|Birth name||Izear Luster Turner Jr.|
|Also known as|
|Born||November 5, 1931|
Clarksdale, Mississippi, U.S.
|Died||December 12, 2007 (aged 76)|
San Marcos, California, U.S.
Izear Luster "Ike" Turner Jr. (November 5, 1931 – December 12, 2007) was an American musician, bandleader, record producer, and talent scout. An early pioneer of 1950s rock and roll, he is best known for his work in the 1960s and 1970s with his then-wife Tina Turner as the leader of the Ike & Tina Turner Revue.
A native of Clarksdale, Mississippi, Turner began playing piano and guitar as a child and then formed the Kings of Rhythm as a teenager. His first recording, "Rocket 88" (credited to Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats), is considered a contender for the distinction of first rock and roll song. During the 1950s, Turner also worked as a talent scout and producer for Sun Records and Modern Records. He was instrumental in the early careers of various blues musicians such as B.B. King, Howlin' Wolf, and Bobby "Blue" Bland. In 1954, Turner relocated to East St. Louis where his Kings of Rhythm became one of the most renowned acts in Greater St. Louis. He later formed the Ike & Tina Turner Revue in 1960, which over the course of the decade became a soul/rock crossover success.
Turner's cocaine addiction and legal troubles, together with accounts by Tina Turner of domestic violence (published in her 1986 autobiography I, Tina and the 1993 film adaptation What's Love Got to Do with It), impacted his career in the 1980s and 1990s. Addicted to cocaine for at least 15 years, Turner was convicted of drug offenses and served 18 months in prison. After his release in 1991, he remained drug-free until he relapsed in 2004, which was the cause of his death in 2007. During the last decade of Turner's life, he revived his career as a frontman by returning to his blues roots. He released two award-winning albums, Here and Now and Risin with the Blues.
Hailed as a "great innovator" of rock and roll by contemporaries such as Little Richard and Johnny Otis, Turner received critical acclaim as well. Rolling Stone magazine editor David Fricke ranked Turner No. 61 on his list of 100 Greatest Guitarists and noted, "Turner was one of the first guitarists to successfully transplant the intensity of the blues into more-commercial music." Turner won five Grammy Awards, including two competitive awards and three Grammy Hall of Fame Awards. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame with Tina Turner in 1991. He is also inducted into the St. Louis Walk of Fame, the Clarksdale Walk of Fame, the Mississippi Musicians Hall of Fame, the Blues Hall of Fame, and the Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame.
Turner was born in Clarksdale, Mississippi, on November 5, 1931, to Beatrice Cushenberry, a seamstress, and Izear Luster Turner, a Baptist minister. His parents were Creole. Turner was the younger of their two children, his sister Lee Ethel Knight was "some ten years" his senior. When Turner applied for his first passport in the 1960s, he discovered that his name was registered as Ike Wister Turner. By then both of his parents were deceased, so he could not verify the origin of his name.
According to Turner, he witnessed his father beaten and left for dead by a white mob. He was later told it was an act of retaliation over a woman with whom his father was having an affair. His father lived for two or three years as an invalid in a tent in the family's yard before succumbing to his injuries when Turner was about five years old.[a] His mother remarried an artist named Philip Reese, who Turner described as a violent alcoholic. One day after Reese gave him a whipping, Turner knocked him out with a length of lumber and ran away to Memphis for a few days before returning home. Despite their troubled relationship, Turner moved his stepfather into one of his homes in St. Louis after his mother died in 1959 and took care of him until his death in 1961.
Turner recounted how he was sexually assaulted at the age of six by a middle-aged lady called Miss Boozie. Walking past her house to school, she would invite him to help feed her chickens and then take him to bed. This continued daily for some time. Turner was also raped by another middle-aged woman, Miss Reeny, before he was twelve. Reflecting on these experiences, he stated: "That's probably why every relationship I was in was surrounded by sex. Sex was power to me."
|Oral History, Ike Turner shares moments of his life story and career. interview date December 1, 2005, NAMM (National Association of Music Merchants) Oral History Library|
Turner attended Booker T. Washington elementary school, then was promoted to Myrtle Hall in the sixth grade. He quit school in the eighth grade and began working as an elevator operator at the Alcazar Hotel in downtown Clarksdale. During breaks he would watch DJ John Friskillo play records at the radio station, WROX, located in the hotel. WROX is noted for being the first radio station in Mississippi to employ a black DJ, Early Wright. One day Friskillo spotted Turner watching and put him to work; teaching him the ins and outs of the control room. Soon, he was left to play records while Friskillo took coffee breaks. This led to Turner being offered a job by the station manager as the DJ on the late-afternoon shift. On his show, "Jive Till Five," he played a diverse range of music such as Roy Milton and Louis Jordan alongside early rockabilly records.
Turner was inspired to learn the piano after he heard Pinetop Perkins play at his friend Ernest Lane's house. Turner persuaded his mother to pay for piano lessons, but he did not take to the formal style of playing. Instead, he spent the money in a pool hall and learned boogie-woogie from Perkins. At some point in the 1940s, Turner moved into Clarksdale's Riverside Hotel. The Riverside played host to touring musicians, including Sonny Boy Williamson II and Duke Ellington. Turner associated with many of these musicians, and at 13 years old he backed Sonny Boy Williamson II on piano.
1946–1950: Formation of the Kings of Rhythm
As a teenager, Turner joined a local rhythm ensemble called the Tophatters who played around Clarksdale, Mississippi. Members of the band were Clarksdale musicians and included Turner's school friends Raymond Hill, Eugene Fox and Clayton Love. The Tophatters played big band arrangements from sheet music. Turner, who was trained by ear and could not sight read, would learn the pieces by listening to a version on record at home, pretending to be reading the music during rehearsals. The Tophatters had over 30 members, but they broke up into two groups after six months to a year. One faction wanted to play jazz music and the Dukes of Swing. The other band led by Turner became the Kings of Rhythm. Turner said, "we wanted to play blues, boogie-woogie and Roy Brown, Jimmy Liggins, Roy Milton." Turner kept the name throughout his career, although it went through lineup changes over time. Their early stage performances consisted largely of covers of popular jukebox hits. B.B. King helped them to get a steady weekend gig and recommended them to Sam Phillips at Memphis Recording Service. In the 1950s, Turner's group got regular airplay from live sessions on the radio stations WROX in Clarksdale and KFFA in Helena, Arkansas.
Around the time he was starting out with the Kings of Rhythm, Turner and Lane became unofficial roadies for blues musician Robert Nighthawk, who often played live on WROX. The pair played drums and piano on radio sessions. Turner gained experience performing by supporting Nighthawk at gigs around Clarksdale. He played juke joints alongside other local blues artists such as Elmore James, Muddy Waters, and Little Walter. Performances typically lasted for about twelve hours, from early evening to dawn the next day. Turner recalled, "there wasn't no intermission. If the drummer had to pee, I would play drums until he returned....There were no breaks. We just switched around."
1951: "Rocket 88"
In March 1951, Turner and his band recorded the song "Rocket 88" at Memphis Recording Service. Turner's vocalist Johnny O'Neal had left to sign a solo contract with King Records, so Jackie Brenston, a saxophonist in the Kings of Rhythm, sang lead vocals while Turner was on piano. "Rocket 88" is notable among other things for Willie Kizart's distorted guitar sound.
Phillips licensed the recording to Chess Records in Chicago. Chess released it under the name "Jackie Brenston and His Delta Cats" instead of "Ike Turner and His Kings of Rhythm Featuring Jackie Brenston". Turner blamed Phillips for this misrepresentation. The single, released in April 1951, reached number-one on the Billboard R&B charts in June 1951 and spent 5 weeks on top of the charts. The record sold approximately half a million copies. Turner and the band were paid $20 each for the record. The exception was Brenston who sold the rights to Phillips for $910. Phillips used profits from the success of the record to launch Sun Records in February 1952.
The success of "Rocket 88" generated tension and ego clashes in the band which culminated with Brenston leaving to pursue a solo career, causing the band to fall apart. Turner, without a band and disappointed his hit record had not created more opportunities for him, disbanded the Kings of Rhythm for a few years.
1951–1954: Session musician and talent scout
Soon after the release of "Rocket 88", Turner moved to West Memphis, Arkansas and played with various local bands. He then became a freelance talent scout, session musician, and production assistant for Sam Phillips at Sun Studio, commuting to Memphis, Tennessee. Wishing to exploit his Delta music connections, the Bihari brothers at Modern Records also hired Turner as a talent scout, paying him to find southern musicians who might be worth recording. Turner arranged for B.B. King and the Beale Streeters to record for Modern at the YMCA in Memphis. Turner played piano on King's early records "You Know I Love You" and "3 O'Clock Blues", which became King's first two number-ones. According to Joe Bihari, Turner had brought King to his attention years prior. He said, "Ike wasn't more than sixteen then. He would send dubs of things he cut to us, and if we'd like them we'd make a seal or sign the artist. That's how we acquired B.B. King." King also maintained that Turner introduced him to the Bihari brothers.
Unaware of songwriter's royalties, Turner also wrote new material which the Biharis copyrighted under their own names. They often purchased or claimed co-writer credit of songs written by artists on their labels using pseudonyms. Turner estimated he wrote seventy-eight hit records for the Biharis. Artists Turner discovered for Modern and Sun include Bobby Bland, Howlin' Wolf, Rosco Gordon, Boyd Gilmore, Houston Boines, Charley Booker, and Little Milton. He played piano in sessions with them and lesser-known artists such as the Prisonaires, Driftin' Slim, Ben Burton, Matt Cockrell, Dennis Binder, Sunny Blair, and Baby Face Turner.
Turner was contracted to the Bihari brothers, but he continued to work for Phillips, where he was effectively the in-house producer. This sometimes created conflicts of interest. In 1951, Turner recorded two Howlin' Wolf tracks for Phillips, playing piano on "How Many More Years" and "Moanin' at Midnight", which Phillips sent to Chess. Turner and Howlin' Wolf then recorded a version of "Moanin' at Midnight" at radio station KWEM in West Memphis without Phillips' or the Chess brothers' knowledge. He sent the results to the Biharis at Modern and they released it on their subsidiary label RPM Records. Turner also attempted to poach Elmore James from Trumpet Records and record him for Modern. Trumpet found out and Modern had to cancel the record. However, James did eventually sign with Modern, and Turner played on his recordings that were released on Modern's subsidiary label Flair Records.
While in Helena, Turner tried to recruit Little Walter to record for Modern in January 1952, but Little Walter was on his way to Mississippi. In 1952, Turner discovered Little Junior Parker in West Memphis, and they formed a band with Matt "Guitar" Murphy. Turner recorded Parker's first single, "You're My Angel" / "Bad Women, Bad Whiskey", credited to Little Junior Parker and the Blue Flames. That summer Turner recorded with the new vocalist and pianist in his band, Marion Louis Lee, resulting in "My Heart Belongs to You" / "Looking for My Baby". The records were released on RPM as Bonnie and Ike Turner. Turner married Lee in September 1952.
Unbeknownst to Turner, during his time in West Memphis, he met Elvis Presley who was a truck driver. He recalled, "[Presley] was just a white boy that would come over to black clubs. He would come in and stand behind the piano and watch me play. I never knew he was no musician." Turner discovered his identity many years later after Presley approached him when they were both playing at the International Hotel.
To accommodate his then-wife Bonnie, who also played piano, Turner taught himself how to play guitar by ear and Willie Kizart taught him blues guitar techniques. He began playing guitar in sessions in 1953, and by 1954 with the assistance of Joe Bihari he built a makeshift recording studio at a defunct Greyhound bus station in Clarksdale. Turner used his Kings of Rhythm as session musicians. They played on many recording for Bihari's Modern, RPM, and Flair labels. Some of the artist Turner backed on piano and guitar during this period include Elmore James, Johnny Ace and the Flairs. Around this time Turner discovered Billy "The Kid" Emerson in Greenville. He brought Emerson to record at Sun Records and backed him on guitar in 1954.
1954–1959: St. Louis
In 1954, Turner visited his sister Lee Ethel Knight in St. Louis, Missouri. During his stay, he went clubbing at Ned Love's in East St. Louis, Illinois. Love invited Turner and his band to play at his club. Eventually, Turner returned with his reformed version of the Kings of Rhythm. The band consisted of Willie Kizart on guitar, Willie "Bad Boy" Sims on drums, vocalist Johnny O'Neal, Turner's nephew Jesse Knight Jr. on bass, and Turner's wife Annie Mae Wilson on piano and vocals.
Turner maintained strict discipline and the band lived at his home on Virginia Place in East St. Louis which doubled as a studio. A teetotaler at the time, he avoided drugs and insisted all band members also adopt this policy, firing anyone he even suspected of breaking the rules. Turner established his group as one of the most highly rated on the St. Louis club circuit, vying for popularity with their main competition, Sir John's Trio featuring Chuck Berry. The bands would play all-nighters in St. Louis, then cross the river to the clubs of East St. Louis, and continue playing until dawn. Initially, they played for segregated audiences at the black clubs in Illinois: Manhattan Club in East St. Louis, which Turner and his band built, the Harlem Club in Brookline and the Kingsbury in Madison. In St. Louis, Turner was exposed to a white audience who were excited by R&B. He played at Johnny's Lounge and the Club Imperial which was popular with white teenagers. After Turner gained a strong following among both whites and blacks, he demanded that the clubs should be integrated. He also had live music broadcast on the St. Louis radio station KATZ.
In between live dates, Turner took the band to Cincinnati to record for Federal Records in 1956. One of the Federal releases, "I'm Tore Up" / "If I Never Had Known You" featuring Billy Gayles became a regional hit. Like Brenston years prior, Gayles left Turner's band to pursue a solo career. In 1958, Turner took the band to Chicago to record for Cobra/Artistic, as well as fulfilling his contract as a session musician back at Sun. While in Chicago, Turner backed Otis Rush; playing the signature vibrato guitar parts on "Double Trouble". He also helped Buddy Guy record his second record; resulting in the single "You Sure Can't Do" / "This Is The End" which Turner played guitar and composed the latter.
Turner befriended St. Louis R&B fan Bill Stevens who set up the short-lived Stevens Records in 1959. Turner released two singles on the Stevens label (No. 104 and No. 107) under the anagram "Icky Renrut" because he was still under contract with Sun for several more months, and he didn't want to cause friction with Phillips. In addition, Turner recorded numerous sessions for Stevens with various vocalists and musician lineups of the Kings of Rhythm.
1960–1976: The Ike and Tina Turner Revue
In 1957, Ann Bullock accompanied her sister Alline Bullock to watch Turner and the Kings of Rhythm at the Manhattan Club in East St. Louis. Her sister was a barmaid at the club and was dating Turner's drummer Eugene Washington. Through her sister and Washington, Bullock asked Turner to sing with his band. Turner said he'd call her onstage, but he never did. One night during an intermission, Bullock got hold of the microphone from Washington and sang "You Know I Love You" by B.B. King. Impressed by her voice, Turner invited her to sing with the band. She made her recording debut on Turner's song "Boxtop", released on Tune Town Records in 1958.
In March 1960, Turner allowed her to record a demo of his self-penned song "A Fool in Love". He intended to use the demo as guide track for Art Lassiter who did not attend the scheduled recording session at Technisonic Studios. A local DJ suggested he send the record to Sue Records in New York, where label owner Juggy Murray insisted on releasing the track with Bullock's vocal. Murray offered a $20,000 advance for the song and suggested Turner "make her the star" of his show. Turner then renamed her "Tina" because it rhymed with Sheena, however, family and friends still called her Ann. He was inspired by Sheena, Queen of the Jungle and Nyoka the Jungle Girl to create her stage persona. He had the name "Tina Turner" trademarked, so that in case she left, another singer could perform under the same name.
The single "A Fool In Love" was released in July 1960, and it became a national hit, selling a million copies. It peaked at No. 2 on the Billboard R&B chart and No. 27 on the Hot 100. Turner added a backing girl group he renamed the Ikettes, and along with the Kings of Rhythm they began performing as the Ike & Tina Turner Revue. The success of the single was followed by a string of hits including "I Idolize You", "Poor Fool", and "It's Gonna Work Out Fine" which gave them their second million-seller and their first Grammy nomination.
In 1961, Turner played piano on Albert King's first hit record, "Don't Throw Your Love on Me So Strong". The single, released on King Records, peaked at No. 14 on the Billboard R&B chart. He also wrote and produced the Ikettes hit "I'm Blue (The Gong-Gong Song)".
The Revue performed rigorously on the Chitlin' Circuit and built a reputation as "one of the hottest, most durable, and potentially most explosive of all R&B ensembles." To assure he always had a record out while on tour, Turner formed multiple labels such as Sputnik, Teena, Prann, Innis, Sony and Sonja. He produced singles by the Ikettes, Jimmy Thomas, Fontella Bass, George Jackson, and other artists on his labels. The duo switched to Turner's Sonja label in 1963. For the next six years, they recorded on Warner Bros./Loma, Modern/Kent, Cenco, Philles, Tangerine, Pompeii, Blue Thumb, Minit, and A&M. Between 1964 and 1965, they scored fourteen top 40 R&B hits with "You Can't Miss Nothing That You Never Had", "Tell Her I'm Not Home", "Good Bye, So Long", and "Two Is a Couple".
In 1965, Phil Spector saw them perform at a club on the Sunset Strip and invited them to film The Big T.N.T. Show. Impressed by their performance, Spector negotiated a deal with their manager Bob Krasnow, head of Loma Records, offering $20,000 to produce Tina and have them released from their Loma contract. After Tina and Spector recorded "River Deep – Mountain High," the duo signed to Spector's Philles label in 1966. The failure of the single in America triggered Spector's retreat from the music industry. However, it was a hit in Europe, reaching No. 3 on the UK Singles Chart and No. 1 on Los 40 Principales in Spain. Following the song's success in the UK, Mick Jagger invited them to open for the Rolling Stones on their 1966 British Tour. This exposure introduced them to a wider audience outside of R&B. Soon they were booking bigger venues, and by 1969 they were headlining in Las Vegas.
In April 1969, Turner and the Kings of Rhythm released an album, A Black Man's Soul, on Pompeii Records. The album earned Turner his first solo Grammy nomination for Best R&B Instrumental Performance at the 12th Annual Grammy Awards. Later that year, the duo released the blues oriented albums Outta Season and The Hunter on Blue Thumb Records. Turner and Bob Krasnow, founder of Blue Thumb, co-produced Earl Hooker's 1969 album Sweet Black Angel. In November, the Ike & Tina Turner Revue opened up for the Rolling Stones on their 1969 American Tour.
In January 1970, they performed on The Ed Sullivan Show and released their rendition of "Come Together", which reached No. 21 on the R&B chart. Their cover of "I Want to Take You Higher" by Sly and the Family Stone was also successful on the charts in 1970. Turner, who was a friend of Sly Stone, played guitar on Sly and the Family Stone's album There's A Riot Goin' On (1971). The release of "Proud Mary" in 1971 became Ike & Tina Turner's biggest hit, reaching No. 4 on the Billboard Hot 100 and No. 5 on the R&B chart. It sold more than a million copies, and won the duo a Grammy Award for Best R&B Vocal Performance by a Group at the 14th Annual Grammy Awards.
Their mainstream success provided Turner with the finances to open his own recording studio, Bolic Sound in Inglewood, in 1972. Turner had two sixteen track studios built, a large one to rent out and a smaller one for his personal recordings. He fitted them out with state-of-the-art equipment. Artists who recorded there included Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Duane Allman, Little Richard, Gayle McCormick, and Frank Zappa.
Turner released two solo albums for United Artists Records, Blues Roots (1972) and Bad Dreams (1973). In 1973, the duo released "Nutbush City Limits" penned by Tina. The single peaked at No. 22 on the Billboard Hot 100, No. 11 on the R&B chart and it was a bigger hit in Europe. The Turners received the Golden European Record Award, the first ever given, for selling more than one million records of "Nutbush City Limits" in Europe. During this period, Turner produced singer Judy Cheeks' debut album Judy Cheeks (1973), and the last album by the Ikettes, (G)Old & New (1974). Between 1974 and 1975, the duo released the singles "Sweet Rhode Island Red", "Sexy Ida", and "Baby, Get It On".
The Ike & Tina Turner Revue ended abruptly in 1976. That year, they headlined at the Waldorf Astoria New York and signed a television deal with CBS-TV. Turner had plans to leave United Artists Records for a five-year $150,000 per year deal with Cream Records, which was to be signed on July 6. On July 1, the Turners got into a violent altercation en route to their gig at the Dallas Statler Hilton. Turner claimed that Tina initiated the conflict by purposely irritating him so that she would have a reason to break up with him before they signed the new contract. Tina fled from the hotel shortly after they arrived, and filed for divorce on July 27, 1976.
United Artists responded to the Turners' separation by releasing albums of compiled recordings from their last sessions together, Delilah's Power (1977) and Airwaves (1978). Two years after their divorce was finalized, Turner released the single "Party Vibes" / "Shame, Shame, Shame" from the album The Edge (1980) which peaked at No. 27 on the Billboard Disco Top 100 chart.
1977–2007: Later career
After his breakup with Tina, singer Holly Maxwell sang with Turner on occasion from 1977 to 1985 and again for eight months in 1992. She reported a positive working relationship with Turner, and later released the memoir Freebase Ain't Free about their close friendship. In 1979, Turner spent time in the studio with Chaka Khan following her separation from her manager-husband. She told Jet: "He's been real inspiration and a catalyst emotionally and in other ways as well. We plan to record together." Turner struggled to find success due to his cocaine addiction and run-ins with the law. In 1988, Turner attempted an ill-fated return to the stage with Marcy Thomas, Bonnie Johnson, and Jeanette Bazzell as his Ikettes.
While Turner was in prison following a drug conviction, Ike & Tina Turner were inducted to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in 1991. Tina did not attend because she took the year off from making public appearances, so Phil Spector delivered a speech at the ceremony on their behalf. After his release from prison, Turner told the press that he was nervous about returning to performing live, but had plans to return to the studio. He sold 20 unreleased Ike & Tina Turner masters to the independent label Esquire Records.
Hip-hop group Salt-N-Pepa sampled Turner's composition "I'm Blue (The Gong Gong Song)", released by the Ikettes in 1961, for their 1993 single "Shoop". The song reached No. 4 in the Billboard Hot 100 and Turner earned around half a million dollars in royalties. He re-recorded "I'm Blue" as a duet with singer Billy Rogers in 1995. Produced by Rogers, the remake received favorable reviews. Turner later appeared on the song "Love Gravy" with Rick James for the soundtrack album Chef Aid: The South Park Album.
Turner reformed the Ikettes in the mid-1990s, which included his then-wife Jeanette Bazzell Turner and Michelle Love (Randi Love). Vera Clyburn, who was an Ikette in the 1970s was the lead singer. They performed to positive reviews as the Ike Turner Revue. In August 1997, Turner returned to his hometown Clarksdale to headline the 10th Annual Sunflower River Blues & Gospel Festival. Turner credited Joe Louis Walker with encouraging him to return to his roots in blues music. Turner played guitar and assisted in production on Walker's 1997 album Great Guitars; Walker paid him $5,000 a night for six songs. Walker invited Turner to perform with him at the San Francisco Blues Festival and to tour in Europe. The positive response to the tour encouraged Turner to reform the Kings of Rhythm. They toured the US in 2001, and headlined a showcase at South by Southwest where they were hailed as one of the highlights of the conference. Turner's work on the tour led to the recording and release of his Grammy-nominated album Here & Now (2001). In 2002, Turner's performance at the Montreux Jazz Festival was released as a live album and DVD.
In 2002, Turner filmed Martin Scorsese's PBS documentary series The Blues, which aired in September 2003. He is featured in the documentaries The Road to Memphis and Godfathers and Sons, as part of the series. Turner appeared on the Gorillaz's album Demon Days (2005); playing piano on "Every Planet We Reach Is Dead". He performed the song with Gorillaz at the Manchester Opera House in November 2005. His performance is featured in the live concert DVD Demon Days: Live at the Manchester Opera House.
In 2006, Turner released his last album Risin' With the Blues on the independent label Zoho Roots. The album received positive critical reception, and was nominated for best Blues Album at the 7th Annual Independent Music Awards. Turner won his first solo Grammy Award for Best Traditional Blues Album at the 49th Annual Grammy Awards in 2007.
Turner began working on a collaboration album with Gorillaz's producer Danger Mouse and the Black Keys in early 2007. The Black Keys sent demos to Turner, but the project was temporarily shelved. After Turner's death, the songs were used for their 2008 album Attack & Release. Although Turner does not appear on the album, Pitchfork noted his influence in the production.
Artistry and legacy
In his career, Turner originally worked in the style of 1950s R&B, or post-jump blues. His early influences included Amos Milburn and Louis Jordan, as well as country music artists such as Hank Williams Sr. and Merle Travis. Though primarily known as a guitarist, Turner began his career playing piano and personally considered it his main instrument. Turner grew up playing boogie woogie piano, which he learned from Pinetop Perkins. He decided he was not meant to be a frontman when at twelve he was coerced into giving an impromptu piano recital in school. He found the experience terrifying and from then on preferred not to be the focus of attention, but rather to be in the background controlling the show. He considered himself an organizer rather than a performer. Donald Fagen noted: "[T]alented as he was, there wasn't anything really supernatural about Ike's skills as a musician... What Ike excelled at was leadership: conceptualization, organization, and execution."
Turner's guitar style is distinguished by heavy use of the whammy bar to achieve a strong reverb-soaked vibrato, string bending, hammer-ons and triplets in his blues phrasing. Turner was an early adopter of the Fender Stratocaster electric guitar, buying one from O.K. Houk's Piano Co. store in Memphis the year of its release in 1954. Unaware that the guitar's tremolo arm could be used to subtle effect, Turner used it to play screaming, swooping and diving solos that predated artists such as Jimi Hendrix and Jeff Beck by a decade. In The Stratocaster Chronicles, Tom Wheeler wrote that Turner's "inventive style is a classic example of an artist discovering the Stratocaster, adapting to its features and fashioning something remarkable." Turner himself said of his tremolo technique: "I thought it was to make the guitar scream—people got so excited when I used that thing." Dave Rubin wrote in Premier Guitar magazine: "All those years of playing piano and arranging taught him a considerable amount about harmony, as he could certainly navigate I-IV-V chord changes. Ike modestly terms what he does on the guitar as 'tricks', but make no mistake, he attacked his axe with the conviction of a man who knew precisely what he wanted to hear come out of it."
Reviewing Turner's 1973 album Bad Dreams, Robert Christgau wrote: "After twenty years of raking it in from the shadows, he's finally figured out a way of applying his basically comic bass/baritone to rock and roll. Studio-psychedelic New Orleans, echoes of the Band and Dr. John, some brilliant minor r&b mixed in with the dumb stuff. My God—at the moment he's more interesting than Tina."
"It ain't Little Richard, it ain't Chuck, it ain't Fats Domino — no, we came on later. This man was playing the blues, rhythm and blues. Rock 'n' roll came from rhythm and blues: rock 'n' roll ain't nothing but rhythm and blues up-tempo. Ike Turner was the innovator, for rhythm and blues and for rock 'n' roll. We just came and took it home."
Turner was praised by his contemporaries for his influence. Turner was also a big influence on contemporary Little Richard, who wrote the introduction to Turner's autobiography. Little Richard was inspired to play the piano after he heard Turner's piano intro on "Rocket 88," and later used it note for note on "Good Golly, Miss Molly." Johnny Otis said, "Ike Turner is a very important man in American music. The texture and flavor of R&B owe a lot to him. He defined how to put the Fender bass into that music. He was a great innovator." B.B. King was a great admirer of Turner, describing him as "The best bandleader I've ever seen." King also said, "When they talk about rock 'n roll, I see Ike as one of the founding fathers."
Phil Alexander, editor-in-chief of Mojo magazine, referred to Turner as the "cornerstone of modern day rock 'n' roll" and credited his arrangements of blues standards as being an influence on 1960s British Invasion groups: "He proceeded to influence British rockers from the mid-1960s onwards. Without Ike you wouldn't have had the Stones and Zeppelin. People like that wouldn't have had the source material on which they drew."
Speaking on "Rocket 88" being a contender for the first rock 'n' roll record, broadcaster Paul Gambaccini said:
In musical terms [he was] very important. "Rocket 88" is one of the two records that can claim to be the first rock 'n' roll record, the other being "The Fat Man" by Fats Domino from 1949. But "Rocket 88" does have a couple of elements which "The Fat Man" did not. The wailing saxophone and that distorted electric guitar. It was number one in the rhythm and blues chart for five weeks, it is in the Grammy Hall of Fame and it was an indisputable claim to fame for Ike Turner....To critics he will be known as a great founder, unfortunately to the general public he will always be known as a brutal man.
Nigel Cawthorne—co-author of Turner's autobiography—said:
Although there had been black rock 'n' rollers who had made it big already, they really only played to a white audience. Ike and Tina played to a mixed audience and he deliberately desegregated audiences in the southern states and he wouldn't play to any segregated audiences at all. Because he had such a big band and entourage he desegregated a lot of the hotels because the hotel chains wouldn't want to miss out on the money they would make from him touring the southern states.
Turner's songs have been sampled by hip hop artists, most notably Salt-n-Pepa used "I'm Blue" for their 1994 hit "Shoop". Jurassic 5 used "Getting Nasty" from A Black Man's Soul on the track "Concrete Schoolyard" in 1997, Main Source also sampled "Getting Nasty" on the track "Snake Eyes" as well as Ike & Tina Turner's "Bold Soul Sister" on "Just Hanging Out"; both featured on their 1991 album Breaking Atoms. The track "Funky Mule", also from A Black Man's Soul, has been sampled extensively by jungle DJs, with the drum introduction being a very popular break. It was sampled by producer Goldie for his 1994 hit "Inner City Life", in the same year by Krome & Time on "The License", and by Paradox in 2002 on track "Funky Mule".
In 2009, a Nashville-based band, Mr. Groove Band, recorded a tribute album titled Rocket 88: Tribute to Ike Turner. Vocalist on the album include Turner's last wife Audrey Madison Turner and former Ikette Bonnie Bramlett.
Turner won two competitive Grammy Awards. Ike & Tina Turner won Best R&B Vocal Performance by a Group for "Proud Mary" in 1972. In 2007, Turner won Best Traditional Blues Album for Risin' with the Blues. Turner also has three songs inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame: "Rocket 88", "River Deep – Mountain High", and "Proud Mary".
Ike & Tina Turner were inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in 1991. Turner is inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame and the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame. He is also inducted into the Mississippi Musicians Hall of Fame. He was honored with a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame in 2001.
Turner won Comeback Album of The Year for Here and Now at the W.C. Handy Blues Awards in 2002. In 2004, he was awarded the Heroes Award from the Memphis branch of the Recording Academy. He was a recipient of the Legend Award at the 2007 Mojo Awards.
In 2004, Fender Custom Shop manufactured a limited edition Ike Turner Tribute Stratocaster. The model has an alder body in Sonic Blue with an Ike Turner signature in gold ink on the body under the clear-coat, with a maple neck in a 1960s "C" shape with a rosewood fingerboard, with 21 vintage frets. It had three custom single coil 1960s Strat pickups. Only 100 specimens were made, retailing at $3,399.99.
In August 2010, Turner was posthumously celebrated in his hometown of Clarksdale, Mississippi. On August 6, Clarksdale officials and music fans gathered to unveil a marker on the Mississippi Blues Trail and a plaque on the Clarksdale Walk of Fame in downtown Clarksdale honoring Turner and his musical legacy. The unveilings coincided with Clarksdale's 23rd Annual Sunflower River Blues & Gospel Festival, which paid tribute to Turner.
In 2015, Rolling Stone ranked Ike & Tina Turner No. 2 on their list of the 20 Greatest Duos of All Time.
In 2017, the Mississippi Blues Trail honored "Rocket 88" for being an influential record with a marker in Lyon, Mississippi. In 2018, "Rocket 88" was chosen for the inaugural class of influential songs inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Singles.
Portrayal in popular culture
In 1986, Tina Turner released her autobiography, I, Tina, in which she recounted Turner's volatile behavior. He received negative publicity that was exacerbated in 1993 by the release of the film adaptation What's Love Got to Do with It. Turner received $45,000 for the film, but he had unknowingly signed papers waiving the right to sue Disney's Touchstone Pictures for his depiction. He was portrayed by Laurence Fishburne, whose performance earned him an Oscar nomination for Best Actor at the 66th Academy Awards.
After the release of the film, the fictionalized version of Turner from the movie was seized on by comedians, who reused the persona in sketches. On the 1990s sketch comedy show In Living Color, Turner was parodied by David Alan Grier. He was portrayed on Saturday Night Live's Weekend Update by Tim Meadows in a pageboy wig. On the John Boy and Billy radio show, cast member Jeff Pillars regularly performed an impersonation of Turner in a segment called "Ax/Ask Ike". These sketches were collected in a 2008 comedy album Ike at the Mike. In 2006, Vibe magazine ranked the character of Ike Turner from What's Love Got to Do with It at No. 4 in their list of the 20 best movie "bad guys".
Commenting on the historical accuracy of the film, Tina told Larry King in 1997: "I would have liked them to have more truth, but according to Disney [owner of the film's production company], they said it's impossible, the people would not have believed the truth." In 2018, Tina told Oprah Winfrey that she only recently watched the film, but she could not finish it because she "didn't realize they would change the details so much." Phil Spector criticized Tina's book and called the film a "piece of trash" during his eulogy at Turner's funeral.
In 1999, Turner published his autobiography Takin' Back My Name: The Confessions of Ike Turner. It was written with Nigel Cawthorne and Little Richard wrote the introduction. In 2003, John Collis published Ike Turner: King of Rhythm about the life and musical contributions of Turner.
Turner claimed to have been married fourteen times. He often married another woman before divorcing his existing wife. Speaking on his early marriages, he said: "You gave a preacher $2, the papers cost $3, that was it. In those days blacks didn't bother with divorces."
Turner was first married at 16 years old to Edna Dean Stewart of Ruleville, Mississippi. They were married on April 10, 1948. Records show that Turner added four years to his age. Edna did not want to stay in Clarksdale, so she left Turner and returned to Ruleville.
Turner's second wife, Velma Davis (née Dishman) is the elder sister of former Ikette Joshie Armstead. Turner met her at the Cotton Club on Camplin Avenue in Yazoo City, Mississippi in 1948. Velma claimed that Turner is the father of her daughter Linda Turner Bullock, born in 1949. However, Turner asserted in his book that he is not the biological father. The couple married on September 19, 1950. Velma and Linda attended Turner's Mississippi Blues Trail marker unveiling in 2010.
Turner married Marion Louis Lee (Bonnie Turner) in Clarksdale on September 24, 1952. Bonnie was a member of the Kings of Rhythm as a pianist and vocalist. In 1952, under the alias Mary Sue, she released the single "Everybody's Talking" / "Love Is a Gamble" on Modern Records. She co-wrote both tunes with Turner. The couple also recorded for RPM Records and Sun Records. Turner recalled, "Bonnie played piano. It was a job staying ahead of this chick, man, cos' she was always trying to outdo me." While they were in Sarasota, Florida for a gig, she ran off to New York with another man in 1953. Their divorce was finalized in 1955.
After Bonnie, Turner married a woman named Alice in Helena, Arkansas. According to Turner, they did not consummate their marriage. Alice was dating his vocalist Johnny O'Neal, but Turner liked her so he married her to avoid locking heads with O'Neal. "If I married her, he couldn't do nothing," he said.
After Alice, Turner became involved with Annie Mae Wilson from Greenville, Mississippi. She was a pianist in his band, and they married in the mid-1950s. Annie Mae left Turner for a policeman after they moved to East St. Louis, Illinois.
In East St. Louis, Turner lived with Lorraine Taylor. Her parents owned the Taylor Sausage Factory in St. Louis. Sources often incorrectly refer to Taylor as one of Turner's wives, but she was his live-in girlfriend. Lorraine already had two children of her own before she had two sons, Ike Jr. and Michael, with Turner.
"I still love Tina as much as I ever loved her...I wrote her a letter five years ago. I never sent it...I was telling her in this letter that I'm sorry for putting her and the kids through that kind of stuff. I was stupid. I was inconsiderate about her feelings. I understand today. She came from an abusive relationship and went straight to the top."
— Ike Turner (2007)
In 1957, Turner met Anna Bullock (Tina Turner) at the Manhattan Club in East St. Louis. They became close friends and she began dating his saxophonist Raymond Hill. When Bullock became pregnant by Hill, they lived with Turner and his live-in girlfriend Lorraine Taylor. Hill injured his ankle and left Bullock before their son Craig was born in August 1958. During Bullock's pregnancy, Taylor became suspicious that Bullock was pregnant by Turner and threatened her with a gun before shooting herself; her injuries were nonfatal. However, Turner and Bullock eventually began having an affair and she became pregnant in January 1960.
Following the birth of their son Ronnie in October 1960, they were married in Tijuana in 1962. Turner stated that the reason they went to Tijuana was to see "sex shows and whores". At the time, he was still legally married to Alice Bell. He used a detective agency to locate Bell in Chicago and they divorced in 1974. On multiple occasions, Turner said that he was never officially married to Tina. He also revealed on The Howard Stern Show in 1993 and on Fresh Air in 1996, that Tina's birth name is Martha Nell (not Anna Mae) Bullock. Tina signed her legal name as Martha Nell Turner on multiple contracts.
Following a violent altercation in July 1976, Tina filed for divorce on the grounds of irreconcilable differences. Although Turner reiterated that they were never officially married, they had a common-law marriage and still had to go through a formal divorce. Their divorce was finalized on March 29, 1978. In the final divorce decree, Tina took responsibility for missed concert dates as well as an IRS lien. Tina retained songwriter royalties from songs she had written, but Turner got the publishing royalties for his compositions and hers. She also kept her two Jaguar cars, furs and jewelry along with her stage name. Tina gave up her share of their Bolic Sound recording studio, publishing companies, and real estate.
In her 1986 autobiography, Tina revealed that Turner had been abusive during their marriage. "It was my relationship with Ike that made me most unhappy. At first, I had really been in love with him. Look what he'd done for me. But he was totally unpredictable," she said. Turner admitted he took Tina for granted and called her "the best woman I ever knew." In his autobiography, he said: "Sure, I've slapped Tina. We had fights and there have been times when I punched her to the ground without thinking. But I never beat her." In a 1999, Roseanne Barr urged him to publicly apologize to Tina on The Roseanne Barr Show. In 2007, Turner told Jet that he had written Tina an apology letter, but had never sent it. In 2018, Tina told The Sunday Times that "as an old person, I have forgiven him, but I would not work with him. He asked for one more tour with me, and I said, 'No, absolutely not.' Ike wasn't someone you could forgive and allow him back in."
Turner married Margaret Ann Thomas in Las Vegas on April 11, 1981; they divorced in 1990. They had met in the mid-1960s at a concert in Bakersfield, California. According to Turner, Tina suggested Ann fill in as an Ikette because although she could not sing, she was attractive. Eventually she moved into their View Park home. Turner stated, "I loved Tina, but I was in love with Ann Thomas." Their daughter Mia was born in January 1969. They rekindled their friendship years after their divorce, and she found Turner unconscious at his home the day he died.
Turner was introduced to St. Louis native singer Jeanette Bazzell by his son Ike Turner Jr. in 1988. She became his lead vocalist and they married in a private ceremony at Circus Circus Hotel & Resort in Las Vegas on July 4, 1995. They divorced in 2000, but later rekindled their friendship. According to Jeanette, Turner called her his "backbone". In 2019, she told Palm Spring Life that the film What's Love Got to Do with It "assassinated Ike's career. But more than that, it broke his heart". She added, "Ike doesn't get any recognition because of all the negative things [shown] in that movie and in his relationship with Tina... I went through things with Ike, too, but there's a time to forgive and to let go. To strip him from having the opportunity to get recognition in an area where he was entitled to deserve it, it's so wrong to me."
Turner met San Francisco native singer Audrey Madison through a mutual friend in 1993. She started as an Ikette before becoming his lead singer. They married at A Special Memory Wedding Chapel in Las Vegas on October 8, 2006. Turner filed for divorce two months later on December 22, but after the divorce was granted they reconciled in 2007. In 2011, Audrey appeared as a contestant on The X Factor. In 2016, she released her memoir Love Had Everything to Do with It, which details her volatile relationship with Turner due to his bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. She told The Afro: "I decided to write it because it was like a cleansing and it released all of the trauma. Also, I wanted the general public to have a better outlook and perspective on where Ike was mentally and emotionally, because so often, as a nation, we turn on people who have mental health issues and define them by their behaviors rather than their condition."
Turner had six children: sons Ike Turner Jr. (b. 1958) and Michael Turner (b. 1960) with Lorraine Taylor, Ronald "Ronnie" Turner (b. 1960) with Tina Turner, daughters Mia Turner (b. 1969) with Ann Thomas, and Twanna Melby Turner (b. 1959) with Pat Richard. Tina's son Craig Turner (1958–2018) with Raymond Hill was adopted by Turner and therefore carried his surname. Craig died in an apparent suicide in 2018.
Turner's second wife Velma Davis (née Dishman) claimed that Turner was the father of her daughter, Linda Turner Bullock (b. 1949), but Turner denied that assertion in his autobiography (in which Velma is mistakenly referred to as Thelma): "I met Thelma Dishman, who, at that time, I thought was a pretty girl. Thelma was pregnant, not by me, but I liked her."
Ike Turner Jr. released an album, Hard Labor, in 1987. He won a Grammy Award for his involvement with Turner's 2006 album Risin' with the Blues. He toured with former Ikette Randi Love as Sweet Randi Love and The Love Thang Band.
Ronnie Turner was in a band called Manufactured Funk with songwriter and musician Patrick Moten. He played bass guitar in his mother's band after his parents divorced and he later played in his father's band. He married French-American singer Afida Turner in 2007. After his father's death, he told Jet magazine: "I loved my father very much... You can talk 5 or 10 minutes about the bad he's done. You can talk all night about the achievements he's had. He was successful with my mom and after my mom. He won a Grammy before he died. That's a lifetime achievement."
Legal issues and drug addiction
In 1959, Turner was charged with what he described as "interstate transportation of forged checks and conspiracy" and was forced to stand trial in St. Louis. At the first trial, the jury failed to reach a verdict, and at the retrial a year later he was found not guilty.
Before the age of thirty, Turner did not use drugs or drink alcohol. He would fire anyone in his band who used any substances. Turner was first introduced to cocaine by "two very famous people" he has been working with at the International Hotel in Las Vegas. Producer D'Angela Proctor alleged in Turner's Unsung documentary that the two famous people were Elvis Presley and Redd Foxx. He took the cocaine home and tried it one night while writing songs at the piano. Turner said he liked the reduced need for sleep the drug gave him which allowed him to write more music. By the early 1970s, he was heavily addicted to the drug, buying it in large quantities and sharing it with friends. Turner later estimated that he had spent $11 million on cocaine. His addiction caused a hole through his nasal septum, the pain of which he relieved by using more cocaine. He eventually began freebasing crack cocaine.
By 1985, Turner's finances were in disarray and he owed the state of California $12,802 in back taxes. He later settled his account. He had tried to sell his studio Bolic Sound in 1980 to raise funds to avoid foreclosure, but the studio burned down on the day a potential buyer was scheduled to view it in January 1981.
During the 1980s, Turner was arrested multiple times for drug and firearm offenses which resulted in two convictions.
- In 1980, a SWAT team raided his Bolic Sound studio, finding a live hand grenade and seven grams of cocaine. Turner received his first conviction for cocaine possession. He was sentenced to thirty days in the L.A. county jail with three years probation.
- In April 1981, Turner was arrested for shooting a 49-year-old newspaper delivery man. He accused the man of assaulting his wife Ann Thomas and of kicking his dog. Turner said he only fired a shot to scare him off and that the man had injured himself when he climbed over the fence to get away. A jury acquitted Turner of assault in 1982.
- In June 1985, Turner was arrested and charged with conspiracy to sell $16,000 worth of cocaine, possession and maintaining a residence for selling or using a controlled substance. The police took $1,000 worth of rock cocaine from his North Hollywood apartment. Record producer Eddie Coleman Jr. and music company writer Richard Lee Griffin were also arrested and charged. Turner was released on a $5,000 bond.
- In 1986, Turner was arrested for cocaine possession, concealed carry of a handgun and traffic violations; he was released on bail.
- In January 1987, Turner was arrested for trying to sell 10 ounces of cocaine to an undercover police officer; he pleaded not guilty.
- In May 1989, Turner was arrested on drug charges in West Hollywood. He was convicted of cocaine intoxication and driving under the influence of cocaine in January 1990. The next month he was sentenced to four years in prison. He was released on parole in September 1991 after completing 18 months of his sentence at California Men's Colony in San Luis Obispo. Larry Kamien, associate warden of the California Men's Colony, said Turner was a model inmate. In prison he became a trustee working in the library and saved $13,000 by selling cigarettes, candy bars, and coffee to other inmates.
Turner managed to break his dependency on cocaine while in prison and remained clean for more than ten years. He visited high schools during Black History Month to speak against drug use. While trying to help an acquaintance from crack addiction at a crack house he relapsed in 2004.
In 2005, Turner revealed he had been diagnosed with emphysema which required him to use an oxygen tank. His daughter Mia Turner said, "He was too weak from the emphysema to do anything. He'd go in the studio for a couple of minutes and play a couple of bars and say he had to go lay down." Despite his ill health, he collaborated with Gorillaz on their album Demon Days and performed the track with them at the Manchester Opera House in November 2005.
After his death in 2007, Turner's autopsy and toxicology report showed he was taking Seroquel at the time of his death. The medicine is most commonly used as treatment for bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. His ex-wife Audrey Madison claimed Turner was bipolar and that she was helping him with his illness, a claim supported by Turner's personal assistant and caretaker, Falina Rasool. Rasool said she talked to Turner about his bipolar disorder and witnessed its effects. "I would come in the room and see him change like a lightbulb, switch on and switch off. I did ask him about it. He said he made a song about it and we started laughing," said Rasool, referring to "Bi Polar" from the Grammy-winning album Risin' With The Blues. "I know I'm bipolar....And I've been bipolar, but a lot of people is bipolar," he told her. However, Turner's daughter, Mia Turner, disagreed with this diagnosis and felt he was being over-medicated.
In the weeks leading up to his death, Turner became reclusive. On December 10, 2007, he told his assistant Falina Rasool that he believed he was dying and would not live until Christmas. As he predicted, Turner died two days later, on December 12, at the age of 76, at his home in San Marcos, California. He was found dead by his former wife Ann Thomas. Rasool was also in the house and administered CPR. Turner was pronounced dead at 11:38 am.
His funeral was held on December 21, 2007, at the City of Refuge Church in Gardena, California. Among those who spoke at the funeral were Little Richard, Solomon Burke and Phil Spector. The Kings of Rhythm played "Rocket 88" and "Proud Mary". Turner was cremated after the funeral service.
On January 16, 2008, the San Diego County Medical Examiner's Office reported that Turner had died from a cocaine overdose. "The cause of death for Ike Turner is cocaine toxicity with other significant conditions, such as hypertensive cardiovascular disease and pulmonary emphysema", Supervising Medical Examiner Investigator Paul Parker told CNN. His daughter Mia was said to be surprised at the coroner's assessment, believing his advanced stage emphysema was a bigger factor.
Turner died without a valid will. Less than a week after his death, his former wife Audrey Madison Turner filed a petition stating that he had penned a handwritten will naming her as a beneficiary. In 2009, a judge ruled that the handwritten will was invalid and that by law Turner's children were the direct heirs of his estate.
Awards and nominations
Turner has received various awards in recognition for his significant role as a pioneer of rock and roll.
- 2001: Inducted into the St. Louis Walk of Fame
- 2002: Inducted into the Mississippi Musicians Hall of Fame
- 2004: Memphis Heroes Award
- 2005: Inducted into Guitar Center's RockWalk
- 2007: Mojo Legend Award
- 2010: Inducted into the Clarksdale Walk of Fame
- 2015: Inducted into the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame
- 2015: Inducted into St. Louis Classic Rock Hall of Fame (with Tina Turner)
Blues Foundation Awards
|Year||Nominee / work||Award||Result|
|1981||Ike Turner's Kings Of Rhythm||Reissue album||Nominated|
|2002||Here and Now||Comeback Album of The Year||Won|
|2002||Here and Now||Soul Blues Album||Nominated|
|2002||Ike Turner||Soul Blues Male Artist||Nominated|
|2002||Ike Turner||Blues Entertainer of the Year||Nominated|
|Year||Nominee / work||Award||Result|
|1991||"Rocket 88"||Classic of Blues Recording – Single or Album Track||Inducted|
|Year||Nominee / work||Award||Result|
|1962||"It's Gonna Work Out Fine"||Best Rock & Roll Recording||Nominated|
|1970||A Black Man's Soul||Best R&B Instrumental Performance||Nominated|
|1972||"Proud Mary"||Best R&B Vocal Performance by a Group||Won|
|1975||"Father Alone"||Best Soul Gospel Performance||Nominated|
|1975||The Gospel According to Ike & Tina||Best Soul Gospel Performance||Nominated|
|2002||Here and Now||Best Traditional Blues Album||Nominated|
|2007||Risin' with the Blues||Best Traditional Blues Album||Won|
|Year||Nominee / work||Award||Result|
|1998||"Rocket 88" (as Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats)||Hall of Fame (Single)||Inducted|
|1999||"River Deep – Mountain High"||Hall of Fame (Single)||Inducted|
|2003||"Proud Mary"||Hall of Fame (Single)||Inducted|
Independent Music Awards
|Year||Nominee / work||Award||Result|
|2007||Ike Turner — Risin' with the Blues||Blues Album||Nominated|
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
|Year||Nominee / work||Award||Result|
|1991||Ike & Tina Turner||Hall of Fame – Performers||Inducted|
|2018||"Rocket 88" (as Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats)||Hall of Fame – Singles||Inducted|
- 1962: Ike & Tina Turner's Kings of Rhythm Dance, Sue 2003
- 1963: Rocks The Blues, Crown CLP-5367/CST-367
- 1969: A Black Man's Soul, Pompeii SD-6003
- 1972: Blues Roots, United Artists UAS-5576
- 1973: Bad Dreams, United Artists UA-LA087-F
- 1980: The Edge (featuring Tina Turner and Home Grown Funk), Fantasy F-9597
- 2001: Here and Now, Ikon IKOCD-8850
- 2006: Risin' with the Blues, Zoho Roots ZM-200611
- 2002: The Resurrection: Live Montreux Jazz Festival, Isabel IS 640202
- 2006: Ike Turner & The Kings Of Rhythm: Live In Concert, Charly Films CHF-F1014LF [DVD/2CD]
- 1976: Sun: The Roots Of Rock: Volume 3: Delta Rhythm Kings, Charly CR 30103
- 1976: I'm Tore Up, Red Lightnin' RL0016
- 1984: Hey Hey, Red Lightin' RL-0047 [2LP]
- 1994: I Like Ike! The Best of Ike Turner, Rhino R2-71819
- 2001: The Sun Sessions, Varèse Sarabande 302 066 232 2
- 2004: His Woman, Her Man: The Ike Turner Diaries— Unreleased Funk/Rock 1970–1973
- 2004: The Bad Man: Rare & Unreissued Ike Turner Produced Recordings 1962–1965, Night Train International NTICD-7139
- 2004: King Cobra: The Chicago Sessions, Fuel 2000 302 061 390 2
- 2006: The Chronological: Ike Turner 1951–1954, Classics Blues & Rhythm Series 5176
- 2008: Classic Early Sides 1952–1957, JSP 4203 [2CD]
- 2011: Rocket 88: The Original 1951–1960 R&B and Rock & Roll Sides, Soul Jam 600803
- 2011: That Kat Sure Could Play! (The Singles 1951 To 1957), Secret SECBX-025 [4CD]
- 2011: Jack Rabbit Blues: The Singles of 1958–1960, Secret SECSP-041
- 2012: Ike Turner Studio Productions: New Orleans and Los Angeles 1963–1965, Ace CDCHD-1329
- 2017: She Made My Blood Run Cold, Southern Routes SR-CD-3502
Recordings as a sideman
- 1962: Wolf Sings the Blues
- 1962: The Big Blues
- 1969: Sweet Black Angel
- 2005: Demon Days
Ike and Tina Turner
- Blues historian Ted Drozdowski claimed that Turner's father died in an industrial accident.
- Pareles, Jon (December 13, 2007). "Ike Turner, Musician and Songwriter in Duo With Tina Turner, Dies at 76". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 30, 2011.(subscription required)
- Fowler, James E. (April 23, 1998). "New, Improved Ike Turner". Los Angeles Times.(subscription required)
- Collis 2003, pp. 41–52
- Ken Barnes (December 12, 2007). "Ike Turner: A tarnished rock legend". USA Today. Retrieved December 23, 2007.
- Philips, Chuck (September 5, 1991). "Will They Still Like Ike? : Turner Nervous About Restarting His Pop Career". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 27, 2012.(subscription required)
- Braiker, Brian (December 17, 2007). "Remembering Ike Turner". Newsweek. Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- Kiersh, Ed (August 1985). "Ike's Story". Spin. 1 (4): 36–43. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- "The musical legacy of Ike Turner". BBC News entertainment. BBC. December 13, 2007. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
- Fricke, David (December 3, 2010). "100 Greatest Guitarists: David Fricke's Picks". Rolling Stone.
- "Grammy Hall of Fame". Recording Academy Grammy Awards. October 18, 2010.
- "Ike Turner". Recording Academy Grammy Awards. November 23, 2020.
- "Ike and Tina Turner". Rock & Roll Hall of Fame.
- "Mississippi Blues Trail". Visit Clarksdale. Coahoma County Tourism. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- Santelli, Robert (1993). The Big Book of Blues: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Penguin. p. 410. ISBN 0-14-015939-8.
- Christian, Margena A. (October 2008). "The Last Days of Ike Turner". Ebony. 63 (12): 94–100. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- Turner 1999, p. 7.
- Drozdowski, Ted. "King of Rhythm: Rock and Roll Pioneer Ike Turner November 5, 1931 – December 12, 2007". Gibson.com lifestyle features 12.13.2007. Gibson, Inc. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
- Turner 1999, p. 12.
- Turner 1999, p. 13.
- Collis 2003, p. 28
- Turner 1999, p. 17-19.
- Turner 1999, p. 27
- Turner 1999, p. 28.
- Turner 1999, p. 34.
- Turner 1999, p. 36
- Martin, Douglas (December 17, 1999). "Early Wright, 84, Disc Jockey Who Made the Delta Blue, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, 2011.(subscription required)
- "WROX". Mississippi Blues Trail.
- Moser, Margaret (March 16, 2001). "Spotlight: Ike Turner Antone's, Midnight". Auston Chronicle. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- Collis 2003, p. 27
- Selvin, Joe (September 14, 1997). "POP QUIZ -- Q & A With Ike Turner". SFGATE. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
- Turner 1999, pp. 26–27
- Huffman, Alan (November 23, 2016). "All the Blues Players Shacked Up at This Hotel". Meridian. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
- Collis 2003, pp. 28–30
- "Mississippi Blues Trail-Ike Turner". Mississippi Blues Trail. Mississippi Blues Commission. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
"Ike Turner's Kings of Rhythm – I'm Tore Up". Discogs. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
- Turner 1999, p. 40.
- Hawkins, Martin (1976). "Sun- The Roots of Rock: Delta Rhythm Kings sleevenotes". Sun – The Roots of Rock. 3. Cite journal requires
- Palmer, Robert (June 20, 1993). "Commentary: What Ike Had to Do With It". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 6, 2011.(subscription required)
- Collis 2003, pp. 30–31
- Turner 1999, p. 43.
- Shepard, John (2003). Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. Performance and Production. Vol. II. Continuum International. p. 286. ISBN 978-0-8264-6322-7.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Turner 1999, p. 46.
- "Best Selling Rhythm & Blues Records" (PDF). Billboard. June 9, 1951. p. 32.
- "Most Played Juke Box Rhythm & Blues Records" (PDF). Billboard. July 7, 1951. p. 28.
- Turner 1986, p. 55.
- O'Toole, Kit (August 8, 2019). ""Rocket 88": One of The Pioneering Songs of Rock". CultureSonar.
- Turner 1999, p. 47.
- Salem, James M. (2001). The Late, Great Johnny Ace and the Transition from R & B to Rock 'n' Roll'. University of Illinois Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-252-06969-7.
- Farley, Charles (2011). Soul of the Man: Bobby "Blue" Bland. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-60473-919-0.
- Kostelanetz, Richard (2005). Kostelanetz, Richard; Reiswig, Jesse (eds.). The B.B. King Reader: 6 Decades of Commentary (2nd ed.). Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. p. 7. ISBN 0-634-09927-2.
- Turner 1999, p. 50.
- "The Bihari Brothers". All About Blues Music. February 22, 2013.
- Yardley, William (December 12, 2013). "Joe Bihari, Who Put Early R&B on Record, Dies at 88 (Published 2013)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 2, 2021.(subscription required)
- Broven, John (2009). Record Makers and Breakers: Voices of the Independent Rock 'n' Roll Pioneers. University of Illinois Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-252-09401-9.
- Turner 1999, p. 246.
- "Chess, Biharis Skirmish; This Time Over Wolf" (PDF). Billboard. December 22, 1951. p. 17.
- "Howlin' Wolf Bio". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on January 9, 2015.
- Collis, John (1998). The Story of Chess Records. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-58234-005-0.
- "Club Desire, Canton". Mississippi Blues Trail marker. Mississippi Blues Commission. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- O'Neal, Jim; Singel, Amy van (September 5, 2013). The Voice of the Blues: Classic Interviews from Living Blues Magazine. Routledge. p. 131. ISBN 978-1-136-70741-4.
- "Matt "Guitar" Murphy". Blues Foundation. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- "Biographies – Bonnie Turner". 706 Union Avenue Sessions.
- Ruttenberg, Jay (May 17, 2001). "Ike Turner". Time Out New York. Archived from the original on December 30, 2019. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
- "Bobbito plays the tracks. Ike Turner states the facts". Vibe: 62. August 2001.
- Maycock, James (August 3, 2001). "Rocky road to rock and roll". The Telegraph.
- Turner 1999, p. 58.
- "Ike Turner – That Kat Sure Could Play! The Singles 1951 To 1957". Discogs.
- "Billy "The Kid" Emerson – Sun Record Company". Sun Records. March 27, 2012.
- Durchholz, Daniel (May 16, 2001). "We Like Ike". Riverfront Times.
- DeCurtis 1992, pp. 32–36
- Turner 1999, p. 66.
- Turner 1999, p. 62.
- Turner 1986, p. 57.
- Obrecht, Jas (2000). Rollin' and Tumblin': The Postwar Blues Guitarists. Miller Freeman. pp. 9, 349. ISBN 0-87930-613-0. OCLC 472553017.
- Dahl, Bill (August 27, 1993). "Ike Turner Upbeat On His Future". Chicago Tribune.
- "Buddy Guy And His Band – You Sure Can't Do/This Is The End". 45cat.
- Moon, Jill (August 24, 2016). "Lucky break: Rhythm runs through renowned Ike & Tina guitarist's veins". The Telegraph.
- Collis 2003, p. 154.
- "Ike & Tina Turner: Workin' Together". Blues & Soul. Issue 53: 12. March 4, 1971.
- Olson, Bruce R. (2016). That St. Louis Thing, Vol. 2: An American Story of Roots, Rhythm and Race. Lulu Publishing Services. ISBN 978-1-4834-5799-4.
- Turner 1986, p. 61.
- Turner 1999, p. 71.
- Turner 1986, p. 62.
- Turner 1986, p. 71-72.
- Collis 2003, pp. 70–76
- Greensmith, Bill (2015). Blues Unlimited: Essential Interviews from the Original Blues Magazine. Russell, Tony, Camarigg, Mark, Rowe, Mike. Urbana, Chicago, and Springfield: University of Illinois Press. pp. 247–248. ISBN 978-0-252-09750-8. OCLC 922018263.
- Turner 1999, p. 35
- Turner 1999, pp. 74–75
- "Ike & Tina Turner Top Songs / Chart Singles Discography". Music VF. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "Ike & Tina Turner". Recording Academy Grammy Awards. November 23, 2020.
- "100 Greatest Girl Group Songs of All Time: Critics' Picks". Billboard. July 10, 2017. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- Peneny, Douglas. "Ike and Tina Turner". The History of Rock 'n' Roll: The Golden Decade 1954–1963. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
- "Ike Turner Forms Label" (PDF). Billboard. November 9, 1963. p. 4.
- Callahan, Michael. "The Sue Records Story". Both Sides Now. Mike Callahan. Archived from the original on December 29, 2011. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
- "Top 50 In R&B Locations" (PDF). Cash Box: 36. November 20, 1965.
- Loder, Kurt (March 1, 1985). "Tina Turner Stages Rock-Solid Comeback". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- "Philips Signs Ike & Tina Turner" (PDF). Cash Box: 45. April 23, 1966.
- Fong-Torres, Ben (October 14, 1971). "Tales of Ike and Tina Turner". Rolling Stones.(subscription required)
- "Ike & Tina to Philles" (PDF). Cash Box: 56. April 30, 1966.
- LOS40. "Cuando nací era número 1 de los 40: (1966-12-17) Ike & Tina Turner–River deep – Mountain high". LOS40 (in Spanish). Archived from the original on March 22, 2020.
- Billig, Michael (June 1, 2001). Rock 'n' roll Jews. Syracuse University Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-8156-0705-2.
- Walker, Michael (May 16, 1993). "Tina Turner's Story Through a Disney Prism". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 23, 2011.(subscription required)
- Weingarten, Christopher (June 12, 2017). "The 50 Greatest Concerts of the Last 50 Years". Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
- "Ike & Tina Strive to Soulfulize Vegas Hearts" (PDF). Billboard. October 4, 1969. pp. SC-7.
- "16 Spring Albums From Atlantic" (PDF). Cash Box: 32. April 26, 1969.
- Bogdanov, Vladimir; Woodstra, Chris; Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (2003). All Music Guide to the Blues: The Definitive Guide to the Blues. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-87930-736-3.
- "Classic Album: Sly and the Family Stone – There's A Riot Goin' On". Clash Magazine. December 11, 2009. Archived from the original on May 10, 2020.
- "Ike & Tina Turner's Bolic Sound Studio". Billboard. March 4, 1972. p. 58.
- Sutherland, Sam (March 18, 1972). "Studio Track" (PDF). Billboard. p. 8.
- "Golden First For The Turner's" (PDF). Cash Box: 116. December 28, 1974.
- "Judy Cheeks – Judy Cheeks". Discogs.
- "Trouble Trails Tina Turner". Jet. April 15, 1976. pp. 58–61.
- Turner 1999, p. 180
- Turner 1999, p. 182
- Tyehimba, Cheo (August 2, 1996). "Tina Turner left Ike 20 years ago". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
- "Billboard Disco Top 100" (PDF). Billboard. November 1, 1980. p. 39.
- Krakow, Steve (July 2, 2020). "From soul sweetheart to blues bombshell". Chicago Reader. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- "Chaka, Hubby Split; Not Talking Divorce". Jet: 53. August 30, 1979.
- Strauss, Neil (August 22, 1996). "The Pop Life: Ike Turner Return". The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2011.(subscription required)
- Willman, Chris (October 10, 1988). "Ike Turner Doesn't Quite Get It Turned Around". Los Angeles Times.(subscription required)
- Watrous, Peter (January 17, 1991). "Rock-and-Roll Hall of Fame Inducts Its 6th Crop of Legends". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- "War Casts Shadow On Hall Ceremony". Variety. January 20, 1991.
- "Ike Turner To Release Old Masters". Chicago Tribune. September 19, 1991.
- "Singles Reviews". Billboard. January 14, 1995. p. 45.
- Considine, J.D. (November 24, 1998). "Not for the faint of heart Review: You'll be happy to know star-studded 'Chef Aid' lives down to the tastelessness of 'South Park.'". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on December 4, 2019. Retrieved December 2, 2019.
- Pareles, Jon (August 26, 1996). "Turner Revue Is Back (Minus Tina)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 4, 2019.(subscription required)
- Appleford, Steve (July 11, 1994). "Pop: Ike Turner Relies on Hits of the Past". Los Angeles Times.(subscription required)
- "Sunflower River Blues & Gospel Festival Chronology". Delta Blues Museum.
- Collis 2003, p. 133
- Drozdowski, Ted (May 24–31, 2001). "Living legend Ike Turner returns to rock and roll". Archived from the original on November 22, 2012. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
- Mitchell, Elvis (September 26, 2003). "Television Review: The Blues: A History, A Homage". The New York Times.(subscription required)
- "About the Film Series". PBS: The Blues. Vulcan Productions, Inc. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- Ayers, Mike; Schrodt, Paul (May 1, 2014). "The 20 Essential Damon Albarn Songs". Esquire.
- Hughes, Rob. "Ike can see clearly now". Record Collector Magazine.
- McLean, Craig (January 2006). "Gorillaz". Spin: 40.
- "Gorillaz kick off unique Manchester residency". NME. November 2, 2005.
- "Gorillaz to release DVD". NME. February 24, 2006.
- D'Souza, Jerry. "Ike Turner- Risin' With the Blues". All About Jazz.com 5 October 2006. allaboutjazz.com. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
- "7th Annual Independent Music Awards Finalists Announced". Top40-Charts.com. November 3, 2007.
- Relic, Peter (March 6, 2008). "In the Studio: The Black Keys' 'Attack & Release'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 18, 2020.(subscription required)
- "100 Best ALbums of the 00's". Rolling Stone. Rolling Stone. July 18, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Strew, Roque. "The Black Keys Attack & Release". Pitchfork Media, April 1, 2008. Pitchfork Media, Inc. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Turner 1999, p. 25-26.
- Turner 1999, p. 28-29.
- Fagen, Donald (December 17, 2007). "The Devil and Ike Turner: Parsing his hits". Slate Obituary, Dec. 17, 2007. The Slate Group, LLC. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- Rubin, Dave (December 2009). "Ike Turner: The Soulful Style of the Electric Blues/R&B Guitarist". Premier Guitar: 88. Archived from the original on March 28, 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
- Lord, Derreck. "Ike Turner, Here and Now". all about jazz, 2011-04-06. All About Jazz /Derreck Lord. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
- "Ike Turner 1931–2007". Fender News. Fender Inc. Archived from the original on January 16, 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- Wheeler, Tom (2004). The Stratocaster Chronicles. Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-634-05678-9.
- Christgau, Robert (1981). "Consumer Guide '70s: T". Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. Ticknor & Fields. ISBN 0-89919-026-X. Retrieved March 16, 2019 – via robertchristgau.com.
- Ike Turner, Nigel Cawthorne (1999). Takin' Back My Name: The Confessions of Ike Turner. Virgin Books Limited. pp. xi. ISBN 978-1-85227-850-2.
- "Musical Tributes Honor Ike Turner's Legacy At Funeral". Jet: 52–56. January 14, 2008.
- Weinstein, Deena (2015). Rock'n America: A Social and Cultural History. University of Toronto Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-4426-0015-7.
- Turner 1999, p. xi.
- Collis 2003, p. 41
- "Ike Turner & The Kings of Rhythm: Here and Now" (PDF). Billboard. June 2, 2001. p. 118.
- "Goldie Inner City Life sample of Ike Turner and the Kings of Rhythm". whosampled.com. WhoSampled.com Limited. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- "Rocket 88: Tribute to Ike Turner – Mr. Groove Band | Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic.
- "1971 Grammy Champions" (PDF). Billboard. March 25, 1972. p. 6.
- Reuters Staff (February 12, 2007). "Ike Turner wins first Grammy since 1972". Reuters. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
- "Inductees: Rock and Roll". Mississippi Musicians Hall of Fame.
- "Ike Turner". St. Louis Walk of Fame. Archived from the original on November 3, 2019.
- Chris, Morris (June 1, 1986). "Buddy Guy Picks Up Three Handy Awards" (PDF). Billboard. p. 12.
- Ed, Christman (May 1, 2004). "Value Central Hosts Heroes At New Memphis Store" (PDF). Billboard. Vol. 116 no. 18. p. 47.
- "The Mojo Honours List 2007". Archived from the original on July 9, 2012. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
- The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Levy, Joe. (1st ed.). New York: Wenner Books. 2005. ISBN 1-932958-01-0. OCLC 60596234.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. May 31, 2012.
- "2004 Fender Custom Shop Ike Turner Limited Edition Stratocaster". Garrett Park Guitars. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
- Byrd, Shelia (August 5, 2010). "Ike Turner focus of weekend celebration in Miss". Associated Press. Retrieved March 5, 2021 – via The Washington Times.
- "This Week's Featured Marker: Ike Turner". Mississippi Blues Trail.
- "20 Greatest Duos of All Time". Rolling Stone. December 17, 2015.
- "Mississippi Blues Trail Reaches 200th Marker with Rocket 88". Deep South USA. November 14, 2017. Archived from the original on February 2, 2020. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- Graff, Gary (April 18, 2018). "Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Inducts Songs for the First Time, Including 'Born to Be Wild' & 'Louie Louie'". Billboard.
- Turner 1999, p. 227-228.
- "THE 66th ACADEMY AWARD NOMINATIONS : OSCARS : The Nominees". Los Angeles Times. February 10, 1994.
- "Ike at the Mike John Boy & Billy". iTunes Store. Apple Inc. December 10, 2008. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
- Dauphin, Gary (April 2006). "Bad Guys". Vibe. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- Christian, Margena A. (January 7, 2008). "Rock 'N' Roll Pioneer Ike Turner Dies At 76". Jet. 112 (26): 56–59.
- "Rocker Supreme"1958-2007". The Pop History Dig. Retrieved December 7, 2019.
- Winfrey, Oprah (October 3, 2018). "Tina Turner Talks To Oprah About Keeping Her Spirits Up After a Stroke and Losing Her Son". Oprah magazine.
- Leeds, Jeff (December 22, 2007). "Ike Turner is Eulogized as misunderstood". The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2011.(subscription required)
- Penrice, Ronda Racha (June 3, 2015). "TV One's Unsung Offers Redemption for Ike Turner". The Root.
- "What love had to do with it". The Guardian. May 25, 1999. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- Collis 2003.
- Rosen, Jody (June 25, 2019). "Here Are Hundreds More Artists Whose Tapes Were Destroyed in the UMG Fire". The New York Times. Retrieved June 28, 2019.(subscription required)
- "Ike Turner Is Still With His 14th Wife". Howard Stern. October 17, 2007.
- Turner 1999, p. 56.
- Turner 1999, p. 57.
- "Interview: Joshie Armstead". othersounds.com. January 24, 2012. Archived from the original on July 4, 2019. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
- O'Neal, Jim (2017). "Yazoo Mississippi Blues". Living Blues. 48, #3 (249).
- Turner 1999, p. 59.
- Turner 1999, p. 27
- Turner 1999, p. 77.
- Becker, Stan (September 30, 1990). "MARKING TIME". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- Turner 1999, p. 79.
- Turner 1999, p. 72.
- Turner 1986, p. 66-68.
- Turner 1986, p. 74.
- Turner 1986, p. 96-97.
- Turner 1986, p. 96.
- Turner 1999, p. 96.
- Turner 1986, p. 97.
- Turner 1999, p. 97.
- "R&B Legend Ike Turner, 1931–2007". NPR. Fresh Air. December 14, 2007.
At 8:06 in the interview, Turner corrects the host who says Tina's real name is Annie Mae Bullock. He says "No, her name is Martha Nell Bullock."
- "Tina Turner Signed Contract (1977).... Music Memorabilia Autographs | Lot #52395". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
- "Tina Turner – Signed Agreement (1978).... Music Memorabilia | Lot #23263". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
- Turner 1986, p. 200.
- Turner 1986, p. 210"He also claimed that he and Tina had never actually been married all those years ago—a point that, under California common law, was by now moot."
- Turner 1986, p. 211.
- Turner 1999, p. 210.
- Turner 1986, p. 91.
- "Ike Turner Released From Prison, Returns To Music And 'Appreciates' Tina". Jet. 80 (23): 37. September 23, 1991.
- Turner 1999, p. 174.
- "The Roseanne Show (January 6, 1999)". Internet Archive. January 6, 1999.
- "Ike Turner Dies at 76". NPR. December 13, 2007.
- Leckie, Michael (March 18, 2018). "Tina Turner interview: the singer on Ike, Buddhism and leaving America for Switzerland". The Sunday Times.
- Jefferson, J'na (March 22, 2018). "Tina Turner Says She Forgives Ex-Husband Ike". Billboard.
- Turner 1999, p. 195.
- Turner 1999, p. 105.
- Turner 1999, p. 106.
- Turner 1999, p. 107.
- "Ike Turner Talks About His Ex-Wife Tina And New Fiancée". Jet: 58. September 27, 1993.
- Allison, Lynn (July 17, 1995). "Passages". People. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- "Ike Takes A Bride". Jet: 16. July 24, 1995.
- Archer, Greg (June 10, 2019). "Talking Turner". Palm Springs Life.
- Ike Turner's wedding 10/08/2006, archived from the original on October 31, 2021, retrieved November 15, 2019
- Starr, Michael (October 5, 2011). "Famous 'X'". New York Post.
- Turner, Audrey. "About Audrey Turner". Personal web page of Audrey Turner. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
- Cornish, Stephanie (June 8, 2016). "Ike Turner's Widow Pens Memoir on Singer's Violent Bipolar Condition". The Afro. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018.
- "Ike Turner Is Paroled". The New York Times. September 5, 1991.(subscription required)
- Andrea Mandell, Bryan Alexander (July 3, 2018). "Tina Turner's firstborn son dies of apparent suicide". USA Today.
- Turner 1999, p. 211.
- 'Ike Turner, Jr.' (advertisement) St. Louis Post-Despatch April 30, 1987, p. 23
- "Ike Turner, Jr". Recording Academy Grammy Award. November 23, 2020.
- "An Interview with Ike Turner Jr and Randi Love on The Bobby Eaton Show". BlogTalkRadio. 2017.
- Jones, Fred L. (October 12, 2017). "Tulsa Native Randi Love Giving To Give Back". The Oklahoma Eagle.
- Turner 1999, p. 232.
- "Mort de Craig Turner : Afida Turner rend hommage à son beau-frère". Voici. July 5, 2018. Archived from the original on March 7, 2019.
- Collis 2003, pp. 76–81
- "Turner Says He's Innocent Of Telephone Abuse Rap". Jet. 46 (6): 53. May 2, 1974.
- Turner 1999, p. 135.
- Pendleton, Tonya (June 2, 2015). "D'Angela Proctor Talks Ike Turner 'Unsung', Reveals Who Introduced Him To Cocaine". Black America Web. Archived from the original on June 9, 2015. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
- Turner 1999, p. 136.
- "Ike Turner". The Economist. December 19, 2007. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved November 4, 2019.(subscription required)
- Dougherty, Steve (September 3, 1990). "Soul Star on Ice: Divorced by Tina, Ike Turner Pays for His Romance with Cocaine in a California Prison". People. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- Lakeland Wire Services (June 28, 1985). "Ike Turner Released From Jail". Lakeland Ledger. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- "Drug Charges Filed Against Musician Ike Turner". AP News Archive, Jun. 27, 1985. Associated Press. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- "Ike Turner Arrested on Cocaine Charge in Calif". Jet. 69 (19): 9. January 27, 1986. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- "Not Guilty Plea on Drugs". The New York Times. Associated Press. January 3, 1987. Retrieved October 2, 2011.(subscription required)
- "Ike Turner Gets 4 Years on Cocaine Convictions". Los Angeles Times. February 17, 1990.(subscription required)
- "4-Year Sentence for Ike Turner". The New York Times. Associated Press. February 17, 1990. Retrieved October 2, 2011.(subscription required)
- Miserandino, Dominick A. "Ike Turner". The Celebrity Cafe.com 12–99–99. Archived from the original on November 15, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
- Adams, Guy (October 27, 2005). "Ike Turner: On sex, drugs and rock'n'roll". The Independent. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
- Carter, Chelsea J. (January 17, 2008). "Cocaine overdose killed Ike Turner, San Diego coroner rules". San Francisco Chronicle (AP). Retrieved October 3, 2011.
- Turner 1999, p. 7, 21.
- "Black Jews You Should Know, Part 2". Tablet Magazine. February 9, 2016. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
- McDonald, Ray (December 13, 2007). "Rock and Roll Legend Ike Turner Dies". VOA News. Voice of America. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved January 2, 2009.
- "Memorial service for Ike Turner today". Daily News. December 21, 2007. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
- "Medical examiner says Ike Turner died of cocaine overdose". CNN. January 17, 2008. Retrieved January 17, 2008.
- Figueroa, Teri (October 30, 2009). "EXCLUSIVE: Judge leans toward finding Ike Turner's children as heirs". The San Diego Union-Tribune.
- "Memphis Heroes Awards". www.scottymoore.net. Archived from the original on August 4, 2017.
- "RockWalk Honors BMI Blues Legends". BMI. April 7, 2005.
- "Inductees". National Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on October 20, 2019.
- "St. Louis Classic Rock Hall of Fame Vote – Class of 2019". www.stlouisclassicrock.com.
- "Ike Turner- discography". Discogs. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
- Collis, John (2003). Ike Turner: King of Rhythm. Do-Not Press. ISBN 978-1-904316-24-4.
- DeCurtis, Anthony (September 18, 1992). Present Tense: Rock & Roll and Culture. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-1265-4.
- Turner, Ike (1999). Takin' Back My Name: The Confessions of Ike Turner. Virgin Books Limited. ISBN 978-1-85227-850-2.
- Turner, Tina (1986). I, Tina: My Life Story. New York: Avon Books. ISBN 0-380-70097-2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ike Turner.|