Joe D'Amato

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Joe D'Amato
Joe D'Amato Cannes 1996.jpg
Born
Aristide Massaccesi

(1936-12-15)15 December 1936
Died23 January 1999(1999-01-23) (aged 62)
OccupationFilm director
Years active1961–1999

Aristide Massaccesi (15 December 1936 – 23 January 1999), known professionally as Joe D'Amato, was a highly prolific[1] Italian film producer, director and cinematographer[2] who worked in many genres (westerns, decamerotici, peplum, war films, swashbuckler, comedy, fantasy, postapocalyptic film, and erotic thriller) but is best known for his horror, erotic and adult films.[3][4]

D'Amato worked in the 1950s as electric and set photographer, in the 1960s as camera operator, and from 1969 onwards as cinematographer. Starting in 1972, he directed and co-directed around 200 films under numerous pseudonyms, regularly acting as cinematographer as well.[citation needed] Starting in the early 1980s, D'Amato also produced many of his own and other directors' films through the companies he founded or co-founded, the best known being Filmirage.

In the horror genre, he is above all remembered for his films Beyond the Darkness (1979) and Antropophagus (1980), which have gained cult status, as well as Absurd (1981).[5][6] Among his best known erotic films are his five entries into the Black Emanuelle series of films starring Laura Gemser (1976–1978)[7] and his horror/pornography crossover films Erotic Nights of the Living Dead and Porno Holocaust (both shot in Santo Domingo in 1979).[8]

Biography[edit]

Early life and work[edit]

Joe D'Amato was born on December 15, 1936 in Rome, Italy.[3] His father was Renato Massaccesi, who after an incident on a ship had been declared a war invalid and had started to work at the Istituto Luce in Rome first as electrician, fixing power generators left by the United States army at Cinecittà, and then as chief photographic technician.[9][10][11] In 1950, at the age of 14, D'Amato joined his father at work together with his brothers Carlo and Fernando (called Nando).[9][11] Being the most enterprising of the three sons, D'Amato took on the task of delivering the movie cameras his father sold.[9] D'Amato also assisted in the dubbing of Italian film productions[11] and designed title and end credits with Eugenio Bava, cutting the letters out by hand.[12] In 1952, D'Amato worked as a still photographer on the set of The Golden Coach[11], later as electric.[13] In the 1960s, D'Amato eventually moved on to work as a camera operator on numerous films including Mario Bava's Hercules in the Haunted World.[11][12]

First work as cinematographer and director (1969–1975)[edit]

In 1969, Piero Livi's Pelle di bandito and Silvio Amadio's No Man's Island (Italian: L'Isola delle Svedesi) were D'Amato's first films as cinematographer.[12][11] In the next few years, D'Amato continued to work as cinematographer on Italian productions such as Umberto Lenzi's A Quiet Place to Kill, Massimo Dallamano's What Have You Done to Solange?[11] and some of Demofilo Fidani's low-budget spaghetti westerns.[14]

D'Amato took on the role of director for the first time in 1972. He started out with a number of small western films (Go Away! Trinity Has Arrived in Eldorado and A Bounty Killer in Trinity) and decamerotici (More Sexy Canterbury Tales and Novelle licenziose di vergini vogliose) which he partly directed, partly co-directed [15] before going on to direct the gothic horror film Death Smiles on a Murderer (1973) and the war film Heroes in Hell (1974), both starring Klaus Kinski[16]. D'Amato briefly relinquished directing and reverted to cinematography in films such as Luigi Batzella's The Devil's Wedding Night[17], Steve Carver's The Arena[18] and five films directed by Alberto De Martino: Crime Boss, The Killer Is on the Phone, Counselor at Crime, The Antichrist, and – two years later – Strange Shadows in an Empty Room.[17] When D'Amato was in Canada shooting a sleigh ride sequence for Lucio Fulci's Challenge to White Fang, the film's producer Ermanno Donati asked him to stay and direct the adventure film Red Coats for him[19][20], in which D'Amato used the pseudonym "Joe D'Amato" for the first time.[21] It turned a good profit, and D'Amato later considered it his best film in this period.[22]

First films with Laura Gemser and the Black Emanuelle series (1975–1977)[edit]

Emanuelle's Revenge (1975), which D'Amato co-directed with Bruno Mattei (who remains uncredited because D'Amato was a "rising name"),[23] was one of several films whose title alluded to the successful French erotic film Emmanuelle (1974).[24] In retrospect, it was a kind of turning point in D'Amato's career, being his first pornographic film – though still softcore.[23]

In his next film, the commedia sexy Voto di castità (1976, scripted by George Eastman), D'Amato met Laura Gemser, who would star in many of his films and in the 1980s and early 1990s would also regularly work as costume designer for his productions. In this first film, she only played the small part of a French maid, but it was during the shoot that D'Amato got the idea to use her as star in his next film.[25]

Eva nera was the exotic erotic drama which D'Amato directed starring Gemser as topless snake dancer alongside Jack Palance and Gabriele Tinti – her future husband.[26] The film was produced by Harry Alan Towers and Lucio Fulcisano and shot both on location in Hong Kong and at the Elios Studios near Rome.[26][27]

Gemser, who had previously starred in Bitto Albertini's Black Emanuelle (1975), went on to shoot the following five films of the Black Emanuelle series under D'Amato's direction.[28] (Albertini, on the other hand, had to find a new actress for his own Black Emanuelle 2 (1976) – a sequel only in name.)[28] Although the main character's name in the Black Emanuelle series alluded to the original French Emmanuelle, it was spelled slightly differently in order to avoid a plagiarism lawsuit.[29] Also, the character itself is different: Black Emanuelle is an international reporter and photographer who travels to exotic locations.[24] D'Amato added some violence and horror to the series such as the fake snuff film footage in Emanuelle in America[30], a gang rape scene in Emanuelle Around the World (1977) [31], and gore scenes in the cannibal film Emanuelle and the Last Cannibals[32].[17] As D'Amato later remembered, this "was a very good period in my life. Movie business was very good. We travelled round the world, finding new and fascinating locations for our movies."[33]

The Caribbean phase (1978–1979)[edit]

In 1978, D'Amato went to Santo Domingo for the first time, where he started to shoot the erotic horror film Papaya, Love Goddess of the Cannibals in May[34] and the mercenaries-at-war film Tough to Kill in September.[35][36]

In mid-October 1978, D'Amato started work on the nunsploitation film Images in a Convent[37][38] and continued in 1979, which was to become a particularly productive year,[39] by directing the violent erotic thriller Il porno shop della settima strada (The Pleasure Shop on Seventh Avenue[40]) on location in New York,[41] both films produced by Franco Gaudenzi's company Kristal Film.[36] From late June to early July 1979, D'Amato went to South Tyrol to shoot and direct the horror film Buio Omega starring Kieran Canter and Cinzia Monreale, a remake of Mino Guerrini's The Third Eye[42][39][43] produced by Dario Rossetti and Ermanno Donati with music by Goblin.[44]

Immediately afterwards, D'Amato returned to Santo Domingo[45] to film Paradiso blu, starring Anna Bergman and Lucia Ramirez, and the voodoo-themed Orgasmo nero (Sex and Black Magic), starring Ramirez, Susan Scott and Richard Harrison before directing two films combining hardcore pornography and horror – Porno Holocaust and Le notti erotiche dei morti viventi (Erotic Nights of the Living Dead) – as well as three hardcore thrillers, Hard Sensation, Porno Esotic Love and Sesso Nero.[46][47][29][48]

First work as producer (1979–1982)[edit]

The voodoo-themed Sesso nero, written by George Eastman, was the last film D'Amato shot in the Caribbean, at the end of 1979, and the first film D'Amato produced on his own, through his newly founded company, P.C.M. (Produzioni Cinematografiche Massaccesi). Of the Caribbean group of films it received the earliest theatrical release – the films only being released gradually throughout 1980 and 1981.[49]

After his return from the Caribbean, D'Amato also co-founded Filmirage and used the companies to produce and direct the gore film Antropophagus (1980, produced through P.C.M. and Filmirage) and its follow-up, the slasher film Absurd (1982, co-produced by Filmirage and Metaxa), both of which starred George Eastman and later became cult films for fans of extreme cinema.[50][51][52][36]

D'Amato also founded and co-founded two further production companies "Cinema 80" and "M.A.D." (an acronym for [Aristide] Massaccesi, Alessandroni, and [Donatella] Donati) on January 15, 1980 and January 9, 1981, respectively. For M.A.D., Alessandroni, an engineer, provided the funding, while his son acted as producer on set. Donatella Donati, the daughter of Ermanno Donati, became his assistant and constant collaborator, usually acting as production secretary and assistant director.[36][9]

The two companies were the main vehicles for D'Amato's film production of this period. From 1980 until 1982, D'Amato produced 14 hardcore pornographic films through both companies (Cinema 80: 9 films, M.A.D.: 5), 10 of which he directed and lensed himself, while 3 of the films (Blue erotic climax, Labbra vogliose and Le porno investigatrici) were directed by Claudio Bernabei.[36] For legal reasons, Bernabei's pseudonym Alexander (or Alexandre) Borsky was used for almost all directorial credits, but the films were for the most part directed by D'Amato personally.[36] One notable exception was Porno video (1981; sometimes: Pornovideo), which was directed entirely by Giuliana Gamba (under the pseudonym Therese Dunn).[53] It was the first film D'Amato produced for another director – a practice he would start expanding six years later in his Filmirage period.[54] Il succo del sesso (1982; a punning title which can mean both "The Essence of Sex" and "The Juice of Sex") was the only film directed but not produced by D'Amato, being a "Promo Film" production of Giovanni Perrucci's.[55]

The Cinema 80 and M.A.D. films had mostly generic titles such as Super climax, Super hard love and Voglia di sesso (literally: Lust for Sex), but a group of three films produced through Cinema 80 stands out. In 1981, building on Tinto Brass's Caligula (1979), D'Amato produced, shot and directed Caligula... The Untold Story in both a hardcore and a softcore version, starring David Brandon, Laura Gemser and Gabriele Tinti. It recounted the final days of the Roman Emperor Caligula and was followed by two purely hardcore pornographic films – Una vergine per l'impero romano and Messalina orgasmo imperiale – in which D'Amato reused sets and costumes from the first film, albeit on a significantly lower budget.[56] The three films were signed by D'Amato as director under different pseudonyms and released separately in December 1982, May 1983 and July 1983. They have been called his "porno-peplum trilogy".[57]

Messalina orgasmo imperiale (shot in 1982) also happened to be the last film of this period.[58] Another hardcore film that D'Amato originally intended to shoot himself for producer Riccardo Billy in co-production with a Chinese company, Love in Hong Kong (1983, starring Mark Shannon and Marianne Aubert), ended up being entirely delegated to his assistant Bernabei for lack of time, who directed the film on location in Hong Kong.[59] It survives only in a truncated softcore version.[60]

The Filmirage years (1982–1993)[edit]

In 1980, D'Amato had taken over a company from producer Ermanno Donati. D'Amato had renamed the company to "Filmirage" and used it to produce his own and, from 1987 onwards, also other directors' films for the international market.[61]

In 1982, D'Amato used Filmirage to produce, shoot and direct the first film of the Ator series: Ator l'invincibile (Ator, the Fighting Eagle) starring Miles O'Keefe and Sabrina Siani, which was directly inspired by Conan the Barbarian. It was followed by Ator 2 - L'invincibile Orion (English titles: The Blade Master and Cave Dwellers) the following year, in which O'Keefe was flanked by Lisa Foster.[62]

In 1983 and 1984, D'Amato produced and shot the post-apocalyptic action films Endgame (1983) starring Al Cliver, George Eastman, Laura Gemser and Gordon Mitchell, which D'Amato directed alone, and 2020 Texas Gladiators (1984) starring Al Cliver and Sabrina Siani, which D'Amato co-directed with George Eastman. The films follow the success of Mad Max (1979) and Mad Max 2 (1981).[63]

In 1984 and early 1985, D'Amato briefly reactivated his company M.A.D. to produce 10 hardcore pornographic films, all of which were directed by Luca Damiano and starred Marina Hedman. D'Amato is reported to have collaborated on some of these himself as well, although it remains speculative in which function and on which ones.[36] Later in 1985 D'Amato left hardcore pornography behind and for a period of eight years exclusively shot softcore and horror films.[64] According to an interview D'Amato gave in 1990, hardcore, as opposed to softcore, had only been profitable the first four years in the late 1970s and early 1980s while the novelty and controversy lasted.[65]

D'Amato began this hardcore-free period by directing four softcore dramas set during fascism in Italy and starring Lilli Carati and Laura Gemser: L'alcova (The Alcove), Il piacere (The Pleasure), Lussuria (A Lustful Mind), and Voglia di guardare (Midnight Gigolo). The four films recall the style and themes of Tinto Brass's La chiave (The Key) while their plots and characters are not interconnected in any way.[66]

Together with Harry Alan Towers, D'Amato co-produced Warrior Queen (working title: Pompeii), shot in 1985 at the Elios Studios near Rome to cash in on the success of the miniseries The Last Days of Pompeii (1984).[67] It was a sword-and-sandal film starring Sybil Danning, Donald Pleasence and David Brandon and was directed by Chuck Vincent.[68] In an interview, Larry Revene, Vincent's usual cinematographer, remembered that he worked on the sync sound for this film instead, because "Aristide shot it. He wasn't only a director/producer, he was also a cameraman."[67] In the United States, the film had a brief theatrical run in a cut R rated version before being released in a longer version on video.[68]

There followed a phase in which D'Amato directed softcore films predominantly in the United States, often takes on popular American films.[63] First, he went to New Orleans to produce and shoot two films starring Jessica Moore as the novelist Sarah Asproon: 11 Days, 11 Nights (1987) and Top Model (1988).[69] 11 Days, 11 Nights was inspired by Adrian Lyne's film 9½ Weeks but reversed the roles with the woman being the dissolute character;[70] it was a commercial success.[71] In 1989, D'Amato's main actress was Valentine Demy with whom he produced and directed Afternoon and Dirty Love, the latter reminiscent of another of Adrian Lyne's films, Flashdance.[72] After these, D'Amato produced and directed two erotic dramas with Tara Buckman: Blue Angel Cafe and High Finance Woman.[73]

Beyond producing his own softcore films, D'Amato also used Filmirage to produce other directors' films:[54] Michele Soavi's debut Stage Fright (which was also the debut of D'Amato's son Daniele Massaccesi as assistant cameraman), Deran Serafian's Interzone, Umberto Lenzi's Ghosthouse (La casa 3) and Hitcher In The Dark, Fabrizio Laurenti's Witchery (La casa 4) and The Crawlers (Troll 3), George Eastman's Metamorphosis, Claudio Fragasso's Troll 2 and Beyond Darkness (La casa 5), Franco Molé's The Room of Words, and Lucio Fulci's Door to Silence.[63][74][9] D'Amato not only produced, but also partially directed the horror film Killing Birds and but for the first scene directed the sharksploitation drama Deep Blood.[75]

At the beginning of the 1990s, D'Amato revisited his Ator series with a concluding entry entitled Quest for the Mighty Sword[76], featuring the Son of Ator.[77] Then, he revived the character of Sarah Asproon in 11 Days, 11 Nights 2, this time played by Kristine Rose and again set in New Orleans.[78]. With Rose as protagonist, D'Amato also directed Passion's Flower, a remake of The Postman Always Rings Twice, before shooting two softcore films starring Carmen di Pietro in 1991, both with a more violent angle than the preceding ones: Devil in the Flesh follows a group of mercenaries who encounter some nurses at an isolated hospital, and Dangerous Obsession tells of a woman who turns the tables on her assailant.[79][80] After these, D'Amato directed Frankenstein 2000 (1992), his last horror film, which combined a modern take on the traditional Frankenstein story with elements of the rape and revenge film.[81]

In 1993, inspired by the success of the Chinese erotic comedy Sex and Zen (1991), D'Amato then went to the Philippines to shoot a number of Asian themed softcore films, for which he often used Chinese pseudonyms.[82] Among them are such diverse films as Chinese Kamasutra, China and Sex and I racconti della camera rossa (translation: The Tales of the Red Chamber; named after China's classical novel Dream of the Red Chamber), the latter two structurally and thematically reminiscent of Italian decamerotici.[82][83]

Later work and death (1993-1999)[edit]

Later in 1993, D'Amato went back to predominantly producing and directing hardcore pornography. [84] In order to return to adult filmmaking more easily, D'Amato initially teamed up with Luca Damiano, with whom he shot roughly 20 films before continuing on his own.[85] Although VHS had become the standard for adult films, D'Amato continued to shoot on 35mm film for a few years before finally transitioning to video for his last productions in 1997 and 1998[86] – a development which he saw critically as while there was little difference between the films in terms of profit, the profit – and hence the quality of production – was lower compared to productions shot on film.[87] The crew on an early 35mm shoot such as Juliet & Romeo included lighting staff, camera assistants, make-up artists, and set decorators; dubbing was done in post-production.[88]

Among his best known films from this late hardcore period are his collaborations with Rocco Siffredi (Tarzan X – Shame of Jane, Marco Polo, Marquis de Sade, Torero) and Kelly Trump (Messalina, Kamasutra, Lolita), his pornographic versions of Shakespearean drama (Juliet & Romeo, Anthony and Cleopatra, Othello 2000), westerns (Outlaws, Calamity Jane), swashbucklers (Raiders), the bible (Sodom & Gamorra), Greco-Roman mythology (Olympus, Amor & Psyche, Ulysses, Hercules – A Sex Adventure), Roman emperors (Nero – Orgy of Fire, Caligula – The Deviant Emperor) and other famous people (Robin Hood, Goya, Amadeus Mozart, Thief of Love – Giacomo Casanova, Rudy – Valentino's story, Scarface).[89] Two recurring actresses in his films from 1996 to 1999 were Selen (Raw & Naked, Queen of the Elephants, Sahara, and Selen the Girl from Treasure Island) and Eva Henger, with whom he shot the time travel films Experiences and Experiences 2, a trilogy on the capital sins, Phantom (using footage from the silent film The Phantom of the Opera), and Showgirl.[90] Whereas D'Amato's adult films were very rarely without a plot entirely, D'Amato stated in a 1997 interview that one had used to include more plot whereas now the only thing they wanted was porn – and very hard one at that: "double, triple, quadruple penetrations, anal ...".[87]

In between shooting adult films from 1994 to 1999, D'Amato also made four attempts at returning to genre films. In 1995, he directed the erotic drama Provocation set in the Italian countryside of the 1930s starring Erika Savastani,[91] and in 1997 the erotic comedy Top Girl set in and around an American TV station[91] and the erotic thriller The Hyena starring Cinzia Roccaforte, which received a limited theatrical release in Italy.[92][93] In 1998, D'Amato directed the swashbuckler I predatori delle Antille starring Anita Rinaldi.[94]

On 23 January 1999, Joe D'Amato died of a heart attack in Monterotondo, a comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital.[95][13] According to Luigi Cozzi, his death happened unexpectedly while he was busy preparing a new film.[96] His last film was the adult film Showgirl (1999), a take on Paul Verhoeven's Showgirls (1995).[94][97][98]

Names under which D'Amato is credited[edit]

Birthname[edit]

Throughout his career, D'Amato used his birthname Aristide Massaccesi only once for a directorial credit, namely for Death Smiles on a Murderer (1973).[22] However, it was regularly used for other credits. For his first work as camera operator, it was the only name he was credited with, and as cinematographer, writer of stories and scriptwriter, he credited himself or was credited with it regularly until the early 1980s.[99]

Pseudonyms[edit]

The first pseudonyms used by Aristide Massaccesi were his actor's credits in the spaghetti westerns Straniero... fatti il segno della croce! (1968) and Dead Men Don't Make Shadows (1970), for which he used puns on his birthname: Ariston Massachusetts and Arizona Massachusset, respectively.[100][101]

His best known pseudonym is the anglicized Joe D'Amato, which he first adopted as director of Giubbe Rosse (1975).[11] In 1991, D'Amato stated he had discovered the name in some calendar and chosen to use it because it sounded promising: In its mixture of American and Italian, it was similar to those of Brian de Palma and Martin Scorsese.[65] Joe D'Amato became the name Massaccesi was most associated with, even more than his birth name.[11] D'Amato used this main pseudonym of his exclusively for credits as producer and director and not for credits as cinematographer or writer.[citation needed]

The pseudonym Federiko Slonisko, sometimes also spelled Federico Slonisco or any mixture of these two spellings (including the short form Fred and several other mis- or variant spellings), was regularly used for D'Amato's work as cinematographer starting in 1982.[102]

The pseudonyms Federico Slonisco Jr. and Dan Slonisko (including variant spellings) are also sometimes considered to belong to D'Amato.[103][104] However, D'Amato's son Daniele, a camera operator and cinematographer, started his career working for his father.[105][106]

The pseudonym Michael Wotruba was used as D'Amato's directorial credit on:

This pseudonm is also to be found as directorial credit for Death Smiles on a Murderer (1973) in the entry at Public Cinematographic Register, but was later changed to D'Amato's birthname for the release.[111]

David Hills was used by D'Amato as directorial pseudonym on the following films:

David Hills was also used as directorial credit on an early announcement of Deep Blood (1989), but was exchanged by the allonym Raf Donato for the official release.[116] As producer, D'Amato used this pseudonym on Troll 2[117] and Interzone.[118]

For the last two films of D'Amato's "porno-peplum trilogy", Una vergine per l'impero and Messalina orgasmo imperiale (both released 1983), D'Amato used Dirk Frey as cinematographer and Robert Hall and O.J. Clarke as director, respectively.[57][119][58]

The directorial credit of Il succo del sesso (1983), which D'Amato directed, reads Gilbert Damiano.[120]

The pseudonym Peter Newton was used for D'Amato's credit as cinematographer on Paradiso blu (1980)[121] and his directorial credit on Absurd (1981).[112] For the latter, he also used Richard Haller for his credits as cinematographer and co-producer.[122] Kevin Mancuso was used for the directorial credit on 2020 Texas Gladiators (1982); D'Amato co-directed the film with George Eastman so it can be considered a pseudonym for both Eastman and D'Amato.[113] D'Amato used the name Dario Donati as director and editor on Convent of Sinners (1986)[123] and as director on Delizia (1986)[123].

The female pseudonym Joan Russell was used for D'Amato's directorial credit on Una tenera storia (1992).[124][125] It was also used not for D'Amato, but for Donatella Donati and Antonio Tentori as story and screenwriting credit in Frankenstein 2000 (1992), which D'Amato produced and directed.[125]

For his oriental films of 1993, D'Amato used a number of new pseudo-oriental pseudonyms. For I racconti della camera rossa he used Robert Yip as director, Lim Seng Yee as scenarist and Boy Tan Bien as cinematographer.[86] For Chinese kamasutra he signed with the pseudonyms Chang Lee Sun (director), Fu Shen (scenarist) and Hsu Hsien (cinematographer).[126] And for Il labirinto dei sensi, he signed his scenario with Leslie Wong while using Joe D'Amato and Federico Slonsiko for the directorial and cinematographic credits respectively.[127]

Allonyms[edit]

An allonym is distinguished from a pseudonym in that it is the given name or pseudonym of a different person from the one who should be credited.

Romano Gastaldi, the pseudonym of Romano Scandariato, was used for the directorial credit on More Sexy Canterbury Tales (1972), which D'Amato directed while Scandariato was his assistant director[128], and for Fra' Tazio da Velletri (1973), which D'Amato left after a disagreement soon after the beginning of the shoot; Scandariato, his assistant, finished the film and was credited.[129]

Oskar Faradine, the pseudonym of Oscar Santaniello, was used for the directorial credit on A Bounty Killer in Trinity. The film was reportedly directed by D'Amato and Santaniello was the film's producer.[130] Lupi, however, in his monograph on D'Amato argues on qualitative grounds for Santaniello as actual director.[130]

Anna Bergman's name was also used for the directorial credit on Paradiso blu (1980). Bergman was the main actress, but D'Amato directed the film. Her name was used for the directorial credit because, according to Luigi Cozzi, the producer did not want it to be seen as an erotic film (for which D'Amato was already known at the time).[131]

Alexandre Borsky, sometimes spelled Alexander or Borski, was the pseudonym of Claudio Bernabei. Bernabei stated in an interview that he created it with Walerian Borowczyk's name in mind.[36] The Borsky pseudonym was used as directorial credit for 14 of the 15 films produced by D'Amato's companies M.A.D. and Cinema 80 from 1980 to 1982. Of these 14 films, Bernabei directed 3, D'Amato 11.[36] In 1993 and 1994, D'Amato briefly reactivated this name as directorial credit for a small number of adult films starring Luana Borgia which he directed while transitioning from softcore to hardcore again. According to an interview he gave in 1995, it was to camouflage his return.[132]

Lucky Faar (or Farr) Delly, sometimes wrongly listed as a pseudonym of Joe D'Amato[133], was in reality the pseudonym of Luciano Fardelli, who acted as administrator of D'Amato's production company M.A.D. in 1984 and 1985.[134] It was used as directorial credit for 10 films directed by Franco Lo Cascio; it is unclear in which of these films D'Amato acted as co-director.[36]

Raf Donato, a variant of Raffaele Donato's name, was used for the directorial credit on Deep Blood (1989). According to D'Amato, Donato had planned to direct the film, but only directed the first scene. D'Amato directed the rest of the film.[135]

Personality[edit]

According to the actresses who worked with him, D'Amato was sociable, humorous with a sense of irony, amiable, and supportive; to some he appeared like a father.[136] Both Laura Gemser, with whom he worked together for a long time, and Monica Zanchi pointed out his adventurous and playful approach to filmmaking.[137][138]

Gemser also remembered that D'Amato rarely got angry, and that when it happened he usually took it with irony; when deeply angered, however, he would shout and curse and become insufferable.[137] She also recalled that, much like herself, D'Amato fell asleep easily and anywhere, even in the breaks between rehearsals.[137] Donatella Donati, his regular assistant since the mid-1970s, recalled this penchant as his biggest flaw; in Cannes, she once found him asleep on the office floor.[138]

Legacy[edit]

Screenings[edit]

In 1995, Joe D'Amato was a special guest at the London film festival "Eurofest" which took place at the Everyman Cinema, Hampstead, where he gave an onstage interview to Mary Ashworth inbetween screenings of Stage Fright, Emanuelle and the Last Cannibals, and Frankenstein 2000 – the latter a world premiere, followed by a signing session.[139][140] Parts of the interview can be found on the Severin DVD release of Emanuelle in Bangkok.[141]

Posthumously, on April 14, 2007, the Cinémathèque Française in Paris screened a D'Amato double feature from newly acquired theatrical prints under the title Le sang et la chair (translation: The Blood and the Flesh), consisting of Antropophagus and Le sexe noir (both 1980).[142]

The Joe D'Amato Horror Festival, under the art direction of Paolo Ruffini, was held for the first time in Pietrasanta in April 2007 as well.[143] It took place a second time in October and November 2014 in Livorno, moderated by Antonio Tentori.[144] Among the guests was D'Amato's son Daniele Massaccesi, who said that it had been above all the passion for cinema – to never stop making films at any costs – that D'Amato had wanted to pass on to the younger generation of filmmakers.[145]

The "Hofbauer Kongress", which takes place at least once every year since 2010 at the Komm Kino in Nuremberg, Germany, has repeatedly screened D'Amato's films mostly from 35 mm prints, with the 15th and 16th edition of the festival being especially devoted to the filmmaker.[146][147]

On February 1–3, 2019, honoring the 20th anniversary of D'Amato's death, the Filmarchiv Austria held a "Tribute to Joe D'Amato" at the Metro Kinokulturhaus in Vienna in which 10 films he directed were shown from original 35 mm prints.[148][149]

Film tributes and dedications[edit]

In 1999, Andreas Schnaas shot a remake of, and homage to, D'Amato's Antropophagus entitled Anthropophagous 2000.[150]

The Italian film Hyde's Secret Nightmare (2011, directed by Domiziano Cristopharo) is dedicated to D'Amato.[151]

Filmography[edit]

Title Year Worked as Notes Ref(s)
Director Producer Writer Cinematographer Other
È l'amor che mi rovina 1951 Yes Still photographer [152]
L'inafferrabile 12 Yes Still photographer [152]
The Golden Coach 1952 Yes Still photographer [153][152]
Madonna delle rose[154] 1953 Yes Technician [153]
Hercules in the Haunted World[155] 1961 Yes Assistant cameraman [153][152]
Gold of Rome[156] Yes Assistant cameraman [153][157][158]
Il mare[159] 1962 Yes Assistant cameraman [157]
Contempt 1963 Yes Assistant cameraman [157]
Canzoni in bikini[160] Yes Cameraman.[153] Cinematographer: Franco Villa[161] [157]
Due mattacchioni al Moulin Rouge[162] 1964 Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[163] [153][164]
Il mito (La violenza e l'amore)[165] Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[166] [153][164]
Secret of the Sphinx[167] Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[168] [153][164]
Soldati e caporali[169] 1965 Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[170] [153][164]
Viaggio di nozze all'italiana[171] 1966 Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Emilio Foriscot[172] [153][164]
Lo scippo[173] Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[174] [164]
For One Thousand Dollars Per Day[175] Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Mario Pacheco[176] [153][164]
Trap for Seven Spies[177] Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: José F. Aguayo[178] [164]
È mezzanotte... butta giù il cadavere Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[citation needed] [153][164]
Thompson 1880 Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[179] [153][164]
The Taming of the Shrew Yes Assistant Cameraman [164]
Maigret a Pigalle Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Giuseppe Ruzzolini[180] [153][164]
Cinque della vendetta Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Víctor Monreal[181] [153][164]
Due once di piombo (Il mio nome è Pecos) Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[179] [153][164]
Master Stroke Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Francisco Sánchez[182] [164]
Red Blood, Yellow Gold 1967 Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Francisco Marin[183] [153][164]
Psychopath Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[184] [164]
Pecos Cleans Up Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[179] [164]
Your Turn to Die Yes Cameraman. Cinematographers: Franco Villa, Stelvio Massi[185] [164]
Straniero ... fatti il segno della croce! Yes Cameraman, assistant director, actor. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[179] [164][186]
Rose rosse per il führer Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[187] [164]
I'll Sell My Skin Dearly Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Stelvio Massi[188] [164]
Vietnam, guerra senza fronte Yes Yes Second unit cameraman[152] [189][164]
Shoot Twice 1968 Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Francisco Marin[190] [164]
Seven Times Seven Yes Cameraman. Cinematography: Franco Villa[191] [164]
A Woman on Fire Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[192] [164]
Bury Them Deep Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[179] [164]
Una storia d'amore 1969 Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Guglielmo Mancori[193] [164]
Orgasmo Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Guglielmo Mancori[194] [164]
Passa Sartana ... è l'ombra della tua morte Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[179] [164]
A Noose for Django Yes Cameraman. Cinematographer: Franco Villa[195] [179]
Pelle di bandito Yes Director: Piero Livi [164][196]
No Man's Island (L'isola delle svedesi) Yes Director: Silvio Amadio [197][164][198]
Disperatamente l'estate scorsa 1970 Yes Director: Silvio Amadio [164][199]
Inginocchiati straniero... I cadaveri non fanno ombra! Yes Director: Demofilo Fidani [164][200]
Arrivano Django e Sartana... è la fine Yes Director: Demofilo Fidani [164][201]
A Barrel Full of Dollars 1971 Yes Director: Demofilo Fidani [164][202]
A Fistful of Death Yes Director: Demofilo Fidani [164][203]
Vendetta at Dawn Yes Camera operator. Cinematographer: Guglielmo Mancori [204][205]
Armiamoci e partite! Yes Director: Nando Cicero [164][206]
Ben and Charlie 1972 Yes Director: Michele Lupo [207][208][209]
What Have You Done to Solange? Yes Director: Massimo Dallamano [210][211]
La gatta in calore Yes Director: Nello Rossati [164][212]
Crime Boss Yes Director: Alberto De Martino [213][214]
All'ultimo minuto (TV series, episodes Il rapido delle 13,30 and Dramma in alto mare) Yes Director: Ruggero Deodato [215]
Le notti peccaminose di Pietro l'Aretino Yes Director: Manlio Scarpelli [216][217]
The Killer Is on the Phone Yes Director: Alberto De Martino [164][218]
Go Away! Trinity Has Arrived in Eldorado ?a Yes [219]
Bounty hunter in Trinity Yesf Yes Yes [220][221]
More Sexy Canterbury Tales Yesg Yes Yes [222]
Fra' Tazio da Velletri 1973 Yesh Directed a third of the film. [223][224]
The Devil's Wedding Night Yes Yes Only directed some scenes. Director: Luigi Batzella [225][226][227]
Novelle licenziose di vergini vogliose Yes Yes Yes Yes Editor [228][229]
Counselor at Crime Yes Director: Alberto De Martino [230][231]
Mean Frank and Crazy Tony Yes Director: Michele Lupo [232]
Death Smiles on a Murderer Yes Yes Yes Yes Camera operator, story author [233]
Pugni, pirati e karaté Yes Yes Yes [234][235]
Brigitte, Laura, Ursula, Monica, Raquel, Liz, Maria, Florinda, Barbara, Claudia e Sofia, le chiamo tutte... anima mia 1974 Yes Director: Mauro O. Ivaldi [216][236]
Heroes in Hell Yes Yes Yes [237][238][110]
The Arena Yes Yes 2nd unit director. Director: Steve Carver [239][240][241]
Diary of a Roman Virgin Yes Yes Yes [242]
Professore venga accompagnato dai suoi genitori Yes Director: Mino Guerrini [216][243]
Il colonnello Buttiglione diventa generale Yes Director: Mino Guerrini [216][244]
The Antichrist Yes Director: Alberto De Martino [245][246]
Challenge to White Fang Yes Director: Lucio Fulci [247][248][249]
Cormack of the Mounties 1975 Yes Yes Yes [250][251]
Cassiodoro il più duro del Pretorio Yes Director: Oreste Coltellacci [252][253]
Scandal in the Family Yes Director: Bruno Gaburro [216][254]
Buttiglione diventa capo del servizio segreto Yes Director: Mino Guerrini [216][255]
Emanuelle's Revenge Yes Yes Yes Yes [256][23][257]
Strange Shadows in an Empty Room 1976 Yes Director: Alberto De Martino [258][259]
Voto di castità Yes Yes [260]
Black Cobra Woman Yes Yes Yes [261][262][263]
Emanuelle in Bangkok Yes Yes [264]
Emanuelle in America Yes Yes [265][266]
Emanuelle Around the World 1977 Yes Yes [267][268]
Emanuelle and the Last Cannibals Yes Yes Yes [269][266]
Il ginecologo della mutua Yes Yes Yes Story [270]
Mondo erotico Yesi [271]
Emanuelle and the White Slave Trade 1978 Yes Yes Yes [272][273]
The Pleasure Shop on 7th Avenue Yes Yes [274]
Sexy Night Report n. 2 Yes Yes [275][271]
Follie di notte Yes Yes Yes [276]
Papaya, Love Goddess of the Cannibals Yes Yes [277][278]
Tough to Kill Yes Yes [279][280]
Images in a Convent 1979 Yes Yes [281][282]
Beyond the Darkness Yes Yes [283][284]
Sesso nero 1980 Yes Yes [285][286][49]
Erotic Nights of the Living Dead Yes [287][288]
Porno esotic love Yes Yes [289]
Antropophagus Yes Yes ?j [290][291]
Blue erotic climax Yes Yes Yes Director: Claudio Bernabei [292]
Porno Holocaust Yes Yes [293][294]
Super climax Yes Yes Yes Yes [295]
Hard sensation Yes Yes [296]
Paradiso blu 1981 Yes Yes [297]
Orgasmo nero Yes Yes Yes [298]
Labbra bagnate Yes Yes Yes [299]
Le ereditiere super porno Yes Yes Yes [300]
Porno video Yes Yes Director: Giuliana Gamba [301]
Bocca golosa Yes Yes Yes [302]
La voglia Yes Yes Yes [303]
Labbra vogliose Yes Yes Yes Director: Claudio Bernabei [304]
Sesso acerbo Yes Yes Yes [305]
Voglia di sesso Yes Yes Yes [306]
Le porno investigatrici Yes Director: Claudio Bernabei [307]
Caldo profumo di vergine Yes Yes Yes [302]
L'ogre de barbarie Yes Director: Pierre Matteuzzi [308][309]
Absurd Yes Yes Co-produced with Eduard Sarlui [310]
Stretta e bagnata 1982 Yes Yes Yes [311]
Il succo del sesso Yes [312]
Super hard love Yes Yes Yes [313]
Il mondo perverso di Beatrice Yes Yes Yes [314]
Ator, the Fighting Eagle Yes Yes Yes [315]
Ator 2 - L'invincibile Orion Yes Yes Yes Yes [316]
Caligula... The Untold Story Yes Yes Yes [317][318][319]
Una vergine per l'impero romano 1983 Yes Yes Yes [134]
Messalina orgasmo imperiale Yes Yes Yes Yes Actor [315][134]
2020 Texas Gladiators Yes Yes Yes Co-directed with George Eastman [320][321]
Endgame Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Editor [322][323]
Cuando calienta el sol... vamos alla playa Yes Yes Director: Mino Guerrini [308][324]
Jojami 1984 k Yes [134][325]
Nido d'amore k Yes [134][326]
Wendee / Wendee, la chiave del piacere k Yes ?l [134][327]
La chiave del piacere k Yes ?l [134][328]
Swoosie k Yes [134][329]
Pin Pon k Yes [134][330]
Fashion love k Yes [134][331]
Sesso allo specchio k Yes [134][332]
Le due bocche ... di Marina 1985 k Yes [134][333]
Le due ... grandi labbra / La voglia di Marina k Yes [134][334]
The Alcove Yes Yes Yes [335]

[336]

The Pleasure Yes Yes Yes [337]
A Lustful Mind Yes Yes Yes Yes Editor [338]
Midnight Gigolo 1986 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Editor [339]
Convent of Sinners Yes Yes Yes Yes Editor [340][341]
Delizia Yes Yes Yes Yes Editor [342]
Warrior Queen 1987 Yes Yes[67] Associate producer [343]
Stage Fright Yes Director: Michele Soavi [344][345]
Interzone Yes Director: Deran Sarafian [97]
Killing Birds Yes Yes Yes Co-directed with Claudio Lattanzi [346]
Eleven Days, Eleven Nights Yes Yes Yes [347][348]
Top Model 1988 Yes Yes [347][349]
Ghosthouse (aka La Casa 3) Yes Director: Umberto Lenzi [350][351][352]
Witchery (aka La Casa 4) Yes Director: Fabrizio Laurenti [353]
Dirty Love 1989 Yes Yes Yes [354]
Blue Angel Cafe Yes Yes Yes [355][356]
Hitcher In The Dark Yes Director: Umberto Lenzi [357][358]
Metamorphosis Yes Director: George Eastman [359]
Quest for the Mighty Sword 1990 Yes Yes Yes Yes [316]
Body Moves / Hot Steps (Passi caldi) Yes Director: Gerry Lively [360][361]
Deep Blood Yes Yes Yes [362][363]
La Casa 5 Yes Director: Claudio Fragasso [364]
Troll 2 bc Yes Director: Claudio Fragasso [347][365]
Contamination .7 (aka Troll 3) Yescd Yes Yes Main director: Fabrizio Laurenti [347][366][97]
Eleven Days, Eleven Nights 2 1991 Yes Yes Yes Yes [347][367]
La stanza delle parole Yes Director: Franco Molè [97]
Door to Silence Yes Director: Lucio Fulci [368][366]
Dark Tale / Favola crudele Yes Director: Roberto Leoni [97]
Frankenstein 2000 Yes Yes [369][370]
A Woman's Secret Yes Yes Yes [115]
Lezioni di sesso. 1.: Il vizio infinito. 2.: Donne di piacere. 3.: Così fan tutti. 4.: Dio mio como sono caduta in basso. 1992 Yes [115]
Sul filo del rasoio / Instinct Yes Yes [124]
Una tenera storia Yes Yes [124]
Chinese Kamasutra 1993 Yes Yes Yes [371]
I racconti della camera rossa Yes Yes [372]
The Labyrinth of Love Yes Yes Yes [373]
The House of Pleasure Yes Yes [374]
China and Sex Yes Yes [127]
L'Atelier di Rosa Yes [86]
Roxana – Fra le gambe di Luana Yes [86]
Francesca – Goduria anale Yes [86]
Incontri anale nell'autosalone Yes [86]
Tre porcone sul biliardo Yes [86]
Le avventure erotiche di Aladino 1994 Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[375] [375]
L'alcova dei piaceri proibiti Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[375] [375]
Amleto – Per amore di Ophelia Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[375] [375]
Le mille e una notte Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[375] [375]
Il barone von Masoch Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[376] [376]
Il colpo dell'an(n)o Yes [376]
Il marchese De Sade Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[376] [376]
Decamerone X Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[376] [376]
Decamerone X 2 Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[376] [376]
Fantasmi al castello Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[376] [376]
Ladri e gentiluomini – Donne, gioielli e culi belli Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[376] [376]
La sexy caccia al tesoro Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[376] [376]
Marco Polo la storia mai raccontata Yes[377] Yes Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[374] [378]
Spiando Simona Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[376] [376]
Il marito guardone – Sesso spiato Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[376] [376]
Tarzan X Yes Yes Yes Yes [347][379]
Tarzan 2 – il ritorno del figlio della jungla Yes [376]
Anal Paprika Yes [376]
Fuga di mezzanotte aka Fuga all'alba 1995 Yes [376]
Homo Erectus Yes [376]
Le intoccabili Yes [376]
Adolescenza Yes [376]
Amadeus Mozart Yes [376]
Giulietta e Romeo Yes [376]
Le bambole del Führer Yes [376]
Le 120 giornate di Sodoma Yes [376]
Malizia italiana Yes [376]
Il monaco Yes [376]
Passione travolgente a Venezia Yes Co-directed with Cameron Grant[376] [376]
Penitenziario femminile Yes [376]
Le perversioni di Scarface Yes [376]
Robin Hood – La leggenda sexy Yes [376]
Saloon Kiss Yes [376]
Il siciliano (Don Salvatore) Yes [376]
Provocation (Vizio e provocazione) Yes [376]
Sogni di una ragazza di campagna Yes [376]
Black Cops...in Budapest Yes [376]
Wild East Yes [376]
Carmen Yes [376]
Scandalo al sole Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[376] [376]
Antonio e Cleopatra 1996 Yes [376]
Danno anale Yes [376]
Flamenco extasy Yes [376]
Kamasutra Yes [376]
Istinto fatale Yes [376]
Messalina Yes [376]
Proposta anale indecente Yes [376]
Rudy / Valentino's Story Yes [376]
Scambio di coppie Yes [376]
Il danno Yes [376]
Torero Yes [376]
Lulù Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[376] [376]
Gipsy Seduction Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[376] [376]
Aphrodite Yes [376]
Caligula / Caligola follia del potere Yes [376]
Nerone Yes [376]
Lolita – Adolescenza perversa Yes [376]
Selvaggia Yes [376]
Lo stallone italiano Yes [376]
Lo stallone italiano 2 Yes [376]
Rocco last fight Yes [376]
Othello Yes [376]
Striptease – Ragazze Facili Yes [376]
Il diario proibito delle due principesse Yes [376]
Tutte le donne del presidente Yes [376]
Donna Flor e i suoi tre mariti Yes [376]
Top Girl 1997 e Yes Yes [349]
The Hyena Yes Yes [380]
Police Department Yes [97]
Police Department 2 Yes [97]
Hercules / Le fatiche erotiche di Ercole Yes [97]
Amore e psiche Yes [97]
Olympus Yes [97]
Sodoma e Gomorra Yes [97]
Ulysses Yes [97]
Experiences 1 Yes [97]
Experiences 2 Yes [97]
La regina degli elefanti Yes [97]
Il vizio del peccato Yes [97]
Peccati di gola Yes [97]
Capriccio anale Yes [97]
I magnifici sette Yes [97]
Calamity Jane Yes [97]
Calamity Jane 2 Yes [97]
Lussuria Yes [97]
Praga amore mio Yes [97]
Il laureato Yes [97]
La figlia del padrino Yes [97]
Desiderio eterno Yes [97]
Sahara Yes [97]
Ercole e Sansone nella terra delle Amazzoni Yes [97]
La venexiana Yes [97]
Dolce seduzione Yes [97]
Anita e la maschera di ferro 1998 Yes [97]
Selen nell'isola del tesoro Yes [97]
Harem 2000 Yes [97]
Off limits Yes [97]
Blow – Up Yes [97]
Elixir Yes [97]
Goya – La maya desnuda Yes [97]
Raiders / I predatori della verginità perduta Yes [97]
Ladro d'amore – Giacomo Casanova Yes [97]
Il fantasma Yes [97]
Sexy Pirates Yes [381][97]
Showgirl 1999 Yes [97]
Sono positivo Yes Cameo appearance as "the director of porn films" [382]

Notes[edit]

  • ^ a Both D'Amato and Diego Spataro, who used the alias "Dick Spitfire", stated that D'Amato directed this film.[383][384]
  • ^ b The credited director of Troll 2 was Claudio Fragasso under the pseudonym "Drake Floyd".[365]
  • ^ c In his book on Italian horror directors, Louis Paul makes the unsourced statement that D'Amato "ended up finishing [Troll 2 and Troll 3] as director in an attempt to save the productions that even he deemed poorly filmed and unreleasable".[366] Regarding Troll 3, Lupi also states that D'Amato directed a part of it.[385] For Troll 2, Paul seems to be the only source for D'Amato's directorial involvement.[citation needed]
  • ^ d The film's main director was Fabrizio Laurenti under the pseudonym "Martin Newlin".[386]
  • ^ e The directorial credit of Top Girl varies. In Italian prints, it is credited to "Andrea Massai"; abroad, the credits read "Joe D'Amato".[349]
  • ^ f The credits of Bounty Killer in Trinity list Oscar Santaniello as director under his pseudonym "Oskar Faradine". According to D'Amato himself, he directed the film, but let production manager Santaniello take the credit [383]. Bruckner lists Santaniello as producer and D'Amato as director,[221] and Curti, too, states that the film was "directed by Massaccesi but signed by Santaniello – one of several unsigned directing jobs Massaccesi took on before his official first feature".[233] Lupi, however, considers the movie to be of inferior quality and hence believes that Santaniello was truly the director whereas D'Amato, in his eyes, was only involved as cinematographer and writer.[387]
  • ^ g More Sexy Canterbury Tales was directed by D'Amato, but the directorial credit went to assistant director Romano Scandariato under his pseudonym "Romano Gastaldi"; the English film credits "Ralph Zucker" as the director.[388]
  • ^ h According to an interview given to the Italian magazine Nocturno by Romano Scandariato, who took the directorial credit under his pseudonym "Romano Gastaldi", D'Amato directed about one third of Fra' Tazio da Velletri before leaving production due to differences with the producers; Scandariato then finished directing the remaining two thirds.[223]
  • ^ i As director of Mondo Erotico, only Bruno Mattei was credited; the pseudonym "Jimmy Matheus" was used. D'Amato directed the scenes with Laura Gemser that tie the vignettes together; he remained uncredited.[271]
  • ^ j Both Enrico Biribicchi, who got the credit, and D'Amato claimed that they had acted as cinematographers on set.[61]
  • ^ k These 10 films, the so-called "Lucky Faar Delly" series (shot from April 1984 to February 1985), were all produced by D'Amato through his M.A.D. production company, were all directed by Luca Damiano, and all starred Marina Hedman.[134] D'Amato occasionally contributed to the series as co-director, although the extent to which he did remains unclear.[134] In Sesso allo specchio, film critic R. D'Amato observes the use of hand-held camera, which is otherwise not present in the Faar Delly series, as sign of D'Amato's possible involvement.[389]
  • ^ l Smith lists La chiave del piacere as an alternate title to Wendee, la chiave del piacere and states that "according to some sources Massaccesi is the screenwriter".[390]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Normanton, Peter (2005). The Mammoth Book of Slasher Movies. McFarland. p. 39. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  2. ^ Riazzoli, Mirko (2017). A Chronology of the Cinema Volume 1 From the pioneers to 1960. Youcanprint. p. 345.
  3. ^ a b Lentz III 2000, p. 57.
  4. ^ Lentz III 2000, p. 58.
  5. ^ Lupi, 2004 & page:21-22.
  6. ^ Hutchings, Peter (2009). The A to Z of Horror Cinema. Scarecrow Press. p. 216. ISBN 9780810870505. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  7. ^ The Mammoth Book of Best New Horror 11, edited by Stephen Jones. Carroll & Graf. 2000. p. 558.
  8. ^ Mendik, Xavier (2004). Black Sex, Bad Sex: Monstrous Ethnicity in the Black Emanuelle Films; in: Alternative Europe: Eurotrash and Exploitation Cinema Since 1945. Wallflower Press. p. 147. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d e Foschini 2019.
  10. ^ https://www.myheritage.com/names/renato_massaccesi
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Paul 2005, p. 181.
  12. ^ a b c Estein & Schweer 1991.
  13. ^ a b Poppi 2002, p. 275.
  14. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 31-32.
  15. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 33-38.
  16. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 38-42.
  17. ^ a b c Paul 2005, p. 184.
  18. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 38-39.
  19. ^ Smith 1995, p. 7.
  20. ^ Paul 2005, p. 182.
  21. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 42-43.
  22. ^ a b Palmerini & Mistretta 1996, p. 77.
  23. ^ a b c Giusti 1999, p. 253.
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  25. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 52-53.
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  27. ^ Mann, Dave (2014). Harry Alan Towers: The Transnational Career of a Cinematic Contrarian. McFarland. p. 100. ISBN 9781476615233. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
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  34. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 69-71.
  35. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 72-74.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Grattarola & Napoli 2014, p. 107.
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  43. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 91.
  44. ^ Curti 2017, p. 201.
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  47. ^ Paul 2005, p. 190.
  48. ^ Grattarola & Napoli 2014, pp. 381–382.
  49. ^ a b Grattarola & Napoli 2014, p. 406.
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  70. ^ Tentori 2014, p. 77.
  71. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 169.
  72. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 170-172.
  73. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 172.
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  75. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 167-168.
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  85. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 192.
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  88. ^ Alain Godet (director), Joe D'Amato (as himself) (2015). Happy Porno? Das Ende der Scham (video stream). On the set of "Juliet & Romeo" (1995): SRF DOK. Event occurs at 29:00. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
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  • Grattarola, Franco; Napoli, Andrea (2014). Luce Rossa. La nascita e le prime fasi del cinema pornografico in Italia. Roma: Iacobelli Editore. ISBN 9788862522137.
  • Lentz III, Harris M. (2000). Obituaries in the Performing Arts, 1999: Film, Television, Radio, Theatre, Dance, Music, Cartoons and Pop Culture. McFarland. ISBN 0786452048.
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  • Palmerini, Luca M.; Mistretta, Gaetano (1996). Spaghetti Nightmares: Italian Fantasy-horrors as Seen Through the Eyes of Their Protagonists. Fantasma Books. ISBN 9780963498274.
  • Paul, Louis (2005). Italian Horror Film Directors. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-8749-3.
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  • Poppi, Roberto (2002). I registi: dal 1930 ai giorni nostri (in Italian). Gremese Editore. pp. 275–276. ISBN 9788884401717. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
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  • Siffredi, Rocco (2006). Io, Rocco. L'autobiografia di Rocco Siffredi. Mondadori. ISBN 8804559950.
  • Smith, Simon (1995). aka: Joe D'Amato. The Man and his Movies. Festival Promotions.
  • Tentori, Antonio (2014). Voglia di guardare. L'eros nel cinema di Joe D'Amato. Bloodbuster. ISBN 978-88-908986-1-7.

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