|Tom and Jerry character|
Jerry's design in the Hanna-Barbera shorts.
|First appearance||Puss Gets the Boot (as Jinx)|
February 10, 1940
The Midnight Snack (as Jerry)
July 19, 1941
|Created by||William Hanna|
William Hanna (1940–1958)
Sara Berner (1944–1945)
Billy Bletcher (1945)
Paul Frees (1951, 1956)
Allen Swift (1961–1962)
Mel Blanc (1963–1967)
June Foray (1965–1967)
John Stephenson (1975)
Frank Welker (1980–2002)
Lou Scheimer (1980-1982)
Samuel Vincent (2006–2008)
Dana Hill (1993 film)
|Full name||Jerry Mouse|
Jerry Mouse is a fictional character and one of the title characters (the other being Tom Cat) in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's series of Tom and Jerry theatrical cartoon short films. Created by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera, Jerry is a brown anthropomorphic house mouse, who first appeared as a mouse named Jinx in the 1940 MGM animated short Puss Gets the Boot. Hanna gave the mouse's original name as "Jinx", while Barbera claimed the mouse went unnamed in his first appearance.
Tom and Jerry cartoons
The name "Jerry" was chosen by MGM animator John Carr, who submitted "Tom and Jerry" as potential names for the duo after an important Loews Inc. distributor in Texas asked for follow-ups to Puss Gets the Boot. While the idea of a cat-and-mouse duo was considered shopworn by the 1940s, Hanna and Barbera decided to expand upon the standard expected hunter/prey relationship. Their Jerry Mouse, an "incurable scene stealer", served more or less as the protagonist of most of the films; instead of being a "cowering victim" of his pursuer, Tom, he took delight in besting, and often torturing, his antagonist (though sometimes, Tom is just following orders or is even just minding his own business and is antagonized by Jerry). Hanna and Barbera considered Tom and Jerry "the best of enemies", whose rivalry hid an unspoken amount of mutual respect.
In later Tom and Jerry cartoons, Jerry acquired a young ward: a small grey mouse called "Tuffy" or "Nibbles" depending upon the cartoon, who was left on Jerry's doorstep as a foundling baby in the 1946 short The Milky Waif. Jerry and Tuffy were also featured together in a sub-series of Tom and Jerry cartoons set in 17th century France which featured the characters as musketeers. The first of these shorts, The Two Mouseketeers, won the 1951 Academy Award for Best Short Subject: Cartoons.
Hanna and Barbera served as writer/directors of the Tom and Jerry cartoons until 1956, when they also became the producers. Fourteen Tom and Jerry cartoons between 1940 and 1954 were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Short Subject: Cartoons, with seven of the shorts winning that award.:32 MGM shut down its animation department in 1957, but new Tom and Jerry cartoons were produced by Gene Deitch and later Chuck Jones during the 1960s. Jerry would also appear in later Tom and Jerry productions made for television, a series of direct-to-video features, and Tom and Jerry: The Movie, a 1992 theatrical film. Later productions eschewed much of the violence the 1940s and 1950s shorts were known for, and in several of the television shows Jerry was given a red bow tie and a kinder disposition.
Tom and Jerry aren't always enemies; they have been known to team up on occasion.
On his own, Jerry Mouse appears in a fantasy sequence in the 1945 Gene Kelly MGM musical film Anchors Aweigh. Jerry appears as the ruler of a kingdom where music is banned because he feels he lacks talent, and Kelly persuades the mouse into performing a song-and-dance number with him. Kelly and MGM had originally wanted Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse as Kelly's dance partner for the sequence, but Disney was unwilling to license the character.
Hanna and Barbera achieved the effect of Kelly dancing with Jerry by rotoscoping: live-action plates of Kelly dancing alone were shot first, and the action traced frame by frame so that Jerry's movements would match. The success of the animated segment of Anchors Aweigh, which was noted as "stealing the show" in contemporary trade reviews, led to two more live-action/animated projects for Hanna and Barbera and MGM: an underwater ballet sequence featuring both Tom and Jerry in Esther Williams' 1953 film Dangerous When Wet, and the "Sinbad the Sailor" sequence of Kelly's 1956 film Invitation to the Dance.
Tom & Jerry Kids
In 1990, this version of Jerry wears a red bowtie, and has a tuft of hair on his head. He often taunts Tom (as a kitten) any chance he gets. Sometimes, in a few episodes, he is friends with/allies of Tom.
- William Hanna: Vocal effects in the Hanna-Barbera era (1940–1958) shorts (also Tom and Jerry: Shiver Me Whiskers (archival recording from classic shorts)) and speaking in The Lonesome Mouse, The Tom and Jerry Show (2014 TV series) (archival recording from classic shorts)
- Sara Berner: Baby Puss vocal effects, speaking and singing voice for Jerry in Anchors Aweigh
- Lillian Randolph (voice of Mammy Two Shoes): when Jerry and Tuffy disguise to fool Tom in the 1946 short: The Milky Waif
- Paul Frees: speaking in His Mouse Friday and Blue Cat Blues
- Allen Swift: vocal effects in the Gene Deitch era (1961–1962) shorts
- Mel Blanc: vocal effects in the Chuck Jones era (1963–1967) shorts, The Tom and Jerry Show (2014 TV series) (archival recording from classic shorts)
- June Foray: vocal effects in the Chuck Jones era (1965–1967) shorts
- Stan Freberg: The Cat Above and the Mouse Below
- Dale McKennon: singing in Cat and Dupli-cat
- John Stephenson: The Tom and Jerry Show (1975 TV series)
- Frank Welker: The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show, Tom & Jerry Kids and Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring
- Lou Scheimer: The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show
- Billy Bletcher: some vocal effects in the 1945 short: Mouse in Manhattan
- Dana Hill: speaking and singing in Tom and Jerry: The Movie.
- Samuel Vincent: Tom and Jerry Tales
- Alan Marriott: Tom and Jerry in Fists of Furry and Tom and Jerry in War of the Whiskers
Jerry has had a number of voice actors over the years. Ever since his debut in Puss Gets the Boot his vocal effects were provided by co-creator William Hanna during the Hanna-Barbera era. Sara Berner also did vocal effects for Jerry in the short Baby Puss (1943) and voiced him in the short The Zoot Cat (1944), as well as Anchors Aweigh (1945) in a dance sequence with him and Gene Kelly. Billy Bletcher provided some vocal effects for Jerry in the short Mouse in Manhattan. A sequence in the short The Milky Waif (1946) features Jerry and Nibbles disguising themselves as a pair of black people, in which the former is voiced by Lillian Randolph (same voice as Mammy Two Shoes). Paul Frees did Jerry's speaking voice in the shorts His Mouse Friday (1951) and Blue Cat Blues (1956). When the MGM cartoon studio shut down in 1957, Gene Deitch and European animation studio Rembrandt Studio took over, and voice actor Allen Swift did Jerry's voice during the 1961-62. During the Chuck Jones era in 1963-1967, his voice was provided by Mel Blanc and June Foray. Stan Freberg did his voice in the short The Cat Above and the Mouse Below (1964) and Dale McKennon did Jerry’s singing voice in Cat and Dupli-cat (1967). In The Tom and Jerry Show (1975), Jerry was voiced by John Stephenson. Frank Welker voiced him in The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show (1980), Tom and Jerry Kids (1990-1994), and Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring (2002). Dana Hill voiced Jerry in Tom and Jerry: The Movie (1992).
Other voice actors include Lou Scheimer in The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show (1980-1982), Samuel Vincent in Tom and Jerry Tales (2006-2008) and Alan Marriott in Tom and Jerry in Fists of Furry (2000) and Tom and Jerry in War of the Whiskers (2002). In The Tom and Jerry Show (2014 TV series), Jerry's vocal effects are provided by archival recordings of William Hanna and Mel Blanc from the original theatrical shorts.
- Barbera, Joe (1994). My Life in 'Toons: From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing. pp. 73–76. ISBN 978-1-57036-042-8.
- Hanna, William (2000). A Cast of Friends. Da Capo Press. pp. 39–46. ISBN 978-0-306-80917-0.
- Hanna, William (2000). A Cast of Friends. Da Capo Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7864-0728-6.
- Barbera, Joe (1994). My Life in 'Toons: From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-57036-042-8.
- Maltin, Leonard (1987) . Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. New York: Plume. pp. 303–304. ISBN 978-0-452-25993-5.
- Barrier, Michael (1999). Hollywood Cartoons. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg. 547-548. ISBN 0-19-516729-5.
- Vallance, Tom (2006-12-20). "Joseph Barbera: Animation pioneer whose creations with William Hanna included the Flintstones and Tom and Jerry". The Independent (London).
- Barbera, Joe (1994). My Life in 'Toons: From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing. pp. 234–239. ISBN 978-1-57036-042-8.
- Maltin, Leonard (1987) . Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. New York: Plume. pp. 306–309. ISBN 978-0-452-25993-5.
- Albin Krebbs (February 3, 1996). "Gene Kelly, Dancer of Vigor and Grace, Dies". NY Times. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
- Hanna, William (2000). A Cast of Friends. Da Capo Press. pp. 61–64. ISBN 978-0-306-80917-0.
- Barbera, Joe (1994). My Life in 'Toons: From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing. pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-1-57036-042-8.
- Webb, Graham (2000). The animated film encyclopedia: a complete guide to American shorts, features and sequences 1900-197. McFarland. pp. 45–50. ISBN 978-0-306-80917-0.
- Grimes, William (April 27, 2010). "Allen Swift, Voice Actor for Radio and TV, Dies at 86". The New York Times.
- McBride, Joseph (October 2, 1992), "Review of Tom and Jerry: The Movie", Variety, 42: 34–56