Haplogroup NO

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Haplogroup NO
Haplogroup NO.png
Possible time of origin over 45,000 years old
Possible place of origin Southeast Asia or Southern China[1][2]
Ancestor K2a1 (M2313)

Primary descendant: NO1 (M214/Page39);

Secondary descendants:
N (M231) and O (M175).
Defining mutations F549/M2335/S22380/V4208

Haplogroup NO (F549/M2335/S22380/V4208) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. NO is the only primary descendant of Haplogroup K2a1 (M2313), which in turn is a primary descendant of Haplogroup K2a (M2308). [2]

Before 2016, it was generally considered that "NO" and "K2a" were identical and constituted a primary branch of Haplogroup K2.[2] However, researchers such as Poznik et al. discovered Y-DNA in ancient remains and living individuals that had some, but not all, of the mutations regarded previously as peculiar to NO, but lacked any of the SNPs identifying other primary clades of K2.[2] Poznik et al. therefore considered that K2a and NO constituted "grandparent" and "grandchild" clades, and proposed that the name Haplogroup K2a1 be assigned to the Y-DNA of individuals who belonged to K2a, but did not belong to NO.

The sole primary descendant of NO is NO1 (M214/Page39),[3] which is the immediate ancestor of Haplogroup N and Haplogroup O.

Based on the projected origins of K2a* in either South East Asia or East Asia, NO* probably originated in East Asia.[1][2]


While there are some reports of NO* or NO1* being found in living individuals, these haplogroups are not well-researched. Further research may instead identify them as belonging to N* (M231), N1, or the provisional subclade N2 (F3373/M2283/Page56/S323).[4][5] These cases include:

Two sets of ancient remains previously considered as possibly belonging to NO have since been reclassified upstream to K2a.

  • Ust'-Ishim man dates from approximately 45,000 BP and was found in Omsk Oblast, Russia. [6] (Until 2016 these remains were erroneously classified as K2*.)
  • Oase 1: the remains found in Romania of a male who lived 37,000-42,000 years BP.[7]

Likewise, cases previously regarded as possible examples of NO* or NO1*, and since ruled out, include:

  • two Han Chinese males previously found to be negative for M175 (i.e. Haplogroup O) and LLY22g (an obsolete, possibly inaccurate marker for N1), have subsequently have been found to belong to N* (N-M231),[8] and;
  • a clade first identified in South India, defined by the SNP M147 and labelled "pre-NO" and "Haplogroup X", among other names, was found to be a sibling of NO (K2a) within Haplogroup K2 (K-M526); the new clade was renamed K2e.


Phylogenetic tree[edit]

This phylogeny of Haplogroup NO is based on the ISOGG 2016 phylogeny and Karafet 2008 (which was based on the YCC 2008 phylogeny).[3][9]

  • NO (F549/M2335/S22380) – also known as Haplogroup K2a
    • NO1 (M214/Page39) – no alternate designation, distinct from K2a, as of 2016 [3]
      • N (M231) – a.k.a. Haplogroup K2a1
      • O (M175/P186/P191/P196) – a.k.a. Haplogroup K2a2

See also[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K2a1                    K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO    S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
NO1    Q   R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. PMID 24166809. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K2a1 (M2313) were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. PMC 4884158Freely accessible. PMID 27111036. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO1 (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  13. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)


  1. ^ a b Rootsi, Siiri; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Baldovič, Marian; Kayser, Manfred; Kutuev, Ildus A; Khusainova, Rita; Bermisheva, Marina A; Gubina, Marina; Fedorova, Sardana A; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Osipova, Ludmila P; Stoneking, Mark; Lin, Alice A; Ferak, Vladimir; Parik, Jüri; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A; Villems, Richard; et al. (2007). "A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (2): 204–211. PMID 17149388. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201748. 
  2. ^ a b c d e G. David Poznik et al., 2016, "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences" Nature Genetics, no. 48, pp. 593–599.
  3. ^ a b c ISOGG 2016 Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2016 (2 August 2016).
  4. ^ a b c d Hammer et al. (2005) "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes," The Japan Society of Human Genetics, 2005
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Xue, Yali; Zerjal, Tatiana; Bao, Weidong; Zhu, Suling; Shu, Qunfang; Xu, Jiujin; Du, Ruofu; Fu, Songbin; Li, Pu; et al. (2006). "Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expanion times". Genetics. 172 (4): 2431–2439. PMC 1456369Freely accessible. PMID 16489223. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. 
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4884158/
  8. ^ Tatiana M. Karafet, Brian Hallmark, Murray P. Cox et al., "Major East-West Division Underlies Y Chromosome Stratification Across Indonesia," MBE Advance Access published March 5, 2010.
  9. ^ Karafet; Mendez, F. L.; Meilerman, M. B.; Underhill, P. A.; Zegura, S. L.; Hammer, M. F.; et al. (2008). "Abstract New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. PMC 2336805Freely accessible. PMID 18385274. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. 

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