Jerry Mouse

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Jerry
Tom and Jerry character
Jerry Mouse.png
Jerry's design in the Hanna-Barbera shorts.
First appearance
Created by
Designed by
Voiced by
In-universe information
Full nameGerald Jinx Mouse[1]
SpeciesHouse Mouse
GenderMale
FamilyNibbles (ward)
Relatives
  • Pecos and Harry (uncles)
  • Muscles and Merlin (cousins)
  • Dinky and Sniffles (nephews)
  • Unnamed mother
  • Geraldine Mouse (sister)
NationalityAmerican

Gerald Jinx "Jerry" Mouse is a fictional character and one of the two titular characters in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's series of Tom and Jerry theatrical animated short films and other animated media, usually acting as the protagonist opposite his rival Tom Cat. Created by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera, Jerry is a cute young brown mute anthropomorphic house mouse, who first appeared as a mouse named Jinx in the 1940 MGM animated short Puss Gets the Boot.[2] Hanna gave the mouse's original name as "Jinx",[3] while Barbera claimed the mouse went unnamed in his first appearance.

History[edit]

Tom and Jerry cartoons[edit]

The name "Jerry" was chosen by Geraint Rowlands, who submitted "Tom and Jerry" as potential names for the duo after an important Loews Inc. distributor in Texas asked for follow-ups to Puss Gets the Boot.[2] While the idea of a cat-and-mouse duo was considered shopworn by the 1940s,[2] Hanna and Barbera decided to expand upon the standard expected cat and mouse relationship. Instead of being a "cowering victim" of Tom, he took delight in besting, and even torturing, his feline frenemy (even if Tom is just following orders or is even just minding his own business and is antagonized by Jerry). Hanna and Barbera considered Tom and Jerry "the best of enemies", whose rivalry hid an unspoken amount of mutual caring and respect for one another.[4] Jerry is also mute, along with Tom.

In later Tom and Jerry cartoons, Jerry acquired a young ward: a small grey mouse called "Tuffy" or "Nibbles" depending upon the cartoon,[5][6] who was left on Jerry's doorstep as a foundling baby in the 1946 short The Milky Waif.[6] Jerry and Tuffy were also featured together in a sub-series of Tom and Jerry cartoons set in 17th century France which featured the characters as musketeers.[5] The first of these shorts, The Two Mouseketeers, won the 1951 Academy Award for Best Short Subject: Cartoons.[5]

Hanna and Barbera served as writer/directors of the Tom and Jerry cartoons until 1956, when they also became the producers.[7] Fourteen Tom and Jerry cartoons between 1940 and 1954 were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Short Subject: Cartoons, with seven of the shorts winning that award.[8]: 32  MGM shut down its animation department in 1957, but new Tom and Jerry cartoons were produced by Gene Deitch and later Chuck Jones during the 1960s. Jerry would also appear in later Tom and Jerry productions made for television, a series of direct-to-video features, and Tom and Jerry: The Movie, a 1992 theatrical film.[9] Later productions eschewed much of the violence the 1940s and 1950s shorts were known for, and in several of the television shows Jerry was given a red bowtie and a kinder disposition in Tom & Jerry Kids.[10]

Tom and Jerry aren't always enemies; they have been known to team up on occasion. The first Tom and Jerry short/film that Jerry was in is Puss Gets the Boot, and the last is The Karate Guard, the 163rd Tom and Jerry film. Jerry has been on the Tom and Jerry film series from 1940 to the present.

Anchors Aweigh[edit]

On his own, Jerry Mouse appears in a fantasy sequence in the 1945 Gene Kelly MGM musical film Anchors Aweigh.[11] Jerry appears as the young ruler of a kingdom where music is banned because he feels he lacks talent, and Kelly persuades the mouse into performing a song-and-dance number with him.[12] Kelly and MGM had originally wanted Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse as Kelly's dance partner for the sequence, but Disney was unwilling to license the character.[13]

Hanna and Barbera achieved the effect of Kelly dancing with Jerry by rotoscoping: live-action plates of Kelly dancing alone were shot first, and the action traced frame by frame so that Jerry's movements would match.[13] The success of the animated segment of Anchors Aweigh, which was mentioned as "stealing the show" in contemporary trade reviews,[12] led to two more live-action/animated projects for Hanna and Barbera and MGM: an underwater ballet sequence featuring both Tom and Jerry in the 1953 film Dangerous When Wet, with Esther Williams, and the "Sinbad the Sailor" sequence of Kelly's 1956 film Invitation to the Dance.[13]

Tom & Jerry Kids[edit]

In 1990, this version of Jerry wears a red bowtie (just like what he used to have in the 1975 Tom and Jerry Show) and has a tuft of hair on his head. He often taunts Tom (as a kitten) any chance he gets. Sometimes, in a few episodes, he is friends with/allies of Tom.

Voice actors[edit]

Jerry has had a number of voice actors over the years. Ever since his debut in Puss Gets the Boot his vocal effects were provided by co-creator William Hanna during the Hanna-Barbera era. Harry E. Lang did Jerry's vocal effects and speaking voice in the shorts The Lonesome Mouse (1943) and Mouse in Manhattan (1945). Sara Berner also did vocal effects for Jerry in the short Baby Puss (1943) and voiced him in the short The Zoot Cat (1944), as well as Anchors Aweigh (1945) in a dance sequence with him and Gene Kelly. A sequence in the short The Milky Waif (1946) features Jerry and Nibbles disguising themselves as a pair of black people, in which the former is voiced by Lillian Randolph (same voice as Mammy Two Shoes). Paul Frees did Jerry's speaking voice in the shorts His Mouse Friday (1951) and Blue Cat Blues (1956). Manuel Paris did Jerry's voice in the short Mucho Mouse (1957). When the MGM cartoon studio shut down in 1957 and Gene Deitch and European animation studio Rembrandt Studio took over, he and Allen Swift did Jerry's voice during the 1961–62 era. During the Chuck Jones era in 1963–1967, his voice was provided by Mel Blanc, June Foray, Chuck Jones, and Abe Levitow. Terence Monk did his voice in the short The Cat Above and the Mouse Below (1964) and Dale McKennon did Jerry's singing voice in Cat and Dupli-cat (1967). In The Tom and Jerry Show (1975), Jerry was voiced by John Stephenson. Lou Scheimer voiced him in The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show (1980–1982). Frank Welker voiced him in Tom and Jerry Kids (1990–1993) and Tom and Jerry: The Magic Ring (2002). Dana Hill voiced Jerry's voice in Tom and Jerry: The Movie (1992).

Other voice actors include Jeff Bergman in a Cartoon Network Latin America bumper, Alan Marriott in Tom and Jerry in Fists of Furry (2000) and Tom and Jerry in War of the Whiskers (2002), Marc Silk in Tom and Jerry in War of the Whiskers (2002; as Monster Jerry), Dee Bradley Baker in Tom and Jerry: Blast Off to Mars (2005) and Tom and Jerry: The Fast and the Furry (2005), Spike Brandt in The Karate Guard (2005), Tom and Jerry: A Nutcracker Tale (2007), Tom and Jerry Meet Sherlock Holmes (2010), Tom and Jerry and the Wizard of Oz (2011), Tom and Jerry: Robin Hood and His Merry Mouse (2012), Tom and Jerry's Giant Adventure (2013), Tom and Jerry: The Lost Dragon (2014), Tom and Jerry: Spy Quest (2015), Tom and Jerry Back to Oz (2016), and Tom and Jerry: Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory (2017), Sam Vincent in Tom and Jerry Tales (2006-2008). In The Tom and Jerry Show (2014 TV series), Jerry's vocal effects are provided by the show's sound designer Rich Danhakl and archival recordings of William Hanna from the original theatrical shorts. In Tom & Jerry (2021 film), his voice was provided by André Sogliuzzo and archived recordings of William Hanna.

On November 18, 2021, it was confirmed that Eric Bauza would be voicing the character on the 2022 fighting game, MultiVersus, which establishes Jerry's original given name "Jinx" to be his middle name.[1]

Popular culture[edit]

Tom and Jerry were planned to appear as a cameo in the deleted scene "Acme's Funeral" from the 1988 film Who Framed Roger Rabbit.[23]

Jerry has been variously credited as Gerald "Jerry" Mouse in the video game Multiversus,[1] and Jerome A. Mouse in the credits to their 2020 feature film. Neither of these conflicting names is considered canon, according to leading animation historian Jerry Beck.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "MultiVersus Roster". MultiVersus.com. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  2. ^ a b c Barbera, Joe (1994). My Life in 'Toons: From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing. pp. 73–76. ISBN 978-1-57036-042-8.
  3. ^ Hanna, William (2000). A Cast of Friends. Da Capo Press. pp. 39–46. ISBN 978-0-306-80917-0.
  4. ^ a b Hanna, William (2000). A Cast of Friends. Da Capo Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7864-0728-6.
  5. ^ a b c Barbera, Joe (1994). My Life in 'Toons: From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-57036-042-8.
  6. ^ a b Maltin, Leonard (1987) [1980]. Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. New York: Plume. pp. 303–304. ISBN 978-0-452-25993-5.
  7. ^ Barrier, Michael (1999). Hollywood Cartoons. New York: Oxford University Press. Pg. 547–548. ISBN 0-19-516729-5.
  8. ^ Vallance, Tom (2006-12-20). "Joseph Barbera: Animation pioneer whose creations with William Hanna included the Flintstones and Tom and Jerry". The Independent (London).
  9. ^ Barbera, Joe (1994). My Life in 'Toons: From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing. pp. 234–239. ISBN 978-1-57036-042-8.
  10. ^ Maltin, Leonard (1987) [1980]. Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. New York: Plume. pp. 306–309. ISBN 978-0-452-25993-5.
  11. ^ Albin Krebbs (February 3, 1996). "Gene Kelly, Dancer of Vigor and Grace, Dies". NY Times. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
  12. ^ a b Hanna, William (2000). A Cast of Friends. Da Capo Press. pp. 61–64. ISBN 978-0-306-80917-0.
  13. ^ a b c Barbera, Joe (1994). My Life in 'Toons: From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing. pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-1-57036-042-8.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Scott, Keith (3 October 2022). Cartoon Voices of the Golden Age, Vol. 2. BearManor Media.
  15. ^ Webb, Graham (2000). The animated film encyclopedia: a complete guide to American shorts, features and sequences 1900-197. McFarland. pp. 45–50. ISBN 978-0-306-80917-0.
  16. ^ Grimes, William (April 27, 2010). "Allen Swift, Voice Actor for Radio and TV, Dies at 86". The New York Times.
  17. ^ "Tom & Jerry – The Gene Deitch Collection". Retrieved 2020-10-24.
  18. ^ "Boomerang Nordic Animated Indents 2010". YouTube. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  19. ^ "Vintage 1965 Talking Pull String Tom and Jerry Hand Puppet by Mattel". YouTube. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
  20. ^ McBride, Joseph (October 2, 1992), "Review of Tom and Jerry: The Movie", Variety, 42: 34–56
  21. ^ "Voice of Jerry Mouse in Cartoon Network". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
  22. ^ "André Sogliuzzo on Twitter: "Though he doesn't say much, I am proud to announce I was able to voice in some small way, Jerry: The second most iconic mouse in all of animation! Now wreaking havoc in Tom & Jerry on HBO Max!"". Twitter. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
  23. ^ Hill, Jim. "Storyboards reveal what Marvin Acme's funeral in "Who Framed Roger Rabbit" would have looked like". jimhillmedia.com. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  24. ^ MacGuill, Dan (28 December 2021). "What is the Full Name of Jerry From 'Tom and Jerry'?". Snopes.com. Snopes Media Group Inc. Retrieved 29 December 2021.