|President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate|
January 30, 1809 – May 21, 1809
|Preceded by||Stephen R. Bradley|
|Succeeded by||Andrew Gregg|
|United States Senator
June 19, 1806 – November 14, 1809
|Preceded by||James Jackson|
|Succeeded by||Charles Tait|
|26th Governor of Georgia|
November 4, 1802 – September 23, 1806
|Preceded by||Josiah Tattnall, Sr.|
|Succeeded by||Jared Irwin|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's at-large district
March 4, 1795 – March 3, 1799
|Preceded by||Thomas P. Carnes|
|Succeeded by||Benjamin Taliaferro|
March 4, 1801 – May 1802
|Preceded by||James Jones|
|Succeeded by||Peter Early|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 1st district
November 22, 1792 – March 3, 1793
|Preceded by||Anthony Wayne|
|Succeeded by||None, seat eliminated|
|4th Attorney General of Georgia|
|Preceded by||Williams Stephens|
|Succeeded by||Samuel Stirk|
Savannah, Province of Georgia, British America
|Died|| (aged 60–61)
Augusta, Georgia, U.S.
John Milledge (1757 – February 9, 1818) was an American politician. He fought in the American Revolution and later served as United States Representative, 26th Governor of Georgia, and United States Senator. Milledge was a founder of Athens, Georgia, and the University of Georgia.
John Milledge was born in Savannah, the grandson of an original settler of Georgia. He was tutored privately and studied law. After being admitted to the bar, he opened a law practice in Savannah. At the onset of the Revolutionary War, Milledge was part of a group that took colonial governor Sir James Wright as a prisoner in 1775. He also took part in a raid of Savannah's royal armory to procure gunpowder for the revolutionary cause. When the British captured Savannah, Milledge escaped to South Carolina, where American patriots nearly hanged him as a spy. He participated in the Siege of Savannah in an attempt to drive the British forces out. In 1778, he served as an aide to Governor John Houstoun in an abortive campaign against the British in East Florida. In 1781, as a colonel in the Georgia militia, he helped to recapture Augusta.
State legislature and U.S. Congress
Milledge's political career began in 1779, when he was elected to the patriot general assembly. After serving as the attorney general of Georgia, Milledge was member of the Georgia General Assembly. While in the General Assembly, he spoke out forcefully against the Yazoo Land Acts. In 1792, the House of Representatives declared the seat of Anthony Wayne vacant due to disputes over his residency. Milledge was elected to the Second Congress to fill this vacancy and served from November 22, 1792, to March 3, 1793. Later, Milledge would be elected to the Fourth and Fifth Congresses, serving from March 4, 1795 to March 3, 1799. In 1801, he was again elected to Congress, this time as a Democratic-Republican, and served from March 4, 1801, until he resigned in May 1802 to become Governor of Georgia.
Governor of Georgia
Milledge was Governor of Georgia from 1802 to 1806. As governor, he created Georgia's first land lottery, to combat corruption in the distribution of former Creek lands to settlers. He also reorganized the state militia, and built a road from Georgia to Tennessee passing through Cherokee lands.
In 1806, he was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of James Jackson. He was a loyal and enthusiastic supporter of the policies of President Thomas Jefferson. In the 10th United States Congress, he was named President pro tempore of the Senate. He served as a Senator from June 19, 1806, until November 14, 1809, when he resigned.
The University of Georgia
While serving in the U.S. House of Representatives, Milledge was named to a commission to establish a site for the state University of Georgia (incorporated January 27, 1785). On July 25, 1801 Milledge bought with his own money some land on the Oconee River for the school, and named the surrounding area Athens, in honor of the city of Plato's Academy.
After retiring from the United States Senate, Milledge returned home, to live out his final years at his plantation near Augusta, Georgia. He died there, February 9, 1818, and was buried in Summerville Cemetery in that same city.
- Power of Attorney. Thomas Stephens, William Ewen & John Milledge, April 25, 1761. From Telamon Cuyler collection, ms 1170, series 1. Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries. Web. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- "MILLEDGE, John, (1757 - 1818)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- Carey, Charles W. (2010). American National Biography. London: Oxford University Press. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- "Yazoo Land Indents Purchased by South Carolina, Motion by John Milledge of Georgia, Dec. 30, 1795". Yazoo Land Fraud Records, General Administrative Records, Surveyor General, RG 3-1-69. Georgia Archives. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- Lamplugh, George R. (Fall 2010). "James Gunn: Georgia Federalist, 1789-1801". Georgia Historical Quarterly. 94 (3). Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- "John Milledge". Find a Grave. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- Milledge, John. "[Land grant with map for plot in] Baldwin County, Georgia, 1805 Oct. 10 / [authorized by] Jno. [i.e. John] Milledge, Governor of [Georgia]". Southeastern Native American Documents, 1730-1842. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- Meigs, Return J. "Articles of agreement between the United States and the Cherokee Nation for opening a road from the state of Tennessee to the state of Georgia through the Cherokee Nation / [recorded by] Return J. Meigs". Southeastern Native American Documents, 1730-1842. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved May 21, 2016.
- "An investigation of the claims of John Milledge to the honor of giving name to the permanent seat of government of the state of Georgia". James Walter Mason Collection, Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- "University of Georgia Plat". Colonial and Headright Plat Books, Survey Records, Surveyor General, 3-3-11. Georgia Archives. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- "University of Georgia Land Grant, Oct. 13, 1785". Colonial and Headright Grant Books, Headright and Land Grant Records, Surveyor General, 3-4-12. Georgia Archives. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- "Graves of John Milledge and his two wives, Summerville Cemetery, Augusta, Georgia". spc19-020, Box 19, Small Print Collection, RG 48-2-1. Georgia Archives. Retrieved May 20, 2016.