List of U.S. executive branch czars
This article needs to be updated.(July 2017)
In the United States, the informal political term "czar" or "tsar" is employed in media and popular usage to refer to high-level officials who oversee a particular policy. There have never been any U.S. government offices with the title "czar", but various governmental officials have sometimes been referred to by the nickname "czar" rather than their actual title.
The earliest known use of the term for a U.S. government official was in the administration of Franklin Roosevelt (1933–1945), during which eleven unique positions (or twelve if one were to count "Economic Czar" and "Economic Czar of World War II" as separate) were so described. The term was revived, mostly by the press, to describe officials in the Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford administrations, and continues today.
The list is subjective and imprecise, since frequently individuals or offices might be referred to by the nickname "czar" by some publication or a political opponent, yet the actual governmental official, a majority of publications and others do not use the term. One possible definition is only those officials who are appointed by the president without Senate confirmation.
|President's name||Party||In office||Number of
|Appointees not |
confirmed by Senate
|George H. W. Bush||1989–1993||2||3||0|
|George W. Bush||R||2001–2009||33||49||28|
|Donald Trump||R||2017-2021||2||TBD [needs update]42||TBD [needs update]40|
|Joe Biden||D||2021-||TBD [needs update]||TBD [needs update]||TBD [needs update]|
The numbers are based upon the sortable list below. Please see it for details and references. Note that what is measured is the popularity of the word czar, rather than an objective measure of authority.
Also note that under George W. Bush only 33 Czar titles had been currently found, thus only 33 Czars, although many of these titles were used by several distinct individuals. For example, there has been an Assistant Secretary of Labor for Mine Safety and Health since the passage of the Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, but the phrase "mine safety czar" was only applied to the position since the controversial appointment of Richard Stickler to the post in 2006. Similarly, there has been a director of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs since the office was created by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, but the term "regulatory czar" was not applied to the post until 2001.
List of executive branch czars
The following are executive branch officials who have been described by the media as a czar of some kind.
|Czar title||Official title||Office holder||Tenure||Type of appointment||Appointing administration||Senate confirmed|
|AfPak czar, Afghanistan and Pakistan czar||Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan||Holbrooke, Richard||2009–2010||President appointed||Barack Obama|
|AIDS czar||National AIDS Policy Coordinator, Member of White House Domestic Policy Council||Gebbie, Kristine||1993–1994||Bill Clinton|
|Director of the Office of National AIDS Policy||Fleming, Patricia||1993–1997|
|Director of the Office of National AIDS Policy, Presidential Envoy for AIDS Cooperation||Thurman, Sandra||1997–2000|
|Director of the Office of National AIDS Policy||Evertz, Scott||2001–2002||George W. Bush|
|Crowley, Jeffrey||2009–2012||Barack Obama|
|anti-poverty czar, poverty czar||Director of Office of Economic Opportunity||Shriver, Sargent||1965–1969||President nominated, Senate confirmed||Lyndon Johnson||✓|
|Asian Carp czar||Asian Carp Director, Council on Environmental Quality||Goss, John||2010–Unknown||Council on Environmental Quality selected||Barack Obama|
|auto czar, car czar||Treasury Advisor, Head of the Auto Task Force||Rattner, Steve||2009 Feb–Jul||Sec. of Treasury appointed|
|Senior Advisor President's Automotive Task Force||Bloom, Ron||2009–2011||President appointed|
|auto recovery czar, autoworker czar||Member Presidential Task Force on the Auto Industry, Director of Recovery for Auto Communities and Workers||Montgomery, Ed||2009–Unknown|
|bank bailout czar, Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) czar||United States Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Financial Stability, Senior Advisor to Secretary of the Treasury||Kashkari, Neel.||2008–2009||(New position), President nominated, Senate confirmed||George W. Bush||✓|
|bank bailout czar, TARP czar||United States Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Financial Stability||Allison, Herbert||2009–2013||President nominated, Senate confirmed||Barack Obama|
|bioethics czar||Advisor to the President, Chairman of The President's Council on Bioethics||Kass, Leon||2001–2005||(New position), Exec order, President appointed||George W. Bush|
|bird flu czar||Assistant Secretary of Health and Human Services, Advisor to the President for Public Health Emergency Preparedness||Simonson, Stewart||2004–2006||(New position), President appointed|
|birth control czar||Deputy Assistant Secretary of Population Affairs, Department of Health and Human Services||Keroack, Eric||2006–2007||President appointed|
|border czar||U.S. attorney and Special Representative for the Southwest Border, Department of Justice||Bersin, Alan||1995–1998||President nominated, Senate confirmed as U.S. Attorney, Appointed as Special Representative||Bill Clinton||✓|
|Assistant Secretary for International Affairs, Special Representative for Border Affairs, Dept of Homeland Security,||2009–2011||Sec of Homeland Security appointed||Barack Obama|
|budget czar||Director of the Office of Management and Budget||Daniels, Mitchell E.||2001–2003||President nominated, Senate Confirmed||George W. Bush||✓|
|cleanup czar||Special Assistant Attorney General (to investigate corruption)||Morris, Newbold||1952, fired after 63 days by Atty General for demanding records access; AG then forced to resign by President Truman||Attorney General appointed||Harry Truman|
|Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management, Department of Energy (nuclear cleanup)||Roberson, Jessie||2001–2004||President nominated, Senate confirmed||George W. Bush||✓|
|Rispoli, James||2005–2008||Sec. of Energy appointed, Senate confirmed|
|climate czar||Assistant to the President and Staff Secretary, President's Coordinator for Climate Change, Senior negotiator at Kyoto and Beuenos Aires negotiations||Todd D. Stern||1997–1999||President appointed||Bill Clinton|
|Special Envoy for Climate Change||Stern, Todd D.||2009||Sec. of State appointed||Barack Obama|
|climate czar, energy czar, global warming czar||Assistant to the President for Energy and Climate Change||Browner, Carol||2009–2011||(New position)|
|copyright czar||Intellectual Property Enforcement Coordinator||vacant; position approved but not filled during Bush administration||2008–2009||George W. Bush|
|Espinel, Victoria||2009–2013||(first at position)||Barack Obama|
|communications czar||Counselor to the President, Special counselor to the President||Bartlett, Dan||2005–2007||President appointed||George W. Bush|
|compensation czar, Gulf claims czar, pay czar||Special Master for TARP Executive Compensation||Feinberg, Kenneth||2009–2011, 2014-2016?||Sec. of Treasury appointed||Barack Obama|
|consumer czar||Special Advisor for the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau||Warren, Elizabeth||2010–2011||(New Position), President appointed|
|cruise czar||Fact-Finding Officer for the Federal Maritime Commission||Sola, Louis E.||2020-2023||President nominated, Senate confirmed||Donald Trump|
|car czar||Chief domestic policy advisor and Director of the White House Domestic Policy Council||Reed, Bruce||1993–2001||(New position), Exec order, President appointed||Bill Clinton|
|cyber security czar, cyber czar||Special Advisor to the President on Cybersecurity, Office of Management and Budget (OMB)||Clarke, Richard A.||2001 Oct–2003 Feb||(New position), President appointed||George W. Bush|
|Director, National Cybersecurity Center||Beckstrom, Rod||2008–2009||(New position), Presidential directive, President appointed|
|Director of the White House Office of Cybersecurity, Cybersecurity Coordinator||Hathaway, Melissa||2009 May–July, Acting czar ; resigned ||Office created May 31, 2009.||Barack Obama|
|Tom Bossert||2017–2018||Donald J. Trump|
|czar of censorship||Director, Office of Censorship||Price, Byron||1941–1945||Exec Order, President appointed||Franklin Roosevelt|
|czar of information||Director, Office of War Information||Davis, Elmer||1942–1945|
|czar of Latin American affairs||Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs||Mann, Thomas C.||1964–1965||President nominated, Senate confirmed||Lyndon Johnson||✓|
|democracy czar||Deputy National Security Advisor for Global Democracy Strategy||Abrams, Elliott||2005–2008||President appointed||George W. Bush|
|domestic czar||Special Assistant to the President, domestic policy aide||Califano, Joseph||1965–1969||Lyndon Johnson|
|domestic policy czar||Chief Domestic Policy Coordinator, Assistant to the President and Senior Advisor to the President, White House Deputy Chief of Staff||Rove, Karl||2004–2006||George W. Bush|
|domestic violence czar||Advisor to the President and the Vice President on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Issues||Rosenthal, Lynn||2009||Vice President appointed||Barack Obama|
|drug czar||Head of Drug programs, Special Action Office of Drug Abuse Prevention||Jaffe, Jerome||1971||President appointed||Richard Nixon|
|Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse and head of the Narcotics Treatment Administration||DuPont, Robert||1973–1978||Gerald Ford|
|Director of the White House Drug Abuse Policy (1982), Special Assistant to the President for Drug Abuse (1983), Member of Executive Board of the National Narcotics Border Interdiction System Cabinet Level (1983), Deputy Assistant to the President for Drug Abuse Policy (1985)||Turner, Carlton||1982–1988||(New position), Exec order, President appointed||Ronald Reagan|
|Director, Office of National Drug Control Policy||Bennett, William J.||1989–1990||(New position) created by Congress, President nominated, Senate Confirmed||George H. W. Bush||✓|
|Martinez, Bob||1991–1993||President nominated, Senate Confirmed|
|Director, National Drug Control Policy||Brown, Lee P.||1993–1995||Bill Clinton|
|Walters, John P.||2001–2009||George W. Bush|
|Director, National Drug Control Policy (cabinet rank removed)||Kerlikowske, R. Gil||2009–2014||Barack Obama|
|Director, National Drug Control Policy||Botticelli, Michael P.||2015–2017|
|Ebola czar||Ebola Response Coordinator||Klain, Ron||2014–2015||President appointed|
|e-commerce czar, e-czar||Executive Director, Electronic Commerce Working Group||Elizabeth Echols||1998–2000||Vice President appointed||Bill Clinton||✓|
|economic czar, economic czar of World War II||Director, Office of Economic Stabilization||Byrnes, James||1942–1943||(New position), Exec order, President appointed||Franklin Roosevelt|
|economic czar||Vinson, Fred M.||1943–1945||President appointed|
|Davis, William Hammatt||1945–1946|
|economic czar, big-picture economic czar||Chairman, Economic Recovery Advisory Board||Volcker, Paul A.||2009||Barack Obama|
|energy czar||Director of the Energy Policy Office||Love, John Arthur||1973||(New position), Exec order, President appointed||Richard Nixon|
|Federal Energy Office Administrator||Simon, William E||1973–1974||President appointed|
|Administrator, Federal Energy Administration||Sawhill, John||1974|
|Administrator, Federal Energy Administration, Assistant to the President for Energy Affairs, Executive Director of Energy Resources Council||Zarb, Frank||1974–1977||Gerald Ford|
|Director, Department of Energy (cabinet-level position)||Schlesinger, James||1977–1979||(New position), Legislation enacted, President nominated, Senate confirmed||Jimmy Carter||✓|
|ethics czar, transparency czar||Special Counsel to the President for Ethics and Government Reform||Eisen, Norm||2009–2010||(New position), Exec order, President appointed||Barack Obama|
|White House Counsel||Bauer, Robert||2010–2011||President appointed|
|faith-based czar, faith czar||Director, White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives||DiIulio, John||2001–2002||(New position), Exec order, President appointed||George W. Bush|
|Towey, Jim||2002–2006||President appointed|
|faith-based czar||Director of the White House Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships||DuBois, Joshua||2009–2013||Barack Obama|
|food czar||Food Administrator and Secretary of Agriculture||Wickard, Claude||1942–1943||Exec order||Franklin Roosevelt|
|War Food Administrator||Davis, Chester C.||1943|
|Chairman Citizens Food Committee||Luckman, Charles||1947 Sep–Nov||President appointed||Harry Truman|
|food safety czar||Assistant Commissioner for Food Protection||Acheson, David W. K.||2007–2008||George W. Bush|
|foreign aid czar||Administrator of the US Agency for International Development (USAID)||Tobias, Randall||2006–2007||President nominated, Senate confirmed||✓|
|global AIDS czar||Coordinator of U.S. Government Activities to Combat HIV/AIDS Globally with the rank of Ambassador||2003–2006||(New position), President nominated, Senate confirmed|
|Coordinator of U.S.Government Activities to Combat HIV/AIDS Globally, with the rank of Ambassador||Dybul, Mark||2006–2009||President nominated, Senate confirmed|
|Great Lakes czar||Senior Advisor to the EPA Administrator||Davis, Cameron||2009–2017||(New position)||Barack Obama|
|green-jobs czar||Special Advisor for Green Jobs, Enterprise, and Innovation at the White House, Member of the White House Council on Environmental Quality||Jones, Van||2009 Apr–Sep||President appointed|
|Guantanamo Base closure czar||US Department of State Special Envoy||Fried, Daniel||2009–2013||Sec. of State appointed|
|health care czar, technology czar, internet czar, e-czar||Senior Advisor for Policy Development||Magaziner, Ira,||1993–1998||President appointed||Bill Clinton|
|health czar||Director of the White House Office of Health Reform and Counselor to the President||DeParle, Nancy-Ann||2009–2011||Exec Order||Barack Obama|
|health czar for the World Trade Center (WTC)||Special coordinator to respond to health effects of September 11 attacks, World Trade Center (WTC) Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program, also served as Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health||Howard, John||2006–2008||President Appointed||George W. Bush|
|health IT czar||National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, Department of Health and Human Services||Brailer, David J.||2004–2006||(New position), Exec order, appointed by Sec. of HHS|
|Blumenthal, Dr. David||2009 -||Exec order, appointed by Sec. of HHS||Barack Obama|
|homeland security czar||Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism||Ridge, Tom||2001–2002||(New position), Exec Order, President appointed||George W. Bush|
|Secretary, U.S. Department of Homeland Security||2003–2004||(New position), Legislation enacted, President nominated, Senate confirmed||✓|
|Chertoff, Michael||2005–2009||President nominated, Senate confirmed|
|homeless czar, homelessness czar||Executive Director, United States Interagency Council on Homelessness||Phil Mangano||2002–2008||President appointed|
|housing czar||Housing Expediter in the Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion||Wyatt, Wilson||1945–1946||(New position), President appointed||Harry Truman|
|Human Trafficking czar||Special Advisor in the Office of Domestic Policy Council||Heather Fischer,||2020||Donald J.Trump|
|Gulf Coast reconstruction czar, hurricane Katrina recovery czar||Federal Coordinator of Hurricane Katrina Recovery Effort||Powell, Donald E.||2005–2008||President appointed||George W. Bush|
|inflation czar, anti-inflation czar||Special Trade Representative, Chief U.S. trade negotiator||Strauss, Robert||1978||Jimmy Carter|
|inflation czar||Advisor to the President, Chairman Council on Wage and Price Stability||Kahn, Alfred||1977–1980|
|information czar, infotech czar||Chief Information Officer at the White House||Kundra, Vivek||2009–2011||(New position), created by statute, President appointed||Barack Obama|
|VanRoekel, Steven||2011–2014||created by statute, President appointed|
|intelligence czar||Director of National Intelligence||Negroponte, John||2005–2007||(New position), Congress mandated, President nominated, Senate confirmed||George W. Bush||✓|
|McConnell, John Michael||2007–2009||President nominated, Senate confirmed|
|Blair, Dennis||2009–2010||Barack Obama|
|Iran czar||Special Advisor for the Persian Gulf and Southwest Asia (which includes Iran)||Ross, Dennis||2009–2011||President appointed|
|manpower czar||Director, War Manpower Commission||McNutt, Paul V.||1942–1945||Exec order||Franklin Roosevelt|
|manufacturing czar||Assistant Secretary for manufacturing and services, U.S. Commerce Department||Frink, Albert||2004–2007||(New position), President nominated, Senate confirmed||George W. Bush||✓|
|Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Manufacturing and Services||Sutton, William G.||2007–2008||President nominated, Senate confirmed|
|Senior Counselor for Manufacturing Policy||Bloom, Ron||2009–2011||President appointed||Barack Obama|
|Middle East czar||Special Envoy for Middle East Peace||Mitchell, George||Sec. of State appointed|
|mine safety czar||Assistant Secretary of Labor for Mine Safety and Health||Stickler, Richard||2006–2008||Recess appointment—2 prior presidential nominations were rejected by the Senate||George W. Bush|
|missile czar||Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development||Gardner, Trevor||1954–1956||Sec. of Defense appointed, Senate confirmed||Dwight D. Eisenhower||✓|
|mobilization czar, civilian economy czar||Director, Office of Defense Mobilization||Wilson, Charles E.||1950–1952||(New position), Exec order||Harry Truman|
|oil czar||Petroleum Coordinator for National Defense, Secretary of the Interior||Ickes, Harold L.||1941–1946||President nominated, Senate confirmed as Secy of Interior||Franklin Roosevelt||✓|
|patronage czar||Postmaster General Post Office Department, Cabinet-level position||Hannegan, Bob||1945–1947||President nominated, Senate confirmed||Harry Truman|
|performance czar||United States Chief Performance Officer and Deputy Director for Management at the Office of Management and Budget||Zients, Jeffrey||2009–2013||Barack Obama|
|policy czar||Assistant to the President for Policy and Strategic Planning||Gerson, Michael||2005–2006||President appointed||George W. Bush|
|price czar||Administrator, Office of Price Administration||Henderson, Leon||1941–1942||(New position), Exec order, President appointed||Franklin Roosevelt|
|Brown, Prentiss Marsh||1942–1943||President appointed|
|Chairman of the Price Commission||Grayson, C. Jackson, Jr.||1971||(New position), President appointed||Richard Nixon|
|production czar||Director, War Production Board||Nelson, Donald||1942–1944||(New position), Exec order, President appointed||Franklin Roosevelt|
|Krug, Julius||1944–1945||President appointed|
|public diplomacy czar||Special advisor to the President, Undersecretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs||Hughes, Karen||2005–2007||President nominated, Senate confirmed||George W. Bush||✓|
|Undersecretary of State for Public Affairs and Public Diplomacy||Glassman, James||2008–2009|
|reading czar||President's Advisor on Reading First Initiative, Member of the President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education||Lyon, G. Reid||2001–2005||President appointed|
|reconversion czar||Director of War Mobilization and Reconversion||Snyder, John||1945–1946||Harry Truman|
|regulatory czar||Director of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs Office of Management and Budget||Graham, John D.||2001–2006||President nominated, Senate confirmed||George W. Bush||✓|
|Dudley, Susan||2006–2009||Recess appointment, nominee did not receive a Senate vote|
|Sunstein, Cass||2009–2012||President nominated, Senate confirmed||Barack Obama||✓|
|rubber czar||Rubber Director||Jeffers, Bill||1942–1943||(New position), Exec order, appointed by Chairman of War Production Board||Franklin Roosevelt|
|savings & loan czar||Director, Office of Thrift Supervision||Ryan, T. Timothy, Jr.||1990–1997||President nominated, Senate confirmed||George H. W. Bush||✓|
|science czar||Science Advisor to the President, Director, White House Office of Science and Technology Policy||Marburger, John||2001 Oct–2009 Jan||George W. Bush|
|Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy||Holdren, John||2009–2017||Barack Obama|
|shipping czar||Administrator, War Shipping Administration||Land, Emory S.||1942–1946||Exec order||Franklin Roosevelt|
|stimulus accountability, stimulus oversight||Chairman, Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board||Devaney, Earl||2009||(New position), created by statute, President appointed||Barack Obama|
|technology czar, chief technology czar||Associate Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, Chief Technology Officer (CTO), Assistant to the President||Chopra, Aneesh||2009–2012||President nominated, Senate confirmed||Barack Obama||✓|
|terrorism czar, counter-terrorism czar||National coordinator for security, infrastructure protection and counter-terrorism, member of National Security Council, cabinet-level position||Clarke, Richard A.||1998 May–2001 Jan||President appointed||Bill Clinton|
|terrorism czar||National coordinator for security, infrastructure protection and counter-terrorism, cabinet level rank removed||2001 Jan–Oct||(Held over from prior administration) President Clinton appointed||George W. Bush|
|terrorism czar, counterterrorism czar||National Director for Combating Terrorism, Deputy National Security Advisor||Downing, Wayne||2001 Nov–2002 Jun||(New position), President appointed|
|terrorism czar||Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism||Brennan, John O.||2009||President appointed||Barack Obama|
|trade czar||Senior Policy Advisor in the White House on behalf of the United States Trade Representative.||Mary Ryckman||2012||Appointed by USTR Michael Froman in 2012 She also represents the USTR on the President's Council on Women and Girls.|
|transportation czar||Director, Office of Defense Transportation||Eastman, Joseph Bartlett||1941–1944||(New position), Exec order, President appointed||Franklin Roosevelt|
|Johnson, J. Monroe||1944–1949||President appointed|
|urban affairs czar||Director of the White House Office of Urban Affairs Policy||Carrion, Adolfo||2009–2010||Exec Order, President appointed||Barack Obama|
|war czar||Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Advisor for Iraq and Afghanistan||Lute, Douglas||2007–2009||(New position), President nominated, Senate confirmed||George W. Bush||✓|
|2009–2010?||(Held over from prior administration) President Bush nominated, Senate confirmed||Barack Obama|
|weapons czar||Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (AT&L)||Carter, Ashton||2009||President nominated, Senate confirmed|
|weapons of mass destruction czar, nonproliferation czar||Special Assistant to the President and White House Coordinator for Arms Control and Weapons of Mass Destruction, Proliferation, and Terrorism||Samore, Gary||2009–2013||President appointed|
|weatherization czar||Program Manager, Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program, U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)||Sperling, Gil||2008–Unknown||Career incumbent, retained from George W. Bush administration|
|George W. Bush|
|COVID-19 czar||Counselor to the President of the United States||Zients, Jeff||2021–Present||President appointed||Joe Biden|
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- Kall, Rob. "Meet the $700 Billion Bailout Czar, Neel Kashkari",Huffington Post, Sep 6, 2008, Archived by WebCite. Horowitz, Jed. "TARP Czar: AIG bailout isn't start of larger program", Investment News, Nov 10, 2008, "Archived by WebCite". Thomas LOC Presidential Nominations. PN1044-110, nominated Nov 15, 2007, confirmed Jun 27, 2008.
- Andres, Gary and Griffin, Patrick "Using czars in W.H. to focus on policy", Politico, Apr 27, 2009. Press office. "Herbert M. Allison, Jr. Confirmed as Assistant Secretary for Financial Stability" Archived 2009-07-15 at the Wayback Machine, U.S. Department of Treasury, Jun 19, 2009. Thomas LOC Presidential Nominations. PN390-111, confirmed Jun 19, 2009.
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- Ellingwood, Ken. "'Border Czar' Ends a Highly Visible Reign", Los Angeles Times, Jun 28, 1998.
- "Secretary Napolitano Appoints Alan Bersin", U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Apr 15, 2009. Dibble, Sandra. "Bersin to focus on violence in 2nd tour as border czar", Union-Tribune, Apr 16, 2009. Not a new position, no Senate confirm required. 2008 Plum Book, p. 79, GPOAccess.gov.
- Walczak, Lee "Q&A with the OMB's Mitch Daniels Bush's budget czar talks about the $1.35 trillion tax cut plan", Business Week Online Extra, May 21, 2001, Archived by WebCite. Thomas LOC Presidential Nominations. PN101-107 Confirmed Jan 23, 2001, PN682-108, resigned Jun 3, 2003
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- AP. "Truman Announces McGrath's Resignation Few Hours After Attorney General Fires Morris", Ellenburg Daily Record, Apr 3, 1952 Retrieved Sep 1, 2009
- Cary, Annette. DOE cleanup czar to visit Richland, Wash, nuclear reservation, Tri-City Herald, Nov 9, 2004. Thomas LOC Presidential Nominations. PN362-107, confirmed Jul 12, 2001. PN521-109, successor confirmed Jul 29, 2005.
- Thomas LOC Presidential Nominations. PN521-109, confirmed Jul 29, 2005. Hot topics."Rispoli Resigning As DOE Cleanup-Czar" Energy Daily, Nov 6, 2008
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- Franke-Ruta, Garance."Stern Appointed Climate Change Envoy", Washington Post, Jan 26, 2009. Allen, Mike."Secretary Clinton names climate czar", Politico, Jan 26, 2009, Archived by WebCite.
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- Albanesius, Chloe President Bush Approves 'Copyright Czar' Bill, October 13, 2008.
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- Time, Apr 24, 1978. Loeb, Marshall. "What Might Have Been",Time, Nov 6, 1978. Glassman, James K. Close, But No Big Czar, ReasonOnLine.com, Dec 18, 2000.
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- "Bush Backs Creation of Intelligence Czar", Thomas LOC Presidential Nominations. PN329-109, confirmed Apr 21, 2005. "Negroponte picked for intelligence czar",MSNBC.com, Feb 17, 2005.  "White House Counsel Harriet Miers Resigns, Negroponte to Shift Seats" Fox News, Jan 04, 2007.
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- "Questionable concern about mine safety", San Diego Union Tribune, Aug 23, 2007. "The deeper danger of Crandall Canyon", Los Angeles Times, Aug 23, 2007. "Richard Stickler: Mine Safety Czar Fails To Live Up To His Name[permanent dead link] Utah Mining Association Newsletter, Jan 8, 2008. Position is Presidential Appointment, Senate Confirmed per 2008 Plum Book 2008 Plum Book Archived 2009-08-09 at the Wayback Machine.
- "History of Minuteman Missile Sites, National Park Service, 1995, archived by WebCite. "Knowland tells why he backed Gardner delay", LA Times Archives, Aug 20, 1954. "The Administration, Trevor & the Missiles", Time, Feb 20, 1956.
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- "Hendersno Quits Price Czar Job", St. Petersburg Times, Jan 17, 1943. Exec Order establishing the Office of Price Administration and Civilian Supply, Apr 11, 1941. Press Conference, Apr 11, 1941. "Henderson Quits:Capital Expects Brown to Head OPA", New York Times, Dec 17, 1942.
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- Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy. "National Reading Czar to Leave Public Sector for Teacher Ed. Venture". "Education Week", Jun 8, 2005. "G. Reid Lyon, PhD—Ex-officio Member of the President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education" Archived 2009-05-13 at the Wayback Machine, Archived Information, U.S Department of Education, Dec 13, 2001.
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- "Bush picks Gen. Lute as "war czar" for Iraq", Stolberg, Sheryl. , New York Times, May 16, 2007. Thomas LOC Presidential Nominations. PN599-110 confirmed Jun 28, 2007.
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