Griffith, New South Wales
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New South Wales
Griffith Court House
|Established||4 August 1916|
|Elevation||129.2 m (424 ft)|
|Time zone||AEST (UTC+10)|
|• Summer (DST)||AEDT (UTC+11)|
|LGA(s)||City of Griffith|
Griffith // is a city in south-western New South Wales, known commonly as the food bowl of Australia. It is also the seat of the City of Griffith local government area. Like the Australian capital, Canberra and the nearby town of Leeton, Griffith was designed by Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin. Griffith was named after Arthur Hill Griffith, the first New South Wales minister of Public Works. Griffith was proclaimed a city in 1987, and had a population of 17,616 in 2011.
It can be accessed by road from Sydney and Canberra via the Hume Highway and the Burley Griffin Way and from Melbourne, Victoria via the Newell Highway and either by using the Kidman Way or the Irrigation Way.
According to ABS data the resident population of Griffith in 2014 was 25,811 with a population density of 0.16 persons per hectare.
In 2011, 14% of people in Griffith came from countries where English was not their first language.
A total of 2,857 people were born outside Australia, of whom 1,279 were born in Italy and 826 were born in India. Of the total population, 31% declared themselves to be of Australian ancestry, 27% of English ancestry, 26% of Italian ancestry, 8% of Irish ancestry and 7% of Scottish ancestry. Respondents could nominate up to two ancestries.
Griffith was established in 1916 as part of the New South Wales State Government's Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (MIA) project to supply irrigation from the Murrumbidgee river in western New South Wales to be used for farming. The main dam was the large Burrinjuck Dam between Gundagai and Canberra, which stored water to be released down the river for irrigation. Berembed Weir, near Narrandera, was built across the Murrumbidgee River, from which flows the Main Canal. The Canal, almost a river in its own right, flows through the MIA to Griffith, supplying water to the entire area, and petering out to the northwest of the city in rice farms.
The water supply was further enhanced with the construction of the Snowy River scheme by the Australian Federal Government in the 1950s and 1960s. The Blowering Dam, a large dam near Tumut stores a significant amount of water to be released down the Murrumbidgee for irrigation around Leeton, Griffith and the newer Coleambally area south of the Murrumbidgee and Griffith.
From the start of the MIA, citrus and other fruit and vegetables were grown in abundance around Griffith. In the 1950s the irrigation area expanded to include large rice farms. Vineyards were established early, and wineries followed, beginning with McWilliams wines at Hanwood and Yenda, two villages just outside the city.
From its earliest days, the MIA was populated by Italian workers, some of whom were initially employed by Australian farmers to run steamboats on the Murrumbidgee and Murray Rivers. Approximately 60% of today's Griffith population claim Italian background. These include the initial settlement of Italians from the boat crews and other Italians who came out to Australia in the Depression, or from a second wave of immigrant Italians who came to Griffith in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
In the 1970s, Griffith was often associated with drug distribution (particularly marijuana) and organised crime, as depicted in 2009 by Underbelly: A Tale of Two Cities. However, Griffith is now associated with good wine and food, primarily as a result of its diverse population, with notable contributions by Italian-Australians. Griffith's multi-ethnic population is now absorbing new national groups, including a significant Sikh Indian community. The city is sister city with the Italian city of Treviso in the Veneto Region. Many Italians in Griffith are from the Veneto Region or the Calabria Region of Italy.
The Italian influence expanded the range of fruit and vegetables, and also significantly increased the number of wineries and the range of wines produced by the existing wineries in the region, such as McWilliam's. De Bortoli, Rosetto and other wineries were established by Italian immigrants, and today they are well known around Australia. In recent times they have been joined by one of the country's best known wine labels, Yellow Tail, produced by Casella Wines. Casella, DeBortoli, McWilliams, Warburn and Berton Vineyards are now among the top 20 wine producers in Australia.
|This section requires expansion. (April 2008)|
Griffith has a semi-arid climate (BSk) under the Köppen climate classification with hot summers and cool winters. A record high temperature of 46.0 degrees was reached on 23 Jan 2001, while a record low of –6.0 degrees was recorded on 17 July 1977.
|Climate data for Griffith|
|Record high °C (°F)||46.0
|Average high °C (°F)||32.8
|Average low °C (°F)||16.9
|Record low °C (°F)||6.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||33.2
|Average precipitation days||4.2||3.7||3.9||4.6||6.4||7.6||9.4||9.0||7.5||6.4||5.3||4.9||72.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||28||34||37||41||53||63||62||54||47||37||35||31||43|
Griffith is the regional service centre for the vast Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area - one of the most productive agricultural regions in Australia. Thanks to irrigation Griffith is rich in agriculture and the city is also known as Australia's "Wine and Food Country".
Griffith has experienced strong commercial growth in recent years. Griffith's main streets are Banna Avenue and Yambil Streets but commercial growth has occurred throughout the city. Shopping centre developments include:
- Griffith City Plaza
- Griffin Plaza
- Griffith Central
- Griffith Lifestyle Centre
- The Gateway Centre
- Griffith Woolworths Complex
- Griffith City Central
- Driver Shopping Complex
Griffith's urban sprawl is very extensive due to the rapidly growing population. The entire suburb of Collina has been constructed to the north west of the city. Other housing development has occurred in North Griffith, Mayfair and Pioneer.
Griffith also has 13 primary schools and various day care and pre-school facilities. Griffith has one of the largest campuses of Riverina Institute of TAFE. There has been recent plans to construct a fifth campus of Charles Sturt University in Griffith.
Griffith Buslines operates buses through Griffith and surrounding towns and villages.
Griffith is a major junction for the Kidman Way, Burley Griffin Way and Irrigation Way. Griffith is located 550 km west of Sydney via Burley Griffin Way and Irrigation Way and 450 km north of Melbourne via the Kidman Way. Griffith has daily bus services to the major metropolitan areas. Griffith Airport operates daily flights to Sydney and Melbourne.
The railway reached Griffith on 3 July 1916 and since that date has provided a service transporting passengers and goods into and out of the area. Regular goods trains continue, making it a unique railway centre.
Griffith railway station is served by a weekly NSW TrainLink Xplorer service from Sydney. NSW TrainLink also operates a daily road coach service from Mildura to Wagga Wagga stopping at Griffith. This service connects at Wagga Wagga with NSW Trainlink rail services to Sydney and Melbourne.
V/Line operates a daily rail/road coach service between Melbourne and Griffith, changing with the train at Shepparton. Melbourne (Southern Cross Station) to Griffith (Bus Terminal at Visitors Centre) is an evening service (daily); Griffith to Melbourne service is overnight (Mon to Sat) / afternoon (Sunday). Travel time is approximately six and a half to seven hours.
- Riverina Field Days, which is held annually in May.
- La Festa, Wine, Food and Multicultural Festival, which is held annually over the Easter weekend.
- Festival of Gardens, which is held annually in October
- Sikh Games, held annually on the June Long Weekend
- unWINEd, held annually on the June Long Weekend
- MULTICULTURAL FESTIVAL OF GRIFFITH - each year in October
for more events see www.griffith.nsw.gov.au/event.asp
Griffith has many tourist attractions. These include Pioneer Park, a 510-seat Regional Theatre, the Italian museum, the Griffith Regional Art Gallery, craft and antique shops, and its many high standard restaurants. Many of the Griffith wineries also have wine tasting at the cellar door, notably De Bortoli Wines, McWilliams, Beelgara Estate (formally Rossetto Wines), West End Wines, Berton Vineyards and Warburn Estate. Griffith is famous for its botrytis including Debortoli's Noble One and its fortified wine such as McWilliams' Hanwood Port. Ecotourism is also available in Griffith. Scenic Hill has various walking trails, lookouts and is home to the famous Hermit's Cave. Nericon Swamp, part of the Griffith Wetlands Important Bird Area, is an important site for migratory birds. Nearby Cocoparra National Park offers walking trails and there are opportunities to explore along the Murrumbidgee River and Lake Wyangan.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Notes and references
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Griffith (Urban Centre/Locality)". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Kelly, Bryan Morris (1988). From wilderness to eden : a history of the City of Griffith, its region and its people. Griffith, N.S.W.: City of Griffith Council. p. 18. ISBN 0-7316-3994-4.
- Macquarie ABC Dictionary. The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. 2003. p. 430. ISBN 1-876429-37-2.
- Landscape Architecture, Walter Burley Griffin Society Inc, 2015, retrieved 8 March 2016
- Nairn, Bede (1983). "Griffith, Arthur Hill (1861–1946)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. 9. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- Australian Dictionary of Biography entry for Griffith, Arthur Hill (1861 - 1946)
- "History of Griffith". Griffith City Council. Archived from the original on 2008-07-19. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
- Tyson, Ross (28 March 2008). "Council says no to lights". The Area News. Fairfax Digital. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
- Tyson, Ross (5 February 2010). "Busy intersection lights up". The Area News. Fairfax Digital. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- "Berembed Weir and Site". NSW Heritage Branch. Retrieved 21 November 2010.
- "Italian Story". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2004.
- "Aussie Bob, the panel beater who became a millionaire". The Age. 16 May 1983.
- "Sikh community continues tsunami relief efforts". ABCNews. 4 January 2005.
- 2014 Wine Industry Directory
- Linacre, Edward; Geerts, Bart (1997). Climates and Weather Explained. London: Routledge. p. 379. ISBN 0-415-12519-7.
- "Monthly climate statistics". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
- "Sustainable Agriculture in the Lower Murrumbidgee Catchment" (PDF). European Geosciences Union. Institute of Hydromechanics and Water Resources Management. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
- "Vacations Griffith - Australia". www.placesonline.com. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
- "Union fears more Baiada job cuts". www.abc.net.au. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
- From Penfolds to Patricks Pollard, Neville Australian Railway History, February; March; April 2008 pp39-57; 75-89; 111-117
- "Southern timetable" (PDF). NSW Trainlink. 20 October 2013 [Updated 30 June 2014].
- V/Line Shepparton Timetable
- BirdLife International. (2011). Important Bird Areas factsheet: Griffith Wetlands. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/06/2011.
- "International Relations". Griffith City Council. Retrieved 2013-08-08.