Skewer

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BBQ in Iran
Seafood skewers sold in South Korea: mun-kkochi (octopus skewers), sora-kkochi (horned turban skewers), jju-kkochi (webfoot octopus skewers)

A skewer is a thin metal or wood stick used to hold pieces of food together. They are used while grilling or roasting meats, and in other culinary applications. Skewers are often used for kebab dishes.

Metal skewers are typically stainless steel rods with a pointed tip on one end and a grip of some kind on the other end for ease of removing the food. Non-metallic skewers are often made from bamboo; however, any suitable wood may be used. Prior to grilling, wooden skewers must be soaked in water to avoid burning.

Other uses[edit]

Small, often decorative, skewers of glass, metal, wood or bamboo known as "olive picks" are used for garnishes on cocktails and other alcoholic beverages. Many types of snack food are sold and served "on a stick" or skewer, especially at outdoor markets, fairs, and sidewalk or roadside stands.

List of skewered foods[edit]

This is a list of skewered dishes by country, which includes kebabs.

Afghanistan[edit]

Africa[edit]

Name Image Description
Kyinkyinga A common kebab in West Africa prepared with beef steak or liver that is coated in peanut flour and roasted on skewers.[1]
Sosatie Chicken sosatie.jpg A dish of the Cape Malay people of South Africa[2]

Armenia[edit]

Kebabs in Armenia are prepared of ground meat spiced with pepper, parsley and other herbs, and roasted on skewers.

Azerbaijan[edit]

Name Image Description
Khan kebab
Lyulya kebab Lula kebab.jpg (Russian: люля-кебаб) – served skewered or wrapped in lavash bread[3]
Sham kebab
Tava kebab

China[edit]

Chuanr (Chinese: ; pinyin: chuàn), often referred to as "chua'r" throughout the north, or kawap (كاۋاپ) in Uyghur, is a variation of kebab originating from the Uyghur people in the western province of Xinjiang and a popular dish in Chinese Islamic cuisine. The dish has since spread across the rest of the country and become a popular street food.

Although the most traditional form of chuanr uses lamb or mutton, other types of meat, such as chicken, beef, pork, and seafood, may be used as well. Small pieces of meat are skewered and either roasted or deep-fried. Common spices and condiments include cumin called "ziran", pepper, sesame, and sesame oil.

Name Image Description
Chenjeh kabab Barbecued lamb sticks.jpg Uyghur: Kewap, Chinese: 串儿 Chuanr or 羊肉串 Yangrouchuan - The most popular Xinjiang dish in China, being chunks of mutton or mutton fat pierced on metal (or wood or bamboo) skewers, grilled on a coal-fired barbecue, and served with cumin and chili paste. Across Xinjiang, and neighbouring regions such as Kyrgyzstan, the mutton fat is valued equivalent to or more than the meat itself, as it provides sufficient energy during the harsh winter months. It has also become a popular street food all over North and West China, where a wide variety of foods are cooked in such a manner. Chuanr was traditionally made from lamb (yáng ròu chuàn, 羊肉串), which is still the most common, but now, chicken, pork, beef, and various types of seafood are also used. It is typically roasted over charcoal or electric heat, but It is sometimes also cooked by deep frying in oil (popular in Beijing). Pictured are barbecued chuanr-style lamb kebab sticks sold by a street vendor

Cyprus[edit]

Name Image Description
Sheftalia Foukou.jpg A traditional Cypriot sausage made of ground pork or lamb and wrapped in caul fat that is served alone or in a pita, usually with tomato, cucumber, parsley, and lemon
Souvlaki Souvlaki Platter.jpg Skewers consisting of pork, chicken or lamb that is barbecued.[4] Pictured is a souvlaki platter.

Greece[edit]

Gyros sandwiches in Greece, with meat, onions, tomato, french fries, and tzatziki sauce rolled into a pita

Excavations in Santorini, Greece, unearthed stone sets of barbecue for skewers used before the 17th century BC. In each pair of the supports, the receptions for the spits are found in absolute equivalence, while the line of small openings in the base formed a mechanism to supply the coals with oxygen so that they remained alight during its use.[5] Mycenaean Greeks used portable tray as grills. These trays were rectangular ceramic pans that sat underneath skewers of meat but it is not clear whether these trays would have been placed directly over a fire or if the pans would have held hot coals like a portable barbecue pit.[6][7] Homer in Ilad (1.465) mentions pieces of meat roasted on spits (οβελός).[8][9][10][11] In Classical Greece, a small spit or skewer was known as ὀβελίσκος (obeliskos),[12][13] and Aristophanes mentions such skewers being used to roast thrushes.[14]

While the history of street foods in Greece goes back to ancient times, the iconic Greek gyros and souvlaki as it is known today arose only following the Second World War. Introduced to Athens in the 1950s by immigrants from Turkey and the Middle East, gyros was originally known simply as döner kebab. It is typically served as a sandwich rolled in pita bread, or on a plate, with french fries and various salads and sauces such as tzatziki. Later in the 1960s, vendors also began selling dishes in the same style made with souvlaki, which resembles Turkish shish kebab, but is usually made with pork.[15]

Around the same time, the Greek name gyros replaced döner kebab, and the dish became popular in New York City and various parts of the world.[16]

In contrast to other areas of Greece, in Athens, both types of sandwich may be called souvlaki, with the skewered meat being called kalamaki.

Although gyros is unquestionably of Middle Eastern origin, the issue of whether modern-day souvlaki came to Greece via Turkish cuisine, and should be considered a Greek styling of shish kebab, or is a contemporary revival of Greek tradition dating as far back as 17th century BC Minoan civilization,[17] is a topic of sometimes heated debate, at least between Greeks and Turks.[clarification needed][18] While English speakers may refer to souvlaki skewers as kebabs,[19] they are not properly called that in Greece.

Name Image Description
Gyros Gyros C5878.jpg Made from chopped meat, usually pork or chicken, formed into a large loaf for slow-roasting on a vertical rotisserie cooker, the auto-donner. (See also doner kebab.) Thin portions are shaved off and served in a pitta bread with onion and Greek yogurt-cucumber-garlic sauce, tzatziki. Popularized in US by Greek restaurateurs in the Greektown, Chicago neighborhood.
Souvlaki Souvlaki (skewer) consists of small skewers of meats such as chicken[20] and pork, barbecued, then served plain, in a pitta, or with salad. Chicken and lamb are also sometimes used. It is sometimes served on a skewer, or as a dinner in combination with rice, potatoes, and tzatziki sauce.

India[edit]

Name Image Description
Bihari kabab Bihari Kabab.JPG Skewered pieces of meat marinated in spice. Originally a dish from the non-vegetarian cuisine, Muslims invented Bihari kabab of the North Indian state of Bihar as it is made out of beef . It has spread to other countries.[21]
Boti kebab Boti and shesh kebab.jpg A mutton kebab.[22] Boti kebab is pictured at the bottom of the image
Achari Tikka
Chicken tikka Chicken Tikka (1).jpg Another tandoori kebab, made of cubed chicken marinated with yogurt and spices[23]
Dora kabab [24][25]
Galawat kabab A variant of Shami kebab made without any admixture or binding agents and comprising just the minced beef (Muslim origin) and the spices. Speciality of Lucknow.
Hariyali kabab Punjabi style chicken tikka or kabab made with combination of mint and coriander
Kakori kabab Made of minced beef meat with spices, a specialty of Muslims of Lucknow & Delhi
Galauti kebab A smoked patty prepared using leg of lamb that includes onion, garlic, ginger, saffron and spices, which is cooked on a griddle[26]
Hariyali kebab A vegetarian kebab prepared using lentils and spinach[27][28]
Tangri kebab Chicken legs roasted on open fire with hot spices and laced with butter or ghee[29]
Kastoori kebab [30]
Dahi ke kabab [31]
Burra kebab [32][33]
Kalmi kebab Kalmikabab.jpg A chicken kebab.[34] Kalmi kebab is pictured on the left in the image.
Paneer kabab Vegetarian kebab
Reshmi kabab A traditional kebab of Mughlai cuisine that is prepared with marinated chicken, lamb or beef[35]
Shami kebab 4th October 2012 Shami Kebab.jpg Made of minced beef, with paste of lentils and chopped onion and coriander and green chillies usually added to the mixture, which is kneaded in a disc-like shape and fried. Best results are obtained when fried in animal fat or ghee in a brass utensil over a coal fire. In some places, a binding agent is used to keep the kebab together.
Shikampur kabab
Sutli Kebab Suta Kabab Phears Lane.jpg Sutli kabab is made by wrapping a paste of meat & spices around a metal sheekh, tying it with a cotton thread & then heating it in a barbeque pit. Once the kabab is done, the thread is removed & the kabab is served.[36]

Iran[edit]

Name Image Description
Berenj goje kabab
Chelow kabab (rice with kebab) Kebab.jpg Is one of the most common forms of serving kebab in Iran which combines a variety of Persian kebabs with saffroned Basmati rice, lavash (a paper-thin bread), grilled tomato, raw onions, bell peppers, mushrooms and sumac and often a side of salad shirazi, mast-o-khiar and doogh (nowadays carbonated). An old Iranian tradition is to break a raw egg yolk over the rice, along with plenty of butter, just before serving, but not many follow this tradition anymore.
Dandeh kebab
Ghaz kabab
Joujeh kabab Juje kabab 2.jpg Grilled chicken on skewers
Kabab bakhtiari Combination of Jujeh kabab and kabab barg
Kabab barg Kababi alborz2.jpg Grilled marinated sirloin.
Kabab barreh Grilled lamb, typically marinated in yogurt with parsley
Kabab chenjeh Grilled lamb prepared similar to shish kebab, without the vegetables
Kabab digi Pan Kabab
Kabab hosseini Lamb or beef cooked on skewers with onions, tomatoes and green peppers
Kabab isphahani
Kabab Jigar-o Del-o Gholveh
Kabab kermanshahi
Kabab koobideh Kabab1.jpg Ground beef or lamb (usually sirloin), often mixed with parsley and chopped onions
Kabab kurdi Ground lamb or beef, onions, garlic, and tomatoes
Kabab loghmeh Minced lamb meatballs first fried and the grilled over charcoal fire, eaten with chopped parsley, chopped onions, and sumac. A summer outing favorite
Kabab mahitabeh Pan fried Kabab
Kabab rashti Also known as Kabab Shomali, includes almond & pistachio & barberry
Kabab shamshiri It is a kabab with kabab-barg on one side of skewer and kabab-kubideh on the other
Kabab shirazi
Kabab soltani Combination of kabab koobideh and kabab barg
Kabab torsh Kabab1.jpg (Gilan, northern Iran) Also called (tursh-e-kabab) grilled beef marinated in a mixture of pomegranate juice, crushed walnuts, parsley, crushed garlic, and olive oil
Kabab va nun ('Kabab with bread')
Kabab vaziri
Kabab-e donbalan Lamb fries kabab
Kababe shandiz
Sonnati kabab

Japan[edit]

Korea[edit]

Ttangdureup-sanjeok (skewered beef and spikenard)
Dak-kkochi (skewered chicken)
Tteok-kkochi (skewered rice cakes)

In Korean cuisine, a traditional food category consisting of skewered food is called jeok. Varieties of jeok made with beef and vegetables are usually called sanjeok.

Kkochi is another term referring to skewered dishes, as well as the skewers themselves. Dak-kkochi is skewered chicken, and tteok-kkochi is skewered rice cakes.

Levant[edit]

Several varieties of kebabs can be found at most restaurants representing this region. Among the most common are shish taouk, which are grilled chicken skewers marinated in olive oil and spices, and lahem meshwi, charcoal-grilled skewers of prime lamb cubes lightly seasoned with herbs.[37]

Shawarma, although not considered a kebab in most countries of the Levant, is another very popular type of grilled meat preparation that characterizes this region.

Kebab halabi is a kind of kebab served with a spicy tomato sauce and Aleppo pepper, very common in Syria, Lebanon and the Galilee region in Northern Palestine, named after the city of Aleppo (Halab). Kebab halabi has around 26 variants[38] including:

Name Image Description
Kebab hindi Rolled meat with tomato paste, onion, capsicum and pomegranate molasses
Kebab kamayeh Soft meat with truffle pieces, onion and various nuts
Kebab karaz For cherry kebab in Arabic – meatballs (lamb) along with cherries and cherry paste, pine nuts, sugar and pomegranate molasses. It is considered one of Aleppo's main dishes, especially among Armenians.
Kebab khashkhash Kebab khashkhash.jpg Rolled lamb or beef with chili pepper paste, parsley, garlic and pine nuts. Pictured is Kebab khashkhash from Aleppo.
Kebab siniyye For tray kebab in Arabic – lean minced lamb in a tray added with chili pepper, onion and tomato
Kebab tuhal Lamb rounds stuffed with parsley, hot green peppers and pine kernels[39]
Shawarma ഷവർമ്മ.JPG Similar to a doner kebab, made with chunks of lamb meat

Nepal[edit]

A sekuwa stall in Kathmandu, Nepal

A popular dish in Nepalese cuisine, as well as Newa cuisine, is sekuwa. It is a meat roasted in a natural wood/log fire in a real traditional Nepalese country style. At first while the meat is still in its raw stage is mixed with homemade natural herbs and spices and other necessary ingredients. Sekuwa could be of pork, lamb, goat or chicken, or a mixture. Sekuwa is very popular in Nepal, especially in the Eastern Nepal and Kathmandu. Tarahara, a small town in Sunsari District of Koshi State in the Eastern Nepal could be called as the sekuwa capital of Nepal.[citation needed]

Pakistan[edit]

Name Image Description
Chapli kebab Chapli Kebab.jpg A delicacy of Pakistan from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province – marinated beef in spices and deep fried flat.[40] In Pakistan, it is sometimes deep fried in animal tallow, and it is a common kebab.[a]
Lola kabab/Gola kabab Kabab of Pakistan and Afghanistan – rolled meatballs originating in Peshawar and Kandahar
Seekh kebab Pakistani Food Beef Kabobs.jpg Kebab of Pakistan – prepared with minced meat with spices and grilled on skewers. It is cooked in a Tandoor, and is often served with chutneys or mint sauce. It is often included in tandoori sampler platters, which contain a variety of tandoor cooked dishes. A seekh kebab can also be served in a naan bread much like döner kebab. Seekh kebabs are part of the traditional Pakistani diet.
Shami kebab 4th October 2012 Shami Kebab.jpg Made of minced meat, with paste of lentils and chopped onion and coriander and green chillies usually added to the mixture, which is kneaded in a disc-like shape and fried. Best results are obtained when fried in ghee. In some places, a binding agent is used to keep the kabab together.
Tandoori kebab Kabab of India/Pakistan – chunks or strips of meat marina
Malai tikka Kabab of Pakistan – chunks or strips of chicken marinated in a white yoghurt and garlic sauce and grilled
Reshami kebab Kabab of Pakistan – minced chicken adequately seasoned and then barbecued on a charcoal grill
Bihari kebab Kabab of Pakistan – chunks or strips of lean beef, marinated in a spicy yoghurt/chilli marinade and tenderized to perfection before slowly grilled on a charcoal flame

Portugal[edit]

Name Image Description
Espetadas PinchosAmericanos.jpg Meat skewer, usually beef[42]

Scotland[edit]

Name Image Description
Stonner kebab A Scottish dish

Spain[edit]

Name Image Description
Pincho moruno Pinchos - fugzu.jpg Meat skewer, usually made of chicken or pork, sliced in cubes, marinated in paprika and other spices.

Turkey[edit]

Name Image Description
Adana kebabı Adana kebab.jpg Also known as kıyma kebabı – kebab with hand-minced (zırh) meat mixed with chili on a flat wide metal skewer (shish); associated with Adana region although very popular all over Turkey.[43]
Ali Paşa kebabı (Ali Pasha kebab) Cubed lamb with tomato, onion and parsley wrapped in filo[43]
Alinazik kebab Ali-nazik-2.jpg Ground meat kebab sautéed in a saucepan, with garlic, yogurt and eggplants added
Antep kebabı Patlican k..jpg Half-fat minced meat mixed with thin slices of the same meat and made into balls and cooked between thick slices of eggplant
Bahçıvan kebabı[44] Bahcivan-kebabi.jpg Boneless lamb shoulder mixed with chopped onions and tomato paste
Beykoz kebabı Beykoz kebabı.jpg Tomato and onion flavoured lamb, wrapped in aubergine slices and garnished with lamb brains[43]
Beyti kebab Beyti Kebap.jpg Ground lamb or beef, seasoned and grilled on a skewer, often served wrapped in lavash and topped with tomato sauce and yogurt, traced back to the famous kebab house Beyti in Istanbul and particularly popular in Turkey's larger cities.[45]
Bostan kebabı Lamb and aubergine casserole.[43]
Cağ kebabı (spoke kebab) Cağkebabı5.jpg Cubes of lamb roasted first on a cağ (a horizontal rotating spit) and then on a skewer, a specialty of Erzurum region with recently rising popularity
Çardak kebabı[46] Stuffed lamb meat wrapped in a crepe or filo.
Ciğer kebabı (liver kebab) Lamb liver kebab on a skewer (a.k.a. ciğer şiş)
Çökertme kebabı Sirloin veal kebap stuffed with yogurt and potatoes
Çöp şiş (small skewer kebab) A specialty of Selçuk and Germencik near Ephesus, pounded boneless meat with tomatoes and garlic marinated with black pepper, thyme and oil on wooden skewers[47]
Doner kebab Döner in Istanbul (01.10.2008).jpg
İskender kebap İskender kebap.JPG Döner kebap served with yogurt, tomato sauce and butter, originated in Bursa. The kebab was invented by İskender Efendi in 1867. He was inspired from Cağ kebab and turned it from horizontal to vertical.
İslim kebabı (stew) İslim kebabı.jpg Another version of the aubergine kebab without its skin, marinated in sunflower oil[43][47]
Kağıt kebabı Kagıt kebabı.jpg Lamb (or veal) cooked in a paper wrapping[47]
Kılıç şiş Brochette of swordfish[43]
Şiş köfte Köfte kebabs.jpg Also known as Shish köfte – minced lamb meatballs with herbs, often including parsley and mint, on a stick, grilled
Kuyu kebabı (pit kebab) Prepared from the goat it is special for Aydın region, similar to tandır kebabı
Kuzu şiş Shish kebap prepared with marinated milk-fed lamb meat
Manisa kebabı This Manisa region version of the kebab is smaller and flat size shish meat on the sliced pide bread, flavored with butter, and stuffed with tomato, garlic and green pepper.
Orman kebabı (forest kebab) Lamb meat on the bone and cut in large pieces mixed with carrots, potatoes and peas[43]
Patates kebabı[48] Beef or chicken mixed with potatoes, onions, tomato sauce and bay leaves
Patlıcan kebabı (aubergine kebab) A unique kebap meat marinated in spices and served with aubergines, hot pide bread and a yogurt sauce[47]
Şiş kebabı Shish-Kebab (3854838211).jpg Prepared with fish, lamb or chicken meat on thin metal or reed rods, grilled[43][47]
Şiş tavuk Shish Tawooq - Turkish Cuisine.jpg Also known as Tavuk şiş or – Yogurt-marinated chicken grilled on a stick[47]
Sivas kebabı Associated with the Sivas region, similar to Tokat kebab but especially lamb ribs are preferred and it also differs from Tokat kebabı on the point that there are no potatoes inside
Tandır kebabı (tandoor kebab) Lamb pieces (sometimes a whole lamb) baked in an oven called a tandır, which requires a special way of cooking for hours. Served with bread and raw onions.[43]
Tas kebap (veal stew) Tas kebap, pilav and cacik.jpg Stewed meat in a bowl, beginning with the cooking of the vegetables in butter employing a method called yağa vurmak, ("butter infusion"), before the meat itself is cooked in the same grease
Testi kebabı (earthenware-jug kebab) Ingredients are similar to çömlek kebabı, prepared in a testi instead of a güveç, generally found in Central Anatolia and the Mid-Western Black Sea region
Tire kebabı Minced meat cooked on sheesh and served with maydanoz and sauce, on top of special tire bread
Tokat kebabı Associated with the Tokat region, it is made with marinated lamb, grilled inside an oven, together with aubergines, tomatoes, potatoes, entire onions and garlics and served over a special flatbread called lavaş (a thicker yufka) and softened with the juice of the meat and tomatoes.
Urfa kebabı From Urfa, similar to Adana kebab, but not spicy
Vali Kebabı

(Governor Kebab)

Vali kebabı.jpg

Others[edit]

Name Image Description
Chislic Kegchislicsmall.jpg This is a migration of Russian culture into South Dakota by the German-Russian population.
Salmon kebab Salmon kebabs.jpg A kebab popular throughout the Pacific Northwest's United States coastal areas, especially during salmon runs[49]
Samak kebab Grilled fish on a stick
Satay Sate Ponorogo.jpg A Southeast Asian dish consisting of diced or sliced meat, skewered and grilled over a fire, then served with various spicy seasonings
Senjeh lebab
Shashlik Shashlik.jpg Shashlyk, meaning skewered meat, was originally made of lamb. Nowadays it is also made of pork or beef depending on local preferences and religious observances.
Shishleek A term with various uses: in Iran it refers to grilled baby lamb chops (usually from the leg), typically marinated; in Israel, to grilled turkey
Suya: Kewap SuyavarietiesTX.JPG A popular spicy meat kebab enjoyed by many across West Africa. Originally from Nigeria, this kebab has tastes of peanuts and spicy pepper and is sold by street vendors as a snack or entire meal. The kebabs are enjoyed with onion and bell pepper pieces.
Kabab Memuleh b'hatzilim A kebab balls made of minced beef, garlic, parsley, baharat, salt, black pepper, onions and cumin which stuffed with a mixture of fried or grilled eggplants and tahini.

Originally from Israel.

Skewered goose liver A dish from southern Tel Aviv. It is seasoned with salt and black pepper and sometimes with spices like cumin, cinnamon, paprika, nutmeg, allspice and turmeric.
Yakitori Yakitori by MShades in Kujo, Kyoto.jpg A Japanese type of skewered chicken. The preparation of Yakitori involves skewering the meat with kushi (串?), a type of skewer typically made of steel, bamboo, or similar materials. Afterwards, they are grilled over a charcoal fire. During or after cooking, the meat is typically seasoned with tare sauce or salt.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "In Pakistan, animal tallow is used as commercial deep-frying agent for the traditional food chapli kebab. The chapli and shami kabab are considered as one of the most commercially available traditional dishes of people living in Pakistan, ..."[41]

References[edit]

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