Indium(III) hydroxide

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Indium(III) hydroxide
Names
IUPAC name
Indium(III) hydroxide
Other names
Indium hydroxide, indium trihydroxide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.039.937
EC Number 243-947-7
Properties
In(OH)3
Molar mass 165.8404 g/mol
Appearance white
Density 4.38 g/cm3
Melting point 150 °C (302 °F; 423 K) (decomposes)
insoluble
1.725
Structure
cubic
Im3
octahedral
Hazards
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroformReactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calciumSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
0
2
1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Indium(III) hydroxide is the chemical compound with the formula In(OH)3, its prime use is as a precursor to indium(III) oxide, In2O3.[1] It is sometimes found as the rare mineral dzhalindite.

Structure[edit]

In(OH)3 has a cubic structure, space group Im3, a distorted ReO3 structure.[2][3]

Preparation and reactions[edit]

Neutralising a solution of an In3+ salt such as In(NO3)3, indium nitrate or a solution of InCl3 gives a white precipitate that on ageing forms In(OH)3.[4][5] A thermal decomposition of freshly prepared In(OH)3 shows the first step is the conversion of to cubic In(OH)3[4] The precipitation of indium hydroxide was a step in the separation of indium from zincblende ore by Reich and Richter the discoverers of indium.[6]

In(OH)3 is amphoteric, like Ga(OH)3 and Al(OH)3 but is much less acidic than Ga(OH)3[5] having a lower solubility in alkali than in acid[7] and is for all intents and purposes a basic hydroxide.[8] Dissolving In(OH)3 in strong alkali gives solutions that probably contain either four coordinate In(OH)4 or In(OH)4(H2O)[8] Reaction with acetic acid or carboxylic acids is likely to give the basic acetate or carboxylate salt, e.g. In(OH)(OOCCH3)2.[7]

At 10MPa pressure and 250-400 °C In(OH)3 converts to indium oxide hydroxide, InO(OH) (which has a distorted rutile structure)[5]

Rapid decompression of samples of In(OH)3 compressed at 34 GPa causes decomposition, yielding some indium metal [9]

Laser ablation of In(OH)3 gives InOH, indium(I) hydroxide, a bent molecule with an In-O-H angle of around 132 ° and an In-O bond length of 201.7 pm [10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Group 13 Metals Aluminium, Gallium, Indium and Thallium: Chemical Patterns and Peculiarities, Simon Aldridge, Anthony J. Downs, wiley, 2011, ISBN 978-0-470-68191-6
  2. ^ Hydrothermal Investigation of the systems In2O3-H2O-Na2O and In2O3-D2O-Na2O. The crystal structure of rhombohedral In2O3 and In(OH)3, A Norlund Christensen, N.C. Broch, Acta Chemica Scandinavica 21 (1967) 1046-056
  3. ^ Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition Oxford Science Publications ISBN 0-19-855370-6
  4. ^ a b Sato, T. (2005). "Preparation and thermal decomposition of indium hydroxide". Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 82 (3): 775–782. doi:10.1007/s10973-005-0963-4. ISSN 1388-6150.
  5. ^ a b c Egon Wiberg, Arnold Frederick Holleman (2001) Inorganic Chemistry, Elsevier ISBN 0123526515
  6. ^ Advanced Inorganic Chemistry-Vol.-I,31st Edition, 2008, Krishna Prakashan Media, ISBN 9788187224037
  7. ^ a b The Aqueous Chemistry of the Elements, George K. Schweitzer , Lester L. Pesterfield , Oxford University Press, 19 Dec 2009, ISBN 978-0195393354
  8. ^ a b Anthony John Downs (1993). Chemistry of aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium. Springer. ISBN 0-7514-0103-X.
  9. ^ Gurlo, Aleksander; Dzivenko, Dmytro; Andrade, Miria; Riedel, Ralf; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim (2010). "Pressure-Induced Decomposition of Indium Hydroxide". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 132 (36): 12674–12678. doi:10.1021/ja104278p. ISSN 0002-7863. PMID 20731389.
  10. ^ Lakin, Nicholas M.; Varberg, Thomas D.; Brown, John M. (1997). "The Detection of Lines in the Microwave Spectrum of Indium Hydroxide, InOH, and Its Isotopomers". Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy. 183 (1): 34–41. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1996.7237. ISSN 0022-2852.