Jacob Gould Schurman
Jacob Gould Schurman
Schurmann in 1930
|President of Cornell University|
|Preceded by||Charles Kendall Adams|
|Succeeded by||Livingston Farrand|
|President of the Schurman Commission |
(First Philippine Commission)
March 4, 1899 – March 16, 1900
|Succeeded by||William Howard Taft |
|United States Minister to Greece|
|Preceded by||George H. Moses|
|Succeeded by||George F. Williams|
|United States Envoy to the Republic of China|
|Preceded by||Paul Reinsch|
|Succeeded by||John MacMurray|
|United States Ambassador to Germany|
|Preceded by||Alanson B. Houghton|
|Succeeded by||Frederic M. Sackett|
|Born||May 2, 1854|
Freetown, Prince Edward Island
|Died||August 12, 1942 (aged 88)|
Bedford Hills, New York
Schurman was born at Freetown, Prince Edward Island on May 2, 1854 the son of Robert and Lydia Schurman. Schurman lived on his parents' farm as a child, then in 1867 took a job at a store near his home, which he held for two years.
At the age of fifteen, Schurman entered the Summerside Grammar School on Prince Edward Island, and in 1870 he won a scholarship to study at Prince of Wales College for two years. After Prince of Wales College, he studied for a year and a half at Acadia College in Nova Scotia.
In 1874 while a student at Acadia College in Wolfville, Nova Scotia, he won the Canadian Gilchrist scholarship to study at the University of London, from which he received a BA degree in 1877 and an MA in 1878. Schurman also studied in Paris, Edinburgh, Heidelberg, Berlin, Göttingen and Italy.
He was professor of English literature, political economy and psychology at Acadia College in 1880-1882, of metaphysics and English literature at Dalhousie College, Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1882-86, and of philosophy (Sage professor) at Cornell University in 1886-92, being Dean of the Sage School of Philosophy in 1891-92 where he edited The Philosophical Review.
As Cornell's president, Schurman helped invent the modern state-supported research university. Under the Morrill Act, states were obligated to fund the maintenance of land grant college facilities, but were not obligated to fund operations. Subsequent laws required states to match federal funds for agricultural research stations and cooperative extension. In his inaugural address as Cornell's third president on November 11, 1892, Schurman announced his intention to enlist the financial support of the state. Cornell, which had been offering a four-year scholarship to one student in each New York assembly district every year and was the state's land-grant university, was determined to convince the state to become a benefactor of the university. In 1894, the state legislature voted to give financial support for the establishment of the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine and to make annual appropriations for the college. This set the precedents of privately controlled, state-supported statutory colleges and cooperation between Cornell and the state. The annual state appropriations were later extended to agriculture, home economics, and following World War II, industrial and labor relations.
In 1898, Schurman persuaded the State Legislature to found the first forestry college in North America, the New York State College of Forestry. The College undertook to establish a 30,000-acre (120 km2) demonstration forest in the Adirondacks, funded by New York State. However, the plans of the school's director Bernhard Fernow for the land drew criticism from neighbors, and Governor Benjamin B. Odell vetoed the 1903 appropriation for the school. In response, Cornell closed the school. Subsequently, in 1911, the State Legislature established a New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University, and the remains of Cornell's program became the Department of Natural Resources in its Agriculture College in 1910. The State later followed the same model to establish a state college of ceramics at Alfred University.
He was chairman of the First United States Philippine Commission in 1899, and wrote (besides a part of the official report to Congress) Philippine Affairs--A Retrospect and an Outlook (1902). With J. E. Creighton and James Seth he founded in 1892 The Philosophical Review. He also wrote Kantian Ethics and the Ethics of Evolution (1881); The Ethical Import of Darwinism (1888); Belief in God (1890), and Agnosticism and Religion (1896).
Schurman served as United States Ambassador to Greece in 1912-13, Minister to China between 1921 and 1925, and then as Ambassador to Germany between 1925 and 1929, a position twice previously held by Cornell's first president Andrew Dickson White. In 1917 Schurman was appointed honorary chairman of the American Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor, an organization which provided humanitarian relief to Ottoman Greeks during the Greek genocide. He retired to Bedford Hills, New York in 1930.
- "Jacob G. Schurman Is Dead Here at 88". The New York Times. August 13, 1942. p. 19.
- "President Schurman of Cornell" (PDF). The New York Times. October 2, 1898.
- Burns, Steven (July 1, 1996). "Ethics and Socialism: Tensions in the Political Philosophy of J. G. Schurman". Journal of Canadian Studies. via HighBeam (subscription required). Archived from the original on September 11, 2016.
In 1874, after leading his class during two years of studies at Acadia College (now University) in Wolfville, Nova Scotia, he won the Gilchrist Scholarship for study at the University of London in a nationwide competitive examination.
- The National magazine: an illustrated monthly. Bostonian Publishing Company. 1922. pp. 330–.
- "Significance of Schurman's Visit, Noted Educator to Deliver Lecture at Tabernacle Sunday Afternoon". Deseret Evening News. December 18, 1908.
- Profile, The Philosophical Review, volume 1 (1892).
- "University intelligence". The Times (36711). London. March 10, 1902. p. 11.
- "Inaugurating the Presidents". Retrieved February 1, 2010.
- "History and Archives of the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine". Archived from the original on February 27, 2010. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
- "Department History". Archived from the original on October 7, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
- Donaldson, Alfred Lee (1921). A history of the Adirondacks, Volume 2. Century Co. pp. 202–207. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
- "Cornll School of Forestry Suspended.; Action Followed Failure of State to Provide Means for Its Support". New York Times. June 18, 1903. Retrieved September 5, 2009.
- "Cornell Honors Former Head". The New York Times. April 26, 1960. p. 40.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Moser, Maynard (1982). Jacob Gould Schurman--scholar, political activist, and ambassador of good will, 1892-1942. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-405-14100-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jacob Gould Schurman.|
- Cornell Presidency: Jacob Gould Schurman
- Cornell University Library Presidents Exhibition: Jacob Gould Schurman (Presidency; Inauguration)
- Works by Jacob Gould Schurman at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Jacob Gould Schurman at Internet Archive
- Newspaper clippings about Jacob Gould Schurman in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW)
Charles Kendall Adams
| President of Cornell University
| President of the Schurman Commission
(First Philippine Commission)
March 4, 1899–March 16, 1900
William Howard Taft
George H. Moses
| United States Minister to Greece
George F. Williams
| United States Envoy to the Republic of China
Alanson B. Houghton
| United States Ambassador to Germany
Frederic M. Sackett