Hawa Mahal

Coordinates: 26°55′26″N 75°49′36″E / 26.9239°N 75.8267°E / 26.9239; 75.8267
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The Hawa Mahal
Eastern façade of the Hawa Mahal, 2022
Hawa Mahal is located in Jaipur
Hawa Mahal
Location in Jaipur
Hawa Mahal is located in Rajasthan
Hawa Mahal
Location in Rajasthan
Hawa Mahal is located in India
Hawa Mahal
Location in India
Alternative namesPalace of the Winds, Palace of the Breeze
General information
Architectural styleHindu Rajput Architecture
LocationJaipur, Rajasthan
Coordinates26°55′26″N 75°49′36″E / 26.9239°N 75.8267°E / 26.9239; 75.8267
Completed1799; 225 years ago (1799)
Technical details
Structural systemRed, yellow, black, rainbow and pink sandstone
Design and construction
Architect(s)Lal Chand Ustad
Main contractorMaharaja Sawai Pratap Singh
Other information
Public transit access Pink Line
At Badi Chaupar

The Hawa Mahal is a palace in the city of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Built from red and pink sandstone, it is on the edge of the City Palace, Jaipur, and extends to the Zenana, or women's chambers.

The structure was built in 1799 by the Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh, grandson of Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh, the founder of the city of Jhunjhunu in the state of Rajasthan.[1] He was so inspired by the unique structure of Khetri Mahal that he built this grand and historical palace.

It was designed by Lal Chand Ustad. Its five-floor exterior is akin to a honeycomb with its 953 small windows called Jharokhas decorated with intricate latticework.[2] The original intent of the lattice design was to allow royal ladies to observe everyday life and festivals celebrated in the street below without being seen. This architectural feature also allowed cool air from the Venturi effect to pass through, thus making the whole area more pleasant during the high temperatures in summer.[2][3][4] Many people see the Hawa Mahal from the street view and think it is the front of the palace, but it is the back.[5]

In 2006, renovation works on the Mahal were undertaken, after a gap of 50 years, to give a facelift to the monument at an estimated cost of Rs 4.568  million.[6] The corporate sector lent a hand to preserve the historical monuments of Jaipur and the Unit Trust of India has adopted Hawa Mahal to maintain it.[7] The palace is an extended part of a huge complex. The stone-carved screens, small casements, and arched roofs are some of the features of this popular tourist spot. The monument also has delicately modelled hanging cornices.


Details of the eastern façade

This palace is a five-story pyramidal shaped monument that rises to about 50 feet (15 m). The top three floors of the structure have the width of a single room, while the first and second floors have patios in front of them. The front elevation, as seen from the street, is like a honeycomb with small portholes. Each porthole has miniature windows and carved sandstone grills, finials and domes. It gives the appearance of a mass of semi-octagonal bays, giving the monument its unique façade. The inner face on the back side of the building consists of chambers built with pillars and corridors with minimal ornamentation, and reach up to the top floor. The interior of the palace has been described as "having rooms of different coloured marbles, relieved by inlaid panels or gilding; while fountains adorn the centre of the courtyard".[8][9]

Lal Chand Ustad was the architect. Built-in red and pink coloured sandstone, in keeping with the décor of the other monuments in the city, its colour is a full testimony to the epithet of "Pink City" given to Jaipur. Its façade with 953 niches with intricately carved jharokhas (some are made of wood) is a stark contrast to the plain-looking rear side of the structure. Its cultural and architectural heritage is a reflection of a fusion of Hindu Rajput architecture and Islamic Mughal architecture; the Rajput style is seen in the form of domed canopies, fluted pillars, lotus, and floral patterns, and the Islamic style as evident in its stone inlay filigree work and arches (as distinguished from its similarity with the Panch Mahal at Fatehpur Sikri).[10]

The entry to the Hawa Mahal from the city palace side is through an imperial door. It opens into a large courtyard, which has double-storeyed buildings on three sides, with the Hawa Mahal enclosing it on the east side. An archaeological museum is also housed in this courtyard.[11]

Hawa Mahal was also known as the chef-d'œuvre of Maharaja Jai Singh as it was his favourite resort because of the elegance and built-in interior of the Mahal. The cooling effect in the chambers, provided by the breeze passing through the small windows of the façade, was enhanced by the fountains provided at the centre of each of the chambers.[12]

The top two floors of the Hawa Mahal are accessed only through ramps. The Mahal is maintained by the archaeological department of the Government of Rajasthan.[11]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "About Hawa Mahal | Hawa Mahal". Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  2. ^ a b Rai, Vinay; William L. Simon (2007). Think India: the rise of the world's next superpower and what it means for every American. Dutton. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-525-95020-2. Retrieved 6 December 2009. Hawa Mahal.
  3. ^ "Hawa Mahal". Retrieved 6 December 2009.
  4. ^ "Jaipur, the Pink City". Retrieved 6 December 2009.
  5. ^ pareek, Amit Kumar Pareek and Agam Kumar. "Hawa Mahal the crown of Jaipur". amerjaipur.in. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  6. ^ "Restoration of Hawa Mahal in Jaipur". Snoop News. 22 March 2005. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
  7. ^ "INTACH Virasat" (PDF). Jaipur. Intach.org. p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 November 2009.
  8. ^ "Hawa Mahal – Jaipur". Archived from the original on 9 December 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
  9. ^ Sitwell, Sacheverell (1962). The red chapels of Banteai Srei: and temples in Cambodia, India, Siam, and Nepal. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 174. ISBN 9789020073201. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
  10. ^ "Hawa Mahal of Jaipur in Rajasthan, India". Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
  11. ^ a b "Hawa Mahal". Archived from the original on 29 January 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
  12. ^ Rousselet, Loius; Charles Randolph Buckle (2005). India and its native princes: travels in Central India and in the presidencies of Bombay and Bengal. Asian Educational Services. p. 228. ISBN 81-206-1887-4. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
  • Tillotson, G.H.R (1987). The Rajput Palaces - The Development of an Architectural Style (Hardback) (First ed.). New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03738-4.

External links[edit]

Media related to Hawa Mahal at Wikimedia Commons