|Five-leaved chaste tree|
Vitex negundo, commonly known as the Chinese chaste tree, five-leaved chaste tree, or horseshoe vitex, is a large aromatic shrub with quadrangular, densely whitish, tomentose branchlets. It is widely used in folk medicine, particularly in South and Southeast Asia.
Vitex negundo is an erect shrub or small tree growing from 2 to 8 m (6.6 to 26.2 ft) in height. The bark is reddish brown. Its leaves are digitate, with five lanceolate leaflets, sometimes three. Each leaflet is around 4 to 10 cm (1.6 to 3.9 in) in length, with the central leaflet being the largest and possessing a stalk. The leaf edges are toothed or serrated and the bottom surface is covered in hair. The numerous flowers are borne in panicles 10 to 20 cm (3.9 to 7.9 in) in length. Each is around 6 to 7 cm (2.4 to 2.8 in) long and are white to blue in color. The petals are of different lengths, with the middle lower lobe being the longest. Both the corolla and calyx are covered in dense hairs.
Distribution and habitat
Countries it is indigenous to include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Vitex negundo are commonly found near bodies of water, recently disturbed land, grasslands, and mixed open forests.
- Assamese: Pochotia (পচতীয়া)
- Bengali: Nirgundi; Nishinda; Samalu
- Bontok: Liñgei
- Chinese: Huang jing (黄荆)
- English: Five-leaved chaste tree; Horseshoe vitex; Chinese chaste tree
- Filipino: Lagundî
- Gujarati: Nagoda; Shamalic
- Hindi: Mewri; Nirgundi; Nisinda; Sambhalu; Sawbhalu (निर्गुंडी)
- Ifugao: Dabtan
- Ilokano: Dangla
- Kannada: Bile-nekki
- Korean: jommokhyeong (좀목형)
- Malayalam: Indrani
- Marathi: Nirgudi (निरगुडी)
- Nepali: 'सिमली' 'Simali' 'Nirgundi'
- Punjabi: Banna; Marwan; Maura; Mawa; Swanjan Torbanna
- Sanskrit: Nirgundi; Sephalika; Sindhuvara; Svetasurasa; Vrikshaha (सिन्धुवार)
- Sinhala: Nika (නික)
- Konkani: Lingad
- Tamil: Chinduvaram; Nirnochchi; Nochchi; Notchi; Vellai-nochchi
- Telugu: Sindhuvara; Vavili; Nalla-vavili; Tella-vavili (వావిలి / సింధువార) lekkali
The principal constituents of the leaf juice are casticin, isoorientin, chrysophenol D, luteolin, p–hydroxybenzoic acid and D-fructose. The main constituents of the oil are sabinene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, β-caryophyllene, α-guaiene and globulol constituting 61.8% of the oil.
In Malaysia, it is used in traditional herbal medicine for women's health, including treatments for regulating the menstrual cycle, fibrocystic breast disease and post-partum remedies.
In the US, it grows in hardiness zones 6–9 and its purple flowers bloom most of the summer and it is a popular plant visited by bees and butterflies.
The Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry concludes that Vitex Negundo’s leaves can be used to cure sprain, abdominal gas and pain, headache, toothache, asthma, fever, cough, ulcers, boils and wounds as it has antiseptic, astringent, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties.
- "Vitex negundo L." Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- "Vitex negundo". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- Vitex negundo Linn. Fact Sheet (PDF). Bureau of Plant Industry, Department of Agriculture, Republic of the Philippines.
- "Vitex negundo L. - Lagundi". Prosea Herbal Techno-Catalog. Archived from the original on December 21, 2012. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Vitex negunda in Dr. K. M. Madkarni's Indian Materia Medica; Edited by A. K. Nadkarni, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1976, pp: 1278-80.
- "Lagundi leaves as effective control against storage pests of garlic". Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD), Department of Science and Technology, Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on July 15, 2007. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Wan Hassan, W.E. (2010). Ulam: Salad Herbs of Malaysia. Masbe Sdn. Bhd. pp. 106–107. ISBN 9789834466404.
- Dharmendra Kumar, Rajesh Kumar and Kumari Sharda. "Medicinal property of Nirgundi" (PDF). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry.
- Caldecott, Todd (2006). Ayurveda: The Divine Science of Life. Elsevier/Mosby. ISBN 0-7234-3410-7. Contains a detailed monograph on Vitex negundo (Nirgundi) as well as a discussion of health benefits and usage in clinical practice. Available online at https://web.archive.org/web/20110403032108/http://www.toddcaldecott.com/index.php/herbs/learning-herbs/315-nirgundi