Lewis County, Idaho
|Lewis County, Idaho|
Location within the U.S. state of Idaho
Idaho's location within the U.S.
|Founded||March 3, 1911|
|Named for||Meriwether Lewis|
|• Total||480 sq mi (1,243 km2)|
|• Land||479 sq mi (1,241 km2)|
|• Water||0.9 sq mi (2 km2), 0.2%|
|• Density||8.0/sq mi (3.1/km2)|
|Time zone||Pacific: UTC−8/−7|
Lewis County is a county located in the north central region of the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,821, making it the fourth-least populous county in Idaho. The county seat is Nezperce, and Kamiah is the largest city. Partitioned from Nez Perce County and established in 1911, it was named after the explorer Meriwether Lewis.
Most of the county is within the Nez Perce Indian Reservation, though Native Americans comprise less than 6% of the county population. Similar to the opening of lands in Oklahoma, the U.S. government opened the reservation for white settlement in November 1895. The proclamation had been signed less than two weeks earlier by President Cleveland.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Communities
- 5 Politics
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 480 square miles (1,200 km2), of which 479 square miles (1,240 km2) is land and 0.9 square miles (2.3 km2) (0.2%) is water. It is the fourth-smallest county in Idaho by area. The county contains the northern portion of the Camas Prairie, an elevated prairie-like region of the middle Columbia basin, south of the Clearwater River. The Clearwater River forms the eastern boundary of Lewis County, just upstream of where the Lewis and Clark Expedition put their canoes in the water for the trip to the Pacific Ocean.
Native American Settlement
Early settlement of Idaho by native peoples occurred around 14,000 years ago. Initially, natives of the region were spear hunters of big game. Documented settlement of Idaho's Camas Prairie by the Nez Perce dates back more than 8,000 years with characteristics of the Old Cordilleran Culture appearing in the region. Characteristics of this culture consist of more sophisticated tools for hunting and the introduction of art forms. The Nez Perce, like their Shoshoni counterparts of southern Idaho gained access to horses prior to the Lewis and Clark Expedition's first interaction with the tribe in 1805. The expedition camped near Kamiah in the winter of 1806 before returning to the main Clearwater River for their continued trek westward. The majority of Nez Perce County's territory is located within the boundary of the Nez Perce Reservation. The reservation was established in 1859 following the provisions of an 1855 treaty with the four bands of the Nez Perce Tribe. Relations with the Nez Perce were amicable until discovery of gold at multiple locations within the reservation's boundaries created tension starting in 1860. A smaller reservation was negotiated with the Kamiah and Lapwai bands of Nez Perce, with a treaty signed in 1867. The Salmon-Wallowa and lower Snake River bands were not a party to the treaty and efforts to force them to the reservation resulted in the Nez Perce War in 1877 that decisively forced all of the Nez Perce to the Nez Perce Reservation. Settlement of non-natives within the boundary of the reservation was authorized starting in 1894.
With the opening of non-native settlement by agreement of 1894, settlements emerged starting at Winchester in 1896 followed by Craigmont and Kamiah areas starting by 1898. By the 1900 Census, Nez Perce County established precincts for Central Ridge, Cold Springs, Fletcher, and Nez Perce within the territory of present Lewis County. Their combined population at the time was 2,782.
Settlement increased along the route of the Camas Prairie Railroad which reached Reubens in 1906 with operation of the line starting in 1908. The railroad had stops at Nucrag, Reubens, and Craigmont. By 1908, multiple stage lines commenced operation with terminus at Kamiah. At the 1910 Census, Nez Perce established additional precincts for Chesley, Kamiah, Mason, Mohler, and Winchester. Together, all precincts at the 1910 census had a population of 5,037.
Development of Cities
Nez Perce Village incorporated in 1903 with Kippen Village following in 1907. Vollmer town was incorporated in 1908 with the villages of Ilo and Kamiah incorporated in 1909. Reubens and Winchester Villages incorporated by 1920. Ilo and Vollmer consolidated as Craigmont in 1920. Kippen Village was dis-incorporated by 1940 as it is absent from that census.
National protected area
- Clearwater National Forest (part)
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 3,747 people, 1,554 households, and 1,050 families residing in the county. The population density was 8 people per square mile (3/km²). There were 1,795 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile (1/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 92.21% White, 0.35% Black or African American, 3.84% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.93% from other races, and 2.16% from two or more races. 1.89% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 30.6% were of German, 17.5% American, 10.6% English and 8.7% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.
There were 1,554 households out of which 27.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.80% were married couples living together, and 32.40% were non-families. 28.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.92.
In the county, the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 5.30% from 18 to 24, 23.80% from 25 to 44, 27.10% from 45 to 64, and 18.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 101.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.20 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $31,413, and the median income for a family was $37,336. Males had a median income of $31,021 versus $22,538 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,942. About 8.70% of families and 12.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.90% of those under age 18 and 9.00% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,821 people, 1,657 households, and 1,041 families residing in the county. The population density was 8.0 inhabitants per square mile (3.1/km2). There were 1,880 housing units at an average density of 3.9 per square mile (1.5/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 90.3% white, 4.7% American Indian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.6% from other races, and 2.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 39.4% were German, 16.7% were English, 16.5% were Irish, and 3.0% were American.
Of the 1,657 households, 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.8% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.2% were non-families, and 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age was 48.0 years.
The median income for a household in the county was $35,808 and the median income for a family was $41,250. Males had a median income of $32,933 versus $23,850 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,580. About 10.4% of families and 16.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.1% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "Lewis County one of state's youngest, and richest". Lewiston Morning Tribune. October 5, 1955. p. 11.
- Hamilton, Ladd (June 25, 1961). "Heads were popping up all over the place". Lewiston Morning Tribune. p. 14.
- Brammer, Rhonda (July 24, 1977). "Unruly mobs dashed to grab land when reservation opened". Lewiston Morning Tribune. p. 6E.
- "3,000 took part in "sneak" when Nez Perce Reservation was opened". Lewiston Morning Tribune. November 19, 1931. p. 3.
- "Nez Perce Reservation". Spokesman-Review. December 11, 1921. p. 5.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Idaho State Historical Society Reference Series: Idaho Prehistoric Culture Areas" (PDF). Idaho State Historical Society. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Idaho State Historical Society Reference Series: The Lewis and Clark Trail Across Idaho" (PDF). Idaho State Historical Society. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Idaho State Historical Society Reference Series: Idaho Indian Reservations" (PDF). Idaho State Historical Society. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Idaho State Historical Society Reference Series: Lawyer and the 1863 Nez Perce Treaty" (PDF). Idaho State Historical Society. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Idaho State Historical Society Reference Series: Indians and Whites in the Nez Perce Country" (PDF). Idaho State Historical Society Reference Series. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Town of Winchester Named Through a Stack of Rifles". Lewiston Morning Tribune. October 6, 1955. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Historic Kamiah". hearthstonebakery.com. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Census Reports Volume I: Twelfth Census of the United States, Taken in the Year 1900 (PDF). Washington: United States Census Office. 1901. p. 112. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Camas Prairie Railroad Marks 30th Anniversary as Veteran Conductor Recalls Pioneer Train Trip". Lewiston Morning Tribune. December 8, 1938. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Idaho State Historical Society Reference Series: North Idaho Stage Lines" (PDF). Idaho State Historical Society Reference Series. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Thirteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1910 (PDF). Washington: Government Printing Office. 1913. pp. 417–418. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Fourteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1920. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1921. p. 391.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved Apr 7, 2018.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-01-09.
- "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – County". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-01-09.
- "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-01-09.
- "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-01-09.
- Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2018-04-04.