|An Astra SPX in Düsseldorf, Germany|
|Status||Active service, In production|
|Primary user||United States Air Force|
US$15.7 million (2015)
|Developed from||IAI Westwind|
The Gulfstream G100, formerly known as the IAI Astra SPX, is an Israel Aerospace Industries-manufactured twin-engine business jet, now produced for Gulfstream Aerospace. The United States Air Force designation for the G100 is C-38 Courier.
Design and development
Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) developed the Astra from its Model 1124 Westwind business jet. Work on an improved Westwind began in the late 1970s, with the first prototype flight on March 19, 1984. The first production Astra flew on March 20, 1985, with FAA certification granted on August 29, 1985 and customer deliveries starting in 1986.
The original 1125 Astra was replaced by the Astra SP, announced in 1989; 37 were built. The third variant, the Astra SPX, flew for the first time in August 1994. This variant was renamed G100 from September 2002 following Gulfstream's acquisition of Galaxy Aerospace, which held the Astra certifications, in May 2001.
In September 2002 Gulfstream announced the improved G150, based on the G100. This latest variant features a wider and longer fuselage, updated avionics and an increase in maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) to 26,100 pounds (11,839 kg) compared to the G100's MTOW of 24,650 pounds (11,181 kg). It was certified by the FAA in late 2005. It has been certified for the steeper-than-normal approach path required to land at London City Airport. Production of the G100 was discontinued following certification of the G150. IAI continues to manufacture G150s in Israel and the completed airframes are then flown to the United States for interior outfitting.
The G100 was ordered for the United States Air Force (USAF) in 1997 as the C-38A Courier. The C-38A is in use by with the 201st Airlift Squadron at Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland. The C-38A replaced the earlier Learjet C-21. The C-38A differs from the standard Gulfstream G100, being fitted with various military avionics systems.
The C-38A was also ordered for the United States Navy, replacing North American T-2 Buckeye aircraft at Naval Air Station Patuxent River beginning in September 2015. The C-38 is tasked with acting as a chase aircraft, radar test target, and pilot proficiency aircraft for the test and evaluation squadron VX-20.
- IAI 1125 Astra
- Original version, powered by two 16.46 kilonewtons (3,700 lbf) Garrett TFE731-3A-200G turbofans. 32 built.
- IAI 1125 Astra SP
- Version with modified aerodynamics (giving 53 nautical miles (61 mi; 98 km) increase in range), improved avionics and revised interior. 36 built from 1990.
- IAI 1125 Astra SPX
- More powerful (18.90 kilonewtons (4,250 lbf) Honeywell TFE-731-40R-200G) engines and fitted with winglets. Increased weights and range. Renamed Gulfstream G100 after programme taken over by Gulfstream Aerospace in 2001. 77 built.
- Gulfstream G150
- Improved version of G100 with wider and longer cabin, a revised nose and uprated (19.7 kilonewtons (4,400 lbf)) engines. Over 100 built by 2015.
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004
- Crew: 2
- Capacity: 6-9 passengers
- Length: 16.94 m (55 ft 7 in)
- Wingspan: 16.64 m (54 ft 7 in) (over winglets)
- Height: 5.54 m (18 ft 2 in)
- Wing area: 29.41 m2 (316.6 sq ft)
- Aspect ratio: 8.8:1
- Airfoil: IAI Sigma-2
- Empty weight: 6,214 kg (13,700 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 11,181 kg (24,650 lb)
- Fuel capacity: 4,910 L (1,300 US gal; 1,080 imp gal) usable
- Powerplant: 2 × Honeywell TFE731-40-R-200G turbofans, 18.9 kN (4,250 lbf) thrust each
- Maximum speed: Mach 0.875
- Cruise speed: 896 km/h; 557 mph (484 kn)
- Range: 5,462 km; 3,394 mi (2,949 nmi) (max fuel, four passengers)
- Service ceiling: 13,716 m (45,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: 19.33 m/s (3,805 ft/min)
- Collins Pro Line 4
- United States Air Force
- United States Navy
- Related development
- "Business Jets Specification and Performance Data" (PDF). Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week. May 2015.
- Relman 1993, p. 314.
- Relman 1993, p. 316.
- "FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet No. A16NM Revision 8 - Gulfstream Aerospace 1125 Westwind Astra; Astra SPX; Gulfstream 100; Gulfstream G150" (PDF). 23 May 2007. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
- G150 Steep Approach to London City approaches reach 5.5 degrees Aviation Week. Accessed: 9 January 2011.
- "C-38 Courier". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
- T-2C Buckeye ends 56-year Navy career Naval Air Systems Command
- "The Israel IAI-1126 Galaxy/Gulfstream G200"
- Lambert 1993, pp. 182–183.
- Jackson 2003, p. 623.
- Lambert 1993, p. 182.
- Jackson 2003, pp. 622–623.
- Gerzanics, Mike (February 28, 2006). "FLIGHT TEST: Gulfstream G150 - Space Machine". Flightglobal. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
- George, Fred (August 1, 2015). "Gulfstream G150 Positioned For Long Life In Fleet: Swan song for the smallest Gulfstream". Aviation Week Network. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
- Jackson 2003, pp. 623–624.
- Hoyle Flight International 8–14 December 2015, p. 39.
- Hoyle, Craig (8–14 December 2015). "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International. Vol. 188 no. 5517. pp. 26–53. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Jackson, Paul, ed. (2003). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
- Lambert, Mark, ed. (1993). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–1994. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Data Division. ISBN 0-7106-1066-1.
- Relman, Paul (December 1993). "IAI Astra: Israel's star-struck biz jet". Air International. Vol. 45 no. 6. pp. 313–319. ISSN 0306-5634.
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