Haplogroup Q-M3

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Haplogroup Q-M3
Possible time of origin 10 to 15 thousand years ago
Possible place of origin Beringia: Either East Asia or North America
Ancestor Q-L54
Descendants Q-M19, Q-M194, Q-M199, Q-PAGES104, Q-PAGES131, Q-L663, Q-SA01, Q-L766, Q-L883, and Q-L888
Defining mutations M3 (rs3894)

Haplogroup Q-M3 (Y-DNA) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup Q-M3 is a subclade of Haplogroup Q-L54.

Haplogroup Q-M3 was previously known as Haplogroup Q3(currently Q-M3 is in Q1a2-M346). In 1996 the research group at Stanford University headed by Dr. Peter Underhill first discovered the SNP that was to become known as M3. At the time, it was called DYS191. Later studies completed the genetic bridge by determining that Q-M3 was related to Q-M242-bearing populations who traveled through Central Asia to East Asia.[1]

Origin and Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup Q-M3 is one of the Y-Chromosome haplogroups linked to the indigenous peoples of the Americas (over 90% of indigenous people in Meso & South America). Today, such lineages also include other Q-M242 branches (Q-M346, Q-L54, Q-P89.1, Q-NWT01, and Q-Z780), haplogroup C-M130 branches (C-M217 and C-P39), and R-M207, which are almost exclusively found in the North America. Haplogroup Q-M3 is defined by the presence of the (M3) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Q-M3 occurred on the Q-L54 lineage roughly 10-15 thousand years ago as the migration into the Americas was underway. There is some debate as to on which side of the Bering Strait this mutation occurred, but it definitely happened in the ancestors of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

The Americas[edit]

Populations carrying Q-M3 are widespread throughout the Americas. Since the discovery of Q-M3, several subclades of Q-M3 bearing populations have been discovered in the Americas as well. An example is in South America where some populations have a high prevalence of SNP M19 which defines subclade Q-M19. M19 has been detected in 59% of Amazonian Ticuna men and in 10% of Wayuu men.[2] Subclades Q-M19 and Q-M199 appear to be unique to South American populations and suggests that population isolation and perhaps even the establishment of tribes began soon after migration into the Americas.[3]

Asia[edit]

Q-M3 is present in some Siberian populations in Asia. It is unclear whether these are remnants of the founding lineage or evidence of back-migrations from Beringia to East Asia.[4]

Population Paper N Percentage SNP Tested
Evens Malyarchuk 2011[4] 2/63 ~3.2% M3

Europe[edit]

The Q-M3 lineage has not been detected in the European population.

Subclade Distribution[edit]

Q-M19 M19 This lineage is found among Indigenous South Americas, such as the Ticuna and the Wayuu.[5] Origin: South America approximately 5,000 to 10,000 years ago.

Q-M194 It has only been found in South American populations.[5]

Q-M199 This lineage has only been found in South American populations.

Q-PAGES104 This lineage was discovered by the research group at the Whitehead Institute headed by Dr. David C. Page. Only limited demographic information is known.

Q-PAGES131 This lineage was discovered by the research group at the Whitehead Institute headed by Dr. David C. Page. Only limited demographic information is known.

Q-L663 This lineage was discovered by citizen scientists. It may be linked to indigenous populations in the Southwestern United States and Mexico.

Q-SA01 This lineages was discovered by the research group headed by Dr. Theodore G. Schurr.[6]

Q-L766 This lineage was discovered by citizen scientists. It may be linked to indigenous populations in the Southwestern United States and Mexico.

Q-L883 This lineage was discovered by citizen scientists.

Q-L888 This lineage was discovered by citizen scientists.

Associated SNPs[edit]

Q-M3 is defined by the SNPs M3 and L341.2.

Subgroups[edit]

This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's Draft tree Proposed Tree for haplogroup Q-M3.

  • L54
    • M3, L341.2
      • M19
      • M194
      • M199, P106, P292
      • PAGES104, PAGES126
      • PAGES131
      • L663
      • SA01
      • L766, L767
      • L883, L884, L885, L886, L887
      • L888, L889, L890, L891

Popular Culture[edit]

Joshua Alba, American actor of Mexican descent is Haplogroup Q-M3. His father partook in Henry Louis Gates' genealogy series Finding Your Roots[7]

See also[edit]

Y-DNA Q-M242 Subclades[edit]

Y-DNA Backbone Tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ   K
I J    LT [χ 5]  K2
L T [χ 6] NO [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]     K2c  K2d  K2e [χ 9]
N   O   K2b1 [χ 10]     P
K2b1a[χ 11]     K2b1b K2b1c      M     P1 P2
K2b1a1   K2b1a2   K2b1a3 S [χ 12] Q   R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present Haplogroup K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a, also known as Haplogroup NO).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is similar to the former Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup K2b1a has also been known as Haplogroup S-P405.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S (S-M230), also known as K2b1a4, was previously known as Haplogroup K5.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wells, Spencer (2004). The Journey of Man : A Genetic Odyssey. New York, NY: Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-8129-7146-0. 
  2. ^ Ruiz-Linares, A.; Ortiz-Barrientos, D.; Figueroa, M.; Mesa, N.; Munera, J. G.; Bedoya, G.; Velez, I. D.; Garcia, L. F.; Perez-Lezaun, A. (1999). "Microsatellites provide evidence for Y chromosome diversity among the founders of the New World". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 96 (11): 6312. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.11.6312. 
  3. ^ Bortolini, M; Salzano, F; Thomas, M; Stuart, S; Nasanen, S; Bau, C; Hutz, M; Layrisse, Z; Petzlerler, M (2003). "Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 73 (3): 524–39. doi:10.1086/377588. PMC 1180678Freely accessible. PMID 12900798. 
  4. ^ a b Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina; Maksimov, Arkady; Wozniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilya (2011). "Ancient links between Siberians and Native Americans revealed by subtyping the Y chromosome haplogroup Q1a". Journal of Human Genetics. 56 (8): 583–8. doi:10.1038/jhg.2011.64. PMID 21677663. 
  5. ^ a b (2003) "Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas," (pdf) Maria-Catira Bortolini, Francisco M. Salzano
  6. ^ "Theodore G. Schurr". 
  7. ^ Stated on Finding Your Roots, PBS, February 5, 2015

External links[edit]