Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey
There are 81 provinces in Turkey (Turkish: il). Among the 81 provinces, thirty are designated metropolitan municipalities (Turkish: büyükşehir belediyeleri). Metropolitan municipalities are subdivided into districts (Turkish: ilçe), where each district includes a corresponding district municipality, which is a second tier municipality.
The first metropolitan municipalities were established in 1984. These were the three most populous cities in Turkey, namely; İstanbul, Ankara and İzmir. In each metropolitan municipality a number of second level municipalities (ilçe) were established. In 1986, four new metropolitan municipalities were established in Adana, Bursa, Gaziantep and Konya. Two years later the total number was increased to eight with the addition of Kayseri. In 1993, seven new metropolitan municipalities were established in Antalya, Diyarbakır, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Mersin, Kocaeli and Samsun. Following the earthquake of 1999, Sakarya was also declared a metropolitan municipality.
Before 2004, only the urban centers with a population more than 750,000 were declared metropolitan centers. However, in 2004, the concept of metropolitan municipality was redefined in Istanbul and Kocaeli, where from then on metropolitan municipality borders would overlap with provincial borders. In 2012, this was extented to other metropolitan municipalities. Thus, all provinces with a population in excess of 750,000 were declared metropolitan municipality and accordingly the number of metropolitan municipalities has sharply increased. The following 13 cities became metropolitan municipality:
List of metropolitan areas
|Metropolitan municipalities||Date of establishment||Population (2013)||Population (2014)||Number of districts|
Since the total population of Turkey is 77.695.904, these 30 provinces make up 77% of the total.
- Formerly named İçel.
- Formerly the center city of Kocaeli Province was İzmit, which is now a district
- The population of Ordu Province was more than 750,000 limit in 2013
- Formerly the center city of Sakarya Province was Adapazarı, which is now a district
- Statistical Institute page
- Law act no 5216 (Turkish)
- Belleten of legislation (Turkish)
- Art no 3306 (Turkish)
- Art no 3391 (Turkish)
- Art no.3398 (Turkish)
- Art no 3399 (Turkish)
- Art no 3508 (Turkish)
- Decree no 504 (Turkish)
- Art no 593 (Turkish)
- Art no 6360 (Turkish)
- CNN Turk news (Turkish)
- Statistical Institute 2013
- Statistical Institute 2014