rooms of the royal palaces, as the Bedchamber was concerned with the innermost.
  3. the Bedchamber, focused on the most direct and intimate aspects of the lives of the royal family, with its own offices, like the Groom of the Body and the Squire of the Body;

The Chamber organization was controlled by the Lord Chamberlain; if he was the general of a small army of servitors, the Grooms of the Chamber were his junior officers, with ushers and footmen the footsoldiers. The Grooms wore the royal livery (in earlier periods), served as general attendants, and fulfilled a wide range of specific functions. (One Groom of the Chamber had the job of handing the "King's Stuff" to a Squire of the Body, who would then dress the King.) Grooms ranked below Gentlemen of the Chamber, usually important noblemen, but above Yeomen of the Chamber. They were mostly well-born, on a first rung of a courtier's career. The office of Groom of the Chamber could also be bestowed in a more honorific manner, upon people who served the royal household in some less direct way; the early Tudor poet Stephen Hawes became a Groom of the Chamber in 1502, under Henry VII.[2]

Under James I, the Bedchamber was established as a semi-autonomous department (overseen by the Groom of the Stole) with its own hierarchy of Gentlemen, Grooms and Yeomen, which usurped those of the Privy Chamber in terms of their influence with and closeness to the King.[3] (The old Bedchamber office of Esquire to the Body was finally abolished in 1702).[3]

Grooms Extraordinary

In the reigns of the early monarchs of the House of Stuart, James I and Charles I, the actors of the King's Men, the playing company under royal patronage, were officially "Grooms extraordinary of the Chamber". They did not usually fulfill the normal functions of the office; rather, they served the King by performing plays for him. Although on busy occasions, the King's Men appear to have acted as more ordinary servants: in August 1604 they were "waiting and attending" upon the Spanish ambassador at Somerset House, "on his Majesty's service" — but no plays were performed.)[4] They were also turned out to bulk up the Household for grand ceremonial occasions. A similar arrangement held for some of Queen Anne's Men, including their playwright Thomas Heywood; they became Grooms of the Queen's Chamber, under the Queen's Chamberlain.[5] On some occasions, Shakespeare[citation needed], Heywood, and their compatriots wore the royal livery, marched in processions, and played other roles in the ceremonial life of the monarchy.[citation needed] (Grooms could not be arrested for debt without the permission of the Lord Chamberlain — a big advantage for sometimes-struggling actors.) In at least two cases, those of George Bryan (Lord Chamberlain's Men) and John Singer (Queen Elizabeth's Men; Admiral's Men), professional actors became "normal" Grooms of the Chamber, with the normal duties, after retiring from the stage.

List of Grooms of the Chamber[edit]

Elizabeth I (1558–1603)[7]
James I (1603–1625)

Charles I (1625–1649)

List of Grooms of the Bedchamber[edit]

James I (1603–1625)

Charles I (1625–1649)

Commonwealth (1649–1660)

No Grooms of the Bedchamber appointed

Post-Restoration England and Great Britain[edit]

Fourteen Grooms of the Great Chamber were appointed under Charles II (later reduced to ten); they served as internal court messengers and were in attendance in the guard room.[28]

The Grooms of the Privy Chamber were six in number (reduced to two under James I); initially responsible for manning the doors to the Privy Chamber, by 1720 the office largely lost its function, but attendance was still required for Coronations and other 'extraordinary Occasions'.[29]

There were usually a dozen or so Grooms of the Bedchamber appointed (though under different monarchs the number varied from as many as fifteen or as few as eight), two of whom were on duty at any one time. They served for a week at a time in rotation and were responsible for attending the King in the Chamber when he dressed, and at Dinner when he dined privately (taking food and wine from the servants to give it to the Lords, who would serve The King).[30] They would also deputise for the Lords of the Bedchamber if required to do so. Grooms of the Bedchamber were close to the King and were occasionally sent overseas as special envoys to negotiate royal marriages and such. During the exile of James II a court was maintained by that king in France and certain of his grooms joined him there. Similarly, during the last years of the reign of King George III, when he withdrew from public life in consequence of his poor mental health, several of his grooms followed him to Windsor Castle, whilst others remained in London to serve the Prince Regent, later to become King George IV. When the Monarch was a Queen, the positions of Groom of the Bedchamber were not filled (though Prince Albert, consort to Queen Victoria, did appoint his own Grooms of the Bedchamber).[31]

List of Grooms of the Privy Chamber[edit]

Charles II (1660–1685)

Date
6 June 1660 Maurice Wynn James Elliott Robert Thompson
7 June 1660 Adam Hill
10 June 1660 Adrian May
12 June 1660 James Progers
17 May 1661 Roger Burgess
27 January 1669 Thomas Ross
30 April 1670 Arthur Ingram
15 May 1671 Thomas Cooke
15 May 1672 Paul French
17 May 1673 John Lowther
25 June 1673 Christopher Jeffreys
8 July 1676 John Bellingham
18 December 1676 Humphrey Graves
11 October 1677 Richard Binns
20 May 1678 Yelverton Peyton
23 October 1680 Edward Lloyd
20 August 1683 John Radcliffe

James II 1685–1688

Date
February 1685 Robert Thompson Christopher Jeffreys

William III 1689–1702

Date
February 1689 Robert Thompson Christopher Jeffreys
28 March 1689 Thomas Duppa Humphrey Graves
12 January 1694 David Carbonell
29 July 1695 William Wallis
30 November 1695 William Whitmore
22 December 1699 Robert Barkham
19 May 1700 Robert Wallis
25 October 1701 Cornelius Tilburgh

1702–1901

Date
9 July 1702 John Bonning Robert Hemmington
26 March 1711 Cornelius Tilburgh
28 May 1715 Joseph Ashley
3 February 1719 James Trymmer
12 August 1719 Edward Parsons
25 November 1720 John Parsons
10 December 1728 Langham Edwards
11 May 1729 Wentworth Odiarne
2 June 1740 Charles Collins
7 June 1745 Edward Capell
24 February 1750 Charles Husband Collins
3 June 1762 Strelley Pegge
8 October 1762 Samuel Pegge
5 July 1774 John Larpent
6 July 1774 Thomas Collins
24 October 1778 William Fordyce
24 February 1781 James Trail
18 November 1781 James Hawkins
7 March 1785 Hale Young Wortham
March 1788 Richard Byron
5 February 1794 Edmund Armstrong
19 October 1797 Robert Chester
29 July 1798 James Meller
1799 James Whitshed
23 May 1800 John Hunter
18 May 1802 William Chapman Fowle
19 August 1808 Frederick Chapman
3 June 1812 William Fenton Scott
6 July 1814 Robert Powell
12 August 1818 William Beresford
12 December 1823 Charles Dashwood
21 April 1832 Courtenay Edmund William Boyle
23 April 1833 Thomas Shiffner
6 May 1836 Arthur Johnstone Blackwood
1 November 1839 Stewart Henry Paget[32]
24 February 1840 Thomas Noel Harris[33]
1 March 1852 Hon. Mortimer Sackville-West[34]
13 July 1852 Samuel Randall[35]
16 February 1859 John Home Purves[36]
31 March 1860 John Francis Campbell, of Islay[37]
2 October 1862 Edward Stopford Claremont[38]
3 July 1867 Hon. Roden Berkeley Wriothesley Noel[39]
14 January 1871 Hon. Charles George Cornwallis Eliot[40]
8 January 1874 James Bontein[41]
16 February 1874 Nathaniel George Philips[42]
24 October 1884 Arnold Royle[43]
25 July 1890 Malcolm Drummond, of Megginch[44]
1 October 1893 Hon. Otway Frederick Seymour Cuffe[45]
14 November 1899 Sir Francis Knollys

List of Grooms of the Bedchamber[edit]

Charles II (1660–1685)

Date of appointment
1 Feb 1661 John Ashburnham Daniel O'Neill Henry Seymour
2 Feb 1661 Thomas Elliot Thomas Killigrew Richard Lane Robert Phillips Silius Titus David Walter
3 Feb 1661 Edward Proger
6 Feb 1661 William Legge
1 Jan 1662 Hon. Henry Coventry
28 Oct 1664 James Hamilton
1 Oct 1670 Sidney Godolphin
16 Jun 1671 Thomas Felton
21 Jun 1672 Bernard Granville
7 Jun 1673 Henry Savile
8 Jul 1675 Henry Guy
Aug 1677 George Porter
18 Jul 1678 George Rodney Bridges
Apr 1679 Thomas Wyndham
16 May 1679 Thomas Lee
26 Nov 1679 Thomas Neale
Mar 1683 Bevil Skelton
15 May 1683 Francis Gwyn
19 Dec 1683 Henry Killigrew

James II (1685–1688)

Date of appointment
2 May 1685 James Fortrey Oliver Nicholas Henry Slingsby Hon. Heneage Finch Richard Leveson Hon. James Griffin Francis Russell David Lloyd
1686 James Porter
9 Mar 1687 Richard Bagot

William III (1689–1702)

Date of appointment
6 Jun 1689 Percy Kirke Hatton Compton Charles Trelawny Emanuel Scrope Howe John Sayers Adrian van Borselen Hon. James Stanley
Mar 1690 Arnold Joost van Keppel
29 Apr 1691 Hon. Thomas Windsor
Jan 1692 Hon. George Cholmondeley
6 May 1695 Thomas Wentworth

Anne (1702–1714) No Grooms of the Bedchamber appointed

George I (1714–1727)

Date of appointment
20 Sep 1714 Hon. William Kerr James Tyrrell
16 Oct 1714 James Dormer Hon. Charles Howard William Breton George Feilding
21 Oct 1714 Henry Cornewall Philip Honywood
15 Jun 1715 Sir Gustavus Hume
13 May 1719 Hon. William Finch
11 Jun 1720 Sir Wilfrid Lawson
10 Aug 1721 Hon. Charles Cornwallis
24 Jun 1722
25 May 1723 Hon. Robert Sawyer Herbert

George II (1727–1760)

Date of appointment
21 Aug 1727 Sir Robert Rich
14 Sep 1727 Thomas Paget Hon. Charles Lumley John Selwyn Charles Churchill Hon. Charles Cathcart John Campbell Hon. Sir James Campbell Sir Charles Hotham
7 May 1731 John Clavering
7 May 1733 Hon. James Brudenell
22 Apr 1740 Hon. William Herbert
14 Jul 1742 Hon. Edward Finch
20 Jan 1746 John Mostyn
22 Jan 1747 Hon. Edward Cornwallis Hon. John Waldegrave, 3rd Earl Waldegrave
5 Apr 1757 Hon. Henry Seymour Conway
4 Jun 1757 John Offley
16 Jan 1760 Charles FitzRoy
19 Jan 1760 Hon. Richard Savage Nassau

George III (1760–1820)

Date of appointment
27 Nov 1760 John Mostyn Hon. John Waldegrave John Offley Charles FitzRoy George Schutz Sir James Peachey Edmund Nugent Sir William Breton Hon. Edward Cornwallis Hon. Henry Seymour Conway
10 Dec 1760 Spencer Compton
11 Dec 1760 George Pitt Norborne Berkeley William Northey
17 Feb 1761 Hon. Augustus Keppel
10 Oct 1762
21 Dec 1762 Sir James Wright
19 Jan 1763 Sir John Mordaunt
16 Feb 1763 Henry Seymour
5 May 1763 Sir Charles Hotham-Thompson
5 Nov 1763 Hon. Augustus John Hervey
April 1764 *
24 Aug 1765 Hon. Henry Wallop
3 Dec 1766 Hon. William Harcourt
23 Apr 1770 Hon. Henry Vernon
16 May 1770 Sir George Osborn
10 May 1771 Thomas de Grey
17 May 1771 Hon. Henry St John
3 Dec 1771 Philip Hales
8 Feb 1773 *
28 Mar 1775 Hon. William Gordon
18 Jun 1777 Charles Herbert
22 Feb 1779 Francis Lascelles
17 Jan 1783 Hon. George Villiers
19 Aug 1784 Robert Waller
20 Jan 1788 James Whorwood Adeane
3 Jun 1791 Hon. Robert Digby
26 Jan 1793 Hon. Thomas Fane
29 Mar 1800 Hon. Robert Fulke Greville
30 May 1801 Hon. Arthur Kaye Legge Sir Harry Burrard-Neale
27 Apr 1802 Hon. Edward Finch
24 May 1804
15 Apr 1807 *
31 Oct 1808 Hon. Edward Capel
1 Nov 1808 Edward Pery Buckley
4 Mar 1809 Henry Frederick Campbell
2 June 1809 Hon. Frederick West
18 Feb 1812
10 Mar 1812 Hon. William Keppel Gen. Thomas Slaughter Stanwix Gen. Edmund Stevens Wilson Braddyll Hon. William Lumley Charles Nassau Thomas Hon. Henry Fitzroy Stanhope Gen. Charles Leigh
10 Apr 1812 Sir John Francis Cradock
28 Jul 1812 Hon. Augustus Cavendish-Bradshaw Hon. Charles William Stewart Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner
6 Jun 1816 Hon. Sir Edward Paget
6 Sep 1816 Sir George Campbell
5 Jan 1817 Hon. Henry King
21 Nov 1818 Joseph Whatley
19 Oct 1819 Sir Edmund Nagle

George IV (1820–1830)

Date of appointment
Jan 1820 Hon. Edward Finch Hon. William Keppel Edmund Stevens Hon. William Lumley Charles Nassau Thomas Hon. Henry Fitzroy Stanhope Hon. Augustus Cavendish-Bradshaw Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner Hon. Sir Edward Paget Sir George Campbell Hon. Henry King Joseph Whatley Sir Edmund Nagle
4 Apr 1820 Lord Francis Nathaniel Conyngham
24 Jan 1821 Sir Andrew Francis Barnard
11 Oct 1821 Hon. Sir Charles Paget
7 Sep 1825 Sir William Houston
27 May 1828 Thomas Armstrong
24 Sep 1828 Hon. John Robert Townshend
14 Feb 1830 Hon. George Cecil Weld-Forester
15 Mar 1830 Henry Thomas Hope

William IV (1830–1837)

Date of appointment
June 1830 Hon. Edward Finch Hon. William Keppel Hon. William Lumley Hon. Augustus Cavendish-Bradshaw Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner Joseph Whatley Hon. Sir Charles Paget Sir William Houston Thomas Armstrong Hon. John Robert Townshend Hon. George Cecil Weld-Forester Henry Thomas Hope
17 Jul 1830 Sir Hussey Vivian
24 Jul 1830 Hon. Sir Robert Cavendish Spencer
30 Nov 1830 Hon. Sir Henry Blackwood, 1st Baronet
23 Dec 1830 Sir Robert Waller Otway
31 Jan 1831 Sir James Reynett
24 Feb 1831 Hon. George Pryse Campbell
12 Nov 1832 Sir Charles Rowley
15 Dec 1832 Thomas William Taylor
20 Jun 1837 Accession of Queen Victoria.

Victoria (1837–1901) No Grooms of the Bedchamber appointed

Edward VII (1901–1910) The term "Groom-in-Waiting" was employed[46]

George V (1910–1936)

Date appointed
10 Jun 1910[47] Captain Walter Douglas Somerset Campbell Captain the Hon. Seymour John Fortescue Commander Charles Elphinstone Fleeming Cunninghame Graham The Hon. Sidney Robert Greville Colonel the Hon. William Lambton The Hon. Henry Julian Stonor Edward William Wallington Esq.

The above-mentioned were gazetted as "Grooms of the Bedchamber in Waiting"; subsequently, the term "Groom in Waiting in Ordinary" was used.

Edward VIII (1936) The term "Groom-in-Waiting" was employed[48]

George VI (1936–1952) The term "Groom-in-Waiting" was employed[49]

Elizabeth (1952–) No Grooms of the Bedchamber appointed

In France[edit]

The French portrait painter Jean Clouet (c. 1485–1540) was appointed a valet de chambre groom of the chamber of the French monarchy in 1523, as was his son François Clouet later. The office could serve as a sinecure to provide a minimum income and social place for someone who enjoyed royal favor.

Many noble households in Europe had their own grooms of the chamber, known by various titles. See Valet de chambre for a fuller account.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bucholz, R. O. "Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 11 (Revised), Court Officers, 1660-1837". British History Online. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  2. ^ "Hawes, Stephen" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  3. ^ a b Bucholz, R. O. "Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Introduction: Administrative structure and work". British History Online. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  4. ^ Halliday, p. 460; spellings modernized.
  5. ^ At that time, Robert Sidney, 1st Earl of Leicester (1563–1626), younger brother of Sir Philip Sidney.
  6. ^ C. E. Challis, 'Sharington, Sir William (c. 1495–1553), administrator and embezzler', in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004
  7. ^ a b Kinney, A.; Lawson, J. (2014). Titled Elizabethans: A Directory of Elizabethan Court, State, and Church Officers, 1558–1603 (2nd ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-46147-6.
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ [2]
  10. ^ "STANHOPE, Sir Michael (c.1545-1621), of the Barbican, London and Sudbourne, nr. Orford, Suff.; later of St. John's, Clerkenwell, Mdx". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  11. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/holles-sir-john-1567-1637
  12. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/bromley-sir-henry-1560-1615
  13. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/may-humphrey-1574-1630
  14. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/gerrard-sir-thomas-1560-1621
  15. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/woodhouse-sir-william-1570-1639
  16. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/goodyer-sir-henry-1571-1627
  17. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/cromwell-sir-oliver-15626-1655
  18. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/mansell-sir-robert-15701-1652
  19. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/cope-sir-walter-1553-1614
  20. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/kay-sir-john-1568-1624
  21. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/uvedale-sir-william-1581-1652
  22. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/eyre-sir-john-1580-1639
  23. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/chaworth-sir-george-1569-1639
  24. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/maynard-john-1592-1658
  25. ^ "TREVOR, John (1563-1630) of Oatlands, Surrey". History of Parliament. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  26. ^ https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/walter-william-1604-1675
  27. ^ "LEGGE, William I (c.1608-70), of The Minories, London". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  28. ^ Bucholz, R. O. "Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Guard Chamber: Grooms of the Great Chamber 1660-1837". British History Online. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  29. ^ Bucholz, R. O. "Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Privy Chamber: Grooms of the Privy Chamber 1660-1837". British History Online. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  30. ^ Bucholz, R. O. "Office-Holders in Modern Britain: The bedchamber: Grooms of the Bedchamber 1660-1837". British History Online. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  31. ^ Court Circular
  32. ^ "No. 19787". The London Gazette. 8 November 1839. p. 2111.
  33. ^ "No. 19829". The London Gazette. 24 February 1840. p. 409.
  34. ^ "No. 21297". The London Gazette. 2 March 1852. p. 670.
  35. ^ "No. 21342". The London Gazette. 20 July 1852. p. 2010.
  36. ^ "No. 22231". The London Gazette. 18 February 1859. p. 641.
  37. ^ "No. 22371". The London Gazette. 30 March 1860. p. 1252.
  38. ^ "No. 22668". The London Gazette. 3 October 1862. p. 4723.
  39. ^ "No. 23282". The London Gazette. 26 July 1867. p. 4169.
  40. ^ "No. 23697". The London Gazette. 17 January 1871. p. 169.
  41. ^ "No. 24054". The London Gazette. 16 January 1874. p. 183.
  42. ^ "No. 24067". The London Gazette. 20 February 1874. p. 765.
  43. ^ "No. 25409". The London Gazette. 28 October 1884. p. 4653.
  44. ^ "No. 26073". The London Gazette. 25 July 1890. p. 4101.
  45. ^ "No. 26448". The London Gazette. 10 October 1893. p. 5691.
  46. ^ Edinburgh Gazette
  47. ^ Edinburgh Gazette
  48. ^ Edinburgh Gazette
  49. ^ Edinburgh Gazette

References[edit]

  • Bucholz, R. O. The Database of Court Officers 1660-1837. Loyola University of Chicago.
  • Brown, Cedric C., ed. Patronage, Politics, and Literary Traditions in England, 1558-1658. Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1993.
  • Halliday, F. E. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore, Penguin, 1964.
  • Walter, James. Shakespeare's True Life. London, Longmans, Green & Co., 1890; reprinted Kessinger Publishing, 2003.

External links[edit]