List of parties to the Environmental Modification Convention

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Participation in the Environmental Modification Convention
  Parties
  Only signed
  Non-signatory

The list of parties to the Environmental Modification Convention encompasses the states who have signed and ratified or acceded to the international agreement prohibiting military use of environmental modification techniques.

On May 18, 1977, the Environmental Modification Convention (ENMOD) was opened for signature. North Yemen became the first state to deposit the treaty on 20 July 1977. The treaty came into force and closed for signature on October 5, 1978. Since then, states that did not sign the treaty can now only accede to it. The instrument of ratification, accession, or succession is deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations

As of 2015, 77 states have ratified or acceded to the treaty, most recently Kyrgyzstan on 15 June 2015. A further 16 states have signed but not ratified the treaty.

As of March 2013 the third review conference had not been scheduled as there were under 10 respondents showing interest in reconvening.[1][2]

List of parties[edit]

State[1][2][3] Signed Ratified or Acceded Method
 Afghanistan Oct 22, 1985 Accession
 Algeria Dec 19, 1991 Accession
 Antigua and Barbuda Oct 25, 1988 Succession from  United Kingdom
 Argentina Mar 20, 1987 Accession
 Armenia May 15, 2002 Accession
 Australia May 31, 1978 Sep 7, 1984 Ratification
 Austria Jan 17, 1990 Accession
 Bangladesh Oct 3, 1979 Accession
 Belarus May 18, 1977 Jun 7, 1978 Ratification as  Byelorussian SSR
 Belgium May 18, 1977 Jul 12, 1982 Ratification
 Benin Jun 10, 1977 Jun 30, 1986 Ratification
 Brazil Nov 9, 1977 Oct 12, 1984 Ratification
 Bulgaria May 18, 1977 May 31, 1978 Ratification
 Cameroon Apr 18, 2011 Accession
 Canada May 18, 1977 Jun 11, 1981 Ratification
 Cape Verde Oct 3, 1979 Accession
 Chile Apr 26, 1994 Accession
 China Jun 8, 2005 Accession
 Costa Rica Feb 7, 1996 Accession
 Cuba Sep 23, 1977 Apr 10, 1978 Ratification
 Cyprus Oct 7, 1977 Apr 12, 1978 Ratification
 Czech Republic Feb 22, 1993 Succession from  Czechoslovakia
Signed 18 May 1977
Ratified 12 May 1978
 Denmark May 18, 1977 Apr 19, 1978 Ratification
 Dominica Nov 9, 1992[4] Succession from  United Kingdom
 Egypt Apr 1, 1982 Accession
 Estonia Apr 14, 2011 Accession
 Finland May 18, 1977 May 12, 1978 Ratification
 Germany May 18, 1977 May 24, 1983 Ratification as  West Germany
Also  East Germany
Signed 18 May 1977
Ratified 25 May 1978
 Ghana Mar 21, 1978 Jun 22, 1978 Ratification
 Greece Aug 23, 1983 Accession
 Guatemala Mar 21, 1988 Accession
 Honduras Aug 16, 2010 Accession
 Hungary May 18, 1977 Apr 19, 1978 Ratification
 India Dec 15, 1977 Dec 15, 1978 Ratification
 Ireland May 18, 1977 Dec 16, 1982 Ratification
 Italy May 18, 1977 Nov 27, 1981 Ratification
 Japan Jun 9, 1982 Accession
 Kazakhstan Apr 25, 2005 Accession
 Kuwait Jan 2, 1980 Accession
 Kyrgyzstan Jun 15, 2015 Accession
 Laos Apr 13, 1978 Oct 5, 1978 Ratification
 Lithuania Apr 16, 2002 Accession
 Malawi Oct 5, 1978 Accession
 Mauritius Dec 9, 1992 Accession
 Mongolia May 18, 1977 May 19, 1978 Ratification
 Netherlands May 18, 1977 Apr 15, 1983 Ratification
 New Zealand Sep 7, 1984 Accession,
includes  Cook Islands
and  Niue
 Nicaragua Aug 11, 1977 Sep 6, 2007 Ratification
 Niger Feb 17, 1993 Accession
 North Korea Nov 8, 1984 Accession
 Norway May 18, 1977 Feb 15, 1979 Ratification
 Pakistan Feb 27, 1986 Accession
 Panama May 13, 2003 Accession
 Papua New Guinea Oct 28, 1980 Accession
 Poland May 18, 1977 Jun 8, 1978 Ratification
 Romania May 18, 1977 May 6, 1983 Ratification
 Russia May 18, 1977 May 30, 1978 Ratification as  Soviet Union
 Saint Lucia May 27, 1993[5] Succession from  United Kingdom
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Apr 27, 1999[6] Succession from  United Kingdom
 Sao Tome and Principe Oct 5, 1979 Accession
 Slovakia May 28, 1993 Succession from  Czechoslovakia
Signed 18 May 1977
Ratified 12 May 1978
 Slovenia Apr 20, 2005 Accession
 Solomon Islands Jun 19, 1981 Succession from  United Kingdom
 South Korea Dec 2, 1986 Accession
 Spain May 18, 1977 Jul 19, 1978 Ratification
 Sri Lanka Jun 8, 1977 Apr 25, 1978 Ratification
 Sweden Apr 27, 1984 Accession
  Switzerland Aug 5, 1988 Accession
 Tajikistan Oct 12, 1999 Accession
 Tunisia May 11, 1978 May 11, 1978 Ratification
 Ukraine May 18, 1977 Jun 13, 1978 Ratification as  Ukrainian SSR
 United Kingdom May 18, 1977 May 16, 1978 Ratification
 United States May 18, 1977 Jan 17, 1980 Ratification
 Uruguay Sep 16, 1993 Accession
 Uzbekistan May 26, 1993 Accession
 Vietnam Aug 26, 1980 Accession
 Yemen May 18, 1977 Jul 20, 1977 Ratification as  North Yemen
 South Yemen also acceded 12 June 1979 prior to Yemeni unification.

States that have signed but not ratified[edit]

State[1][2][3] Signed
 Bolivia May 18, 1977
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
Signed as  Zaire
Feb 28, 1978
 Ethiopia May 18, 1977
 Holy See May 27, 1977
 Iceland May 18, 1977
 Iran May 18, 1977
 Iraq Aug 15, 1977
 Lebanon May 18, 1977
 Liberia May 18, 1977
 Luxembourg May 18, 1977
 Morocco May 18, 1977
 Portugal May 18, 1977
 Sierra Leone Apr 12, 1978
 Syria Aug 4, 1977
 Turkey May 18, 1977
 Uganda May 18, 1977

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Convention on the prohibition of military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques". United Nations Treaty Series. Retrieved 2015-03-01. 
  2. ^ a b c "Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD)". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2015-03-01. 
  3. ^ a b "Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques". United States Department of State. Retrieved 2015-03-01. 
  4. ^ The U.S. Department of State lists Dominica as giving notice that it would continue to be bound by the treaty on 8 November 1978.
  5. ^ The U.S. Department of State lists Saint Lucia as giving notice that it would continue to be bound by the treaty on 22 February 1979.
  6. ^ The U.S. Department of State lists Saint Vincent and The Grenadines as giving notice that it would continue to be bound by the treaty on 27 October 1979.