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Lismore, New South Wales

Coordinates: 28°49′0″S 153°17′0″E / 28.81667°S 153.28333°E / -28.81667; 153.28333
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tuckurimbah (Bandjalang)
New South Wales
Lismore from helicopter, overlooking the Bruxner Highway and Lismore CBD
Lismore is located in New South Wales
Coordinates28°49′0″S 153°17′0″E / 28.81667°S 153.28333°E / -28.81667; 153.28333
Population28,816 (2021 census)[1]
Elevation12 m (39 ft)
LGA(s)City of Lismore
State electorate(s)Lismore
Federal division(s)Page
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
25.5 °C
78 °F
13.2 °C
56 °F
1,343.0 mm
52.9 in

Lismore is a city located in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia and the main population centre in the City of Lismore local government area, it is also a regional centre in the Northern Rivers region of the state. Lismore is 734 km (456 mi) north of Sydney and 200 km (120 mi) south of Brisbane. It is situated on a low floodplain on the banks of the Wilsons River near the latter's junction with Leycester Creek, both tributaries of the Richmond River which enters the Pacific Ocean at Ballina, 30 km (19 mi) to the east.[citation needed]

The original settlement initially developed as a grazing property in the 1840s, then became a timber and agricultural town and inland port based around substantial river traffic, which prior to the development of the road and rail networks was the principal means of transportation in the region. Use of the river for transport declined and then ceased around the mid-twentieth century, however by that time Lismore (which was elevated to city status in 1946) had become well established as the largest urban centre in the region, providing its surrounding area with a range of services. The city is also located on the Bruxner Highway which crosses the Wilsons River at Lismore, and was formerly a stop on the Casino-Murwillumbah railway line. It is the home of one of the three campuses of Southern Cross University.[citation needed]

With its low-lying position adjacent to the Wilsons River, which can rise rapidly following periods of high rainfall in its catchment, the centre of Lismore is susceptible to flooding, although it is partly protected by a system of levees and flood gates. Noteworthy recent floods occurred in 1974, 2017 in the aftermath of Cyclone Debbie and the worst ever in 2022. A budget was announced for additional flood mitigation works in November 2018.

At the 2021 census, the urban population of Lismore was 28,816.[1]


Pre-colonial history[edit]

The city of Lismore lies in the Bundjalung people's nation area.[2] However, the actual area of the Bundjalung people from Evans Head is currently under examination, as well as the actual origin of the name Bundjalung. It has been suggested that the Aboriginal people called the area Tuckurimbah meaning "glutton."[3]

Early colonial history[edit]

Lismore, NSW in 1894 - illustration from Sydney Mail May 12 1894 (upper portion)
Lismore, NSW in 1894 - illustration from Sydney Mail May 12 1894 (lower portion)
Fawcett Bridge with Colemans Point behind, newly opened, 1884

The British history of the city begins in c. 1843: a pastoral run covering an area of 93 square kilometres (36 sq mi) was taken up by Captain Dumaresq at this time covering the Lismore area and was stocked with sheep from the New England area. Ward Stephens took up the run in the same year, but the subtropical climate was unsuited for sheep grazing, so it was eventually abandoned. In January 1845, William and Jane Wilson took it over. The Wilsons were Scottish immigrants, who arrived in New South Wales in May 1833. Mrs. Wilson named the property after the small island of Lismore, one of the Inner Hebrides in Loch Linnhe, Argyleshire.[4]

In 1855, the surveyor Frederick Peppercorne was instructed by Sir Thomas Mitchell to determine a site for a township in the area. Peppercorne submitted his map of the proposed village reserve on 16 February 1856.[5] The chosen site was William Wilson's homestead paddock and the area was proclaimed the "Town of Lismore" in the NSW Government Gazette on 1 May 1856. The township was soon settled and its post office was opened on 1 October 1859.[6] The Wilson family then established a new homestead at Monaltrie, some 6 km south of Lismore, in 1861 which still survives and has been stated to be "Lismore's oldest home".[7][8]

Historic photograph of timber getting in the Lismore district, probably early-mid 20th century (additional details unknown)

From the 1840s onwards, timber cutters moved up the Richmond River from its Ballina entrance felling timber from the extensive, previously untouched subtropical rainforest covering the region known as the "Big Scrub"; their primary interest was the Australian red cedar, Toona ciliata, known locally as "red gold", which was highly prized for its appearance, ease of working, and pest resistance. At that time there was no substantial network of roads so rivers were the primary means of access and bulk transportation. Despite its low-lying position and propensity for flooding (which was to cause problems in subsequent times), Lismore developed as an inland port owing to its location at the highest navigable point for large cargo-carrying vessels on the north arm of the Richmond, later renamed the Wilsons, River. For the second half of the 19th century the primary industries of the Lismore region continued to be cattle grazing and timber, supporting a growing economy and population and the development of secondary industries which included ship building, transportation, saw milling, tallow manufacturing and more.[9] As the Big Scrub was cleared, it was steadily replaced with new pasture which formed the basis of a flourishing dairy industry, and many processing plants ("butter factories") and dairy cooperatives were established throughout the region. Infrastructure development in Lismore continued, including the presence of three schools by 1879, a new Government Wharf in 1880, two new bridges over the river in 1884 and 1885, the railway station (1894) and a new post office building (1898); by the end of that century Lismore had a population of over 4,500, although had suffered from some ravages including numerous floods plus a period of drought in the last half of the 1890s.[9]

20th century and beyond[edit]

Lismore Railway Station in the early 1900s (from an old postcard)
A large vessel (?S.S. Wyrallah) on the then Richmond (now Wilsons) River at Lismore, probably early-mid 20th century (additional details unknown)
Its traffic now gone and banks overgrown, today the Wilsons River slips past the Lismore CBD (central business district) almost un-noticed - except in times of flood.

At the beginning of the 20th century, river navigation was still the mainstay of transportation in Lismore, the principal operator being the North Coast Steam Navigation Company. The dairy industry was performing strongly, employing hundreds of small family-owned operations, the Lismore region becoming the centre for dairy production from the surrounding farms and the richest dairy district in Australia.[9] The railway station had opened in 1894 as the starting point of the Murwillumbah railway line which, starting at that time in Lismore, ran to the coast at Byron Bay (from which steamers could be caught to Sydney) and then on to Murwillumbah, and subsequently in 1903 inland to Casino, but was not connected to any national network.[citation needed] However, as the century progressed, development of a better road network and the advance of motor transportation made inroads into the long-term success of both the river and rail traffic which eventually declined: river traffic was also affected by requisitioning of ships during the second world war and the largest shipping line operating on the two arms of the Richmond River, the North Coast Steam Navigation Company, went into liquidation in 1954; the railway line lasted until 2004 when it was closed on purely economic grounds after advising that it was "unprofitable" to continue providing services to Murwillumbah, putting an end to 110 years of rail transport in the region.[10] Meanwhile, economic development in Lismore continued, including construction of a new School of Arts (1907, destroyed by fire in 1932), building of churches for four denominations, opening of a new Norco (dairy farmers' cooperative) factory in 1931, and other utilities.[citation needed]

City status[edit]

Lismore CBD and Wilsons River from above, photographed in 2015 (detail of image in infobox); recognisable features include Fawcett Bridge over the river, 2 churches at the top of frame (including St. Carthage's Cathedral at right), Molesworth Street, the original Municipal Chambers, and the Memorial Baths/Aquatic Centre. The former Post and Telegraph Office (indistinct) is located on Molesworth Street, a little above the centre of the frame.

Lismore was officially gazetted as a city on 9 September 1946, with grant of an official coat of arms on 29 January 1947. In the early 1950s, civic pride was boosted by a visit from the newly crowned Queen Elizabeth II with her consort who visited the city in February 1954, staying at the city's Gollan Hotel.[citation needed]

Television came to the city in 1956 and a local channel commenced broadcast in 1962 in the suburb of Goonellabah, which had been incorporated into the city of Lismore four years earlier. In 1969, the aerodrome at South Lismore received its licence from the Department of Civil Aviation, becoming the basis of the future Lismore Airport. The 1960s were something of a boom time in development for Lismore, although the dairy industry was starting to decline and by the end of that decade and into the 1970s, many farmers turned to raising beef cattle instead, or simply let their land condition lapse.[9]

In 1963, a new bridge (the Ballina St. bridge) was opened to carry the Bruxner Highway road traffic across the Wilsons River; previously all traffic between the east and west banks of the river has to travel via the narrower, upstream Fawcett Bridge, originally constructed in 1894, before even motor traffic had come to the area.[11]

Later, especially following the 1973 "alternative society" Aquarius Festival, which was held in the nearby village of Nimbin, the area began to attract so-called "alternative lifestylers" who were able to buy ex-dairying land at reasonable prices and re-invigorate the area with a range of pursuits and values of interest to a new generation, including an interest in owner-building of residences, experiments in communal living, environmental awareness and various artistic and creative activities, leading to badging of the area around Lismore as the "rainbow region".[12] Meanwhile, Lismore has also become a regional centre for higher education: the original Lismore Teachers College (1970 onwards) becoming first the Northern Rivers College of Advanced Education in 1973, then an associate member of the University of New England, and finally (together with UNE-Coffs Harbour Centre), forming the Lismore Campus of the new Southern Cross University (established 1 January 1994).[13] In addition, tourism has become an important contributor to the region's economy as well as the development of new agricultural products such as macadamias, avocado and stone fruit, pecans, and boutique coffee plantations, which are well suited to the rich volcanic soils, subtropical climate and moderately high rainfall of the area.[citation needed]

As traditional agricultural and manufacturing sectors have declined somewhat, so employment in the service sector has expanded. At the 2016 census, within Lismore City and the surrounding region (43,135 persons) the top employment sectors reported were Health Care and Social Assistance (4,534 persons), Retail Trade (2,491 persons), Education and Training (2,448 persons) and Accommodation and Food Services (1,297 persons), followed by Public Administration and Safety (1,204 persons), Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (1,018 persons), Manufacturing (1,000 persons) and Construction (967 persons).[14]

Lismore: entrance to the Strand Arcade (2023 photograph)
Older style, "high Set" wooden (weatherboard) houses near central Lismore, with living accommodation on the first floor and accessed via external stairs
Surburban street in North Lismore, showing a preponderance of mid-20th century "high set" residences

Surviving buildings of historical interest within Lismore City include the old Council Chambers (1928) in Molesworth Street designed by William Gilroy, now home to the Richmond River Historical Society Museum with a collection of objects, documents and photographs relevant to the historical development of the area, including Aboriginal artifacts; the Art Nouveau post office (1897), designed by W.L. Vernon; the original Australian Joint Stock Bank (1891), built in the Italianate style, now the T & G Building; the classical revival courthouse (1883) in Zadoc Street; and various churches including St Andrew's Anglican Church (1904), St Carthage's Roman Catholic Cathedral (1892–1907), the Uniting (formerly Methodist) Church (1908–09), the Church of Christ (1923), and St Paul's Presbyterian Church (1907–08).[15][16] The commercial city centre retains many shopfronts ranging in date from the late nineteenth to mid twentieth centuries with little modern intrusion; a feature of interest is the presence of numerous arcades, for example the 1920s Star Court Arcade, which includes the 1921 Star Court Theatre,[17] which allow shoppers to continue to shop in comfort in the presence of subtropical downpours as well as extremes of heat or cold.

Many homes in the city are built in the "high set" style otherwise common to much of Queensland (refer accompanying photographs) with living accommodation on the first floor leaving the ground floor unenclosed by structural walls and open to cooling breezes beneath the floorboards in the summer. With the advent of air conditioning in more recent years, such understories have frequently been walled in retrospectively and used for other purposes such as garages, play areas (rumpus rooms) or additional accommodation; in commercial areas they may also be adapted for shop fronts at street/pedestrian level. Most houses also feature covered verandahs wrapping around part or all of the house, to provide both shade from hot sun as needed, and an outdoor area protected from the elements for activities during wet weather.[citation needed]

The city encompasses a range of parks and gardens, some bordering the river, as well as Rotary Park, a patch of regenerated rainforest close to the centre of the city, and a 27 ha remnant of the "Big Scrub" in the form of the Wilson Nature Reserve (see below).[citation needed]

Heritage and other listings[edit]

The 1883 Court House in Zadoc Street
The 1898 Lismore Post and Telegraph Office building

Lismore has three sites listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register (for images see "Gallery"), namely:

An additional c. 42 items are listed by the local council on Local Environmental Plans under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act, 1979, including:

  • The 1883 classical revival Court House, Zadoc Street[21]
  • The Commonwealth Bank building, Molesworth Street[22]
  • Dalley Street Conservation Area[23]
  • The former Government Savings Bank, Woodlark Street[24]
  • Lismore Fire Station, Molesworth Street[25]
  • Memorial Baths, Molesworth Street[26]
  • The 1898 Post and Telegraph Office building[27]

A full listing of heritage sites in Lismore can be generated via a search for suburb/town = "Lismore" via the New South Wales Heritage Database.[28]


Lismore and surrounding towns were once part of the rainforest referred to as the "Big Scrub", of which less than one percent remains following British settlement. A section of this rainforest is viewable in the grounds of the Southern Cross University and at Wilsons Nature Reserve on Wyrallah Road.


Molesworth Street, Lismore

Lismore is located on the Bruxner Highway and it lies at the confluence of the Wilsons River (a tributary of the Richmond River) and Leycester Creek, The state capital city of Sydney is located 764 km (475 mi) to the south by highway.[29] Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland, is 200 kilometres (124 mi) to the north.

Lismore's central business district is located 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the eastern coast, and 46 kilometres (29 mi) southwest of Byron Bay. The coastal town of Ballina is 36 kilometres (22 mi) away. There are a number of rainforest patches in the area, remnants of the Big Scrub. These are preserved today, with a small pocket known as Boatharbour Reserve just east of town on the Bangalow road. The nearest large and publicly accessible national park is Nightcap National Park.

Climate and weather[edit]

General characteristics[edit]

Lismore experiences a humid subtropical climate with mild to warm temperatures all year round and ample rainfall, with a long term yearly average of 1,343 mm. Temperatures in summer range between 20 °C (68 °F) and 35 °C (95 °F). The subtropical climate combined with geographical features means the urban area is unusually humid when compared with surrounding areas. Humidity levels often reach 100% in summer. Lismore has 109.6 clear days annually.


Flood at Lismore, NSW, 23 July 1921 (contemporary postcard)
Display of flood levels (to 2022) of Wilsons River at Lismore, NSW

Although no other major environmental hazards generally affect the area, Lismore is renowned for frequent floods. Prior to the 2022 event which reached an unprecedented 14.4 metres (47 ft), the worst such floods were in 1954 and 1974, when waters rose to a height of 12.1 metres (40 ft), with a number of others recorded as exceeding the stated height of the levee wall protection at 10.7 metres (35 ft).[30]

In 1999 a government-funded scheme to protect the CBD and South Lismore from a 1-in-10-year flood event was approved. This proposal would mean that most of the smaller floods would not enter the central area of Lismore and substantially improve the time available for the evacuation of residents and the business community in larger floods.[31] Nonetheless, around 3000 residents of Lismore were evacuated after floods affected much of the area on 30 June 2005,[32] many being temporarily housed on the campus of Southern Cross University. However, the new levee that had been completed two weeks prior limited damage and stopped the water reaching the Central Business District.

In the aftermath of Cyclone Debbie in March 2017, Lismore was again badly affected by flooding of up to 3.5 metres (11 ft) through all CBD businesses. Wilsons River reached 11.6 metres (38 ft) and the levee was overtopped for the first time since its completion.[33][34] A modelled projection of the maximum flood extent, plus an animation, of this flood event as affecting Lismore is available on the "BigData Earth" Company website.[35]

A budget of $8.2 million for additional flood mitigation works was announced in November 2018.[36]

In February 2022, Lismore and other parts of Northern New South Wales and South East Queensland were flooded to an unprecedented degree, resulting in serious devastation to many buildings in the CBD in addition to adjacent low lying residential areas which will take "years to rebuild".[37] The Wilsons River in Lismore reached 14.37 metres at its peak, the largest flood since modern records began.[38] One year on from the disaster, the process of reconstruction was still ongoing.[39]

A summary of Lismore flood events from 1870 to 2022 is available here.

Drought and water security[edit]

A high degree of year-to-year variation in rainfall is typical of the Northern Rivers region. Periods of reduced rainfall are often associated with El Niño events and increased rainfall with La Niña events. For example, the region experienced a significant reduction in rainfall between late 2002 and mid-2003 and again in 2007 in association with persistent and recurrent El Niño events. In common with other areas in Australia, the Lismore region can experience drought but in general, the Northern Rivers region is less drought prone than many of its neighbours, especially those west of the Great Dividing Range (see example map for the drought-affected month of September 2019 here). The municipal water supply is provided by Rous County Council via Rocky Creek Dam, which is situated in a high rainfall area within the Whian Whian State Conservation Area approximately 20 km north of the city, and can be supplemented by drawing additional water from the Wilsons River when required.[40] According to data in the Drought Management Plan adopted by the Council in 2016, level 1 water restrictions for the whole supply region (which stretches from Woodburn in the south to Ocean Shores in the north, as well as westwards to Lismore) would be triggered if the level in Rocky Creek Dram falls to 60%, level 2 restrictions at 45% of capacity, and so on. From 2002 up to late 2019, only one period of severe water restrictions was recorded (reaching level 5 in March 2003) with one other period of lesser severity (level 1 restrictions) during the second half of 2007.[41]

Other severe weather events[edit]

Lismore is often hit by severe storms in spring and summer. For example, there was a severe hailstorm on 9 October 2007.[42] A tornado is an extreme rarity, but later that same month one struck nearby Dunoon. It was captured on video as it hit an electrical transformer station there.[43]

Quantifying natural hazard risks[edit]

In a 2016 report prepared for Insurance Australia Group (IAG),[44] the consulting company SGS Economics and Planning rated and mapped different Local Government Areas (LGAs) across Australia against a range of natural hazard risks, namely Tropical Cyclone, Storm, Bushfire, Earthquake and Flood. On a 0-5 scale where 0 = no exposure, 5 = extreme risk, the region which includes Lismore rated 1 for Earthquake, 2 for Storm and Bushfire, 3 for Tropical Cyclone and 4 for Flood risk (SGS report, Figures 1, 3, 5, 6, 8).

Climate data for Lismore
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 43.4
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 29.9
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 18.8
Record low °C (°F) 11.6
Average rainfall mm (inches) 155.4
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2mm) 12.9 13.9 15.6 12.5 11.6 9.5 8.3 7.5 7.4 9.0 10.0 11.4 129.6
Average afternoon relative humidity (%) 58 61 60 58 59 56 51 46 45 50 51 55 54
Source 1: Bureau of Meteorology[45]
Source 2: For February record high: Weatherzone[46]


At the 2021 census, there were 28,816 people in built-up Lismore.

  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 7.1% of the population.
  • 83.5% of people were born in Australia. The most common other countries of birth were England 2.1%, New Zealand 1.1%, Philippines 0.6%, India 0.5% and Germany 0.4%.
  • 87.7% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Italian at 0.5%.
  • The most common responses for religion were No Religion 41.8%, Catholic 19.4% and Anglican 11.8%.

The population reached a recent peak of 29,320 at June 2012 and since has experienced a gradual decline to 28,816 in 2021.[1] The population of central Lismore in 2021 was 3,656.[47]

Historical population
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics data.[48][49]


The Northern Star is an online tabloid newspaper based in Lismore. It covers the region from Lismore, Casino, Ballina, Byron Bay, Murwillumbah, and Tweed Heads, and, like many other regional Australian newspapers owned by NewsCorp, the newspaper ceased print editions in June 2020 and became an online-only publication. The Northern Rivers Echo is a free weekly community newspaper for Lismore, Alstonville, Wollongbar, Ballina, Casino, Nimbin and Evans Head. The Lismore CBD Magazine is a monthly e-magazine publication.

The commercial radio stations of Lismore are Triple Z (Hit Music) and 2LM 900 AM (also broadcast on 104.3FM). Both are run by Broadcast Operations Group. The community radio station is River FM 92.9 which offers an independent alternative media voice playing a diverse range of music. Other radio stations are JJJ 96.1 FM, Radio National 96.9 FM, Classic FM 95.3 and ABC North Coast 94.5 FM.

All major television network channels are available in Lismore and in the general Northern Rivers region. The networks and the channels they currently broadcast are listed as follows:

Subscription television services are provided by Foxtel.


The Norco Co-operative has its headquarters in Lismore. The main campus of Southern Cross University is in Lismore.


  • Southern Cross University has its home campus located in Lismore, offering undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in disciplines including business and law, tourism, humanities and social sciences, creative and performing arts, education, environment, marine and forest sciences, engineering, health and human sciences, law and Indigenous studies. The university was established in 1994 and has campuses at Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, and Gold Coast, Queensland.[50] The university has students from more than 80 countries around the world.[51]

Lismore and the surrounding area is home to a number of public and private schools, including:

Sport and recreation[edit]

Lismore has two rugby league clubs competing in the Northern Rivers Regional Rugby League Competition:

  • Lismore Marist Brothers Rams
  • Northern United Dirrawongs

Lismore Marist Brothers Rams won the prestigious Clayton Cup in 1987, as the premier local rugby league team in Country New South Wales Competitions with a 17–1 record across the season.

Lismore is a strong-hold of association football, with six clubs affiliated with Football Far North Coast being located in Lismore and near surrounds:

  • South Lismore – formed in 1943
  • Lismore Workers – formed as Eastwood in 1949
  • Lismore Thistles – formed in 1958
  • Richmond Rovers – formed in 1961
  • Italo Stars – formed in 1966
  • Goonellabah – formed in June 1969

The Albert Park complex is home to the Far North Coast Baseball Association and Lismore is considered one of the strongest centres for Baseball in Australia.[52]

The Lismore Swans founded in 1983 represent Lismore in Australian rules football and competes in the AFL North Coast competition.

Lismore Speedway is a Speedway located at the Lismore Showgrounds. The track regularly hosts National and State titles and featured national events.

Sister cities[edit]

Lismore formed a sister city relationship with the Japanese city of Yamatotakada in Nara Prefecture in 1963. The first such relationship established between Australia and Japan, it was initiated by Lismore-born Marist priest and writer Paul Glynn. Lismore is also a sister city of Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA and Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland.


Notable people[edit]

Notable people from or who have lived in Lismore include:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Australian Bureau of Statistics (28 June 2022). "Lismore (SUA)". 2021 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2022. Edit this at Wikidata
  2. ^ "Local Tribes", History of Lismore, Lismore City Council
  3. ^ "The Romance of Australian Place Names". The Australian Women's Weekly. 13 May 1964. p. 45. Retrieved 3 August 2019 – via Trove.
  4. ^ "Early History of Lismore". The Northern Star. 16 May 1894. p. 6. Retrieved 1 August 2017 – via Trove.
  5. ^ Map R.6.1246, N.S.W. State Archives
  6. ^ Premier Postal History. "Post Office List". Retrieved 8 July 2008.
  7. ^ "Monaltrie Homestead to be auctioned". The Chronicle. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
  8. ^ "Lismore Mayor to restore Lismore's oldest home". The Lismore App. 30 March 2023. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
  9. ^ a b c d Fielding, Lloyd D. "A history of Lismore". Lismore City Council. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  10. ^ "Last train: The day our rail service fell silent". Daily Telegraph. 16 May 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
  11. ^ "History: Ballina St bridge provided link across river". The Daily Telegraph. 29 January 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  12. ^ "Preserving Rainbow Region history". Lismore Echo. 14 January 2009. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  13. ^ "From teachers college to university". Southern Cross University. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  14. ^ "Lismore City Employment by industry (Census)". economy.id.com.au. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  15. ^ "Lismore". The Sydney Morning Herald. 8 February 2004. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  16. ^ "Lismore, NSW". aussietowns.com.au. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  17. ^ "The history of the Star Court Theatre". Star Court Theatre. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  18. ^ "Colemans Bridge over Leycester Creek". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Department of Planning & Environment. H01463. Retrieved 2 June 2018. Text is licensed by State of New South Wales (Department of Planning and Environment) under CC-BY 4.0 licence.
  19. ^ "Lismore Railway Station group". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Department of Planning & Environment. H01180. Retrieved 2 June 2018. Text is licensed by State of New South Wales (Department of Planning and Environment) under CC-BY 4.0 licence.
  20. ^ "Lismore railway underbridges". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Department of Planning & Environment. H01044. Retrieved 2 June 2018. Text is licensed by State of New South Wales (Department of Planning and Environment) under CC-BY 4.0 licence.
  21. ^ "Lismore Court House". New South Wales Heritage Database. Office of Environment & Heritage.
  22. ^ "Commonwealth Bank building, Lismore". New South Wales Heritage Database. Office of Environment & Heritage.
  23. ^ "Dalley Street Conservation Area, Lismore". New South Wales Heritage Database. Office of Environment & Heritage.
  24. ^ "Former Government Savings Bank, Lismore". New South Wales Heritage Database. Office of Environment & Heritage.
  25. ^ "Lismore Fire Station". New South Wales Heritage Database. Office of Environment & Heritage.
  26. ^ "Memorial Bath, Lismore". New South Wales Heritage Database. Office of Environment & Heritage.
  27. ^ "Former Post and Telegraph Office, Lismore". New South Wales Heritage Database. Office of Environment & Heritage.
  28. ^ "Search". New South Wales Heritage Database. Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. 29 August 2023.
  29. ^ "MapMaker". travelmate.com.au. Archived from the original on 24 March 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2008.
  30. ^ Flood information. Lismore City Council
  31. ^ "Flooding Information: A Short History of Flooding in Lismore" by Lismore City Council , 2017
  32. ^ "Thousands evacuated as floods hit NSW". The New Zealand Herald. 30 June 2005. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  33. ^ "NSW flooding: Lismore ordered to evacuate, Murwillumbah residents stuck on roofs". ABC News. 31 March 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  34. ^ Hansen, Jane (2 April 2017). "Cyclone Debbie aftermath: Lismore floods tear heart out of city business zone". The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  35. ^ BigData Earth: "Rapidly Estimating the Flood Extent of Major Floods in Lismore and Murwillumbah on 31 March 2017: Animated Maps Included"
  36. ^ "$8.2 million for Lismore flood mitigation works". Northern Star. 9 November 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  37. ^ "Rebuilding flood-hit Lismore will take 'years'". 9 News. 4 April 2022.
  38. ^ "'Entirely unprecedented': Emergency services stretched in Lismore as flood records smashed". ABC News. 27 February 2022.
  39. ^ "Lismore floods: The community that saved itself is still in a 'long, hard slog' to recovery". 9 News. 27 February 2023.
  40. ^ "Wilsons River". Rous County Council. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  41. ^ Figures 13–16 in Hydrosphere Consulting, 2016. Rous County Council Regional Water Supply Drought Management Plan. 88 pp. Available online at https://www.rous.nsw.gov.au/page.asp?f=RES-QKD-14-08-70
  42. ^ "Storm - Lismore, New South Wales 2007 | Australian Disaster Resilience Knowledge Hub". knowledge.aidr.org.au. Retrieved 1 October 2023.
  43. ^ "Recent Australian Tornadoes, Waterspouts and Funnel Clouds", australiasevereweather.com, accessed 3 August 2019
  44. ^ SGS Economics and Planning. 2016. "At What Cost? Mapping where Natural Perils Impact on Economic Growth and Communities." Report for IAG, 27 pp. Available online at https://www.sgsep.com.au/assets/main/SGS-Economics-and-Planning-IAG_at-what-cost-_low-res.pdf.
  45. ^ "Lismore (Centre Sreet)". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
  46. ^ Over 40 Temperature Records Broken over the Weekend by Joel Pippard, Weatherzone, 13 February 2017
  47. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (28 June 2022). "Lismore (SAL)". 2021 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 7 July 2022. Edit this at Wikidata
  48. ^ "Statistics by Catalogue Number". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  49. ^ "Search Census data". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  50. ^ A Brief History of SCU
  51. ^ SCU International Students
  52. ^ Clark, Joe (2003). A History of Australian Baseball : Time and Game. University of Nebraska Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0803264403.
  53. ^ Feain, Dominic "WikiLeaks founder's Lismore roots," Northern Star, 29 July 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
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