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Mullingar

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Mullingar

An Muileann gCearr
Town
The Cathedral of Christ the King, May 2007
Mullingar is located in Ireland
Mullingar
Mullingar
Location in Ireland
Coordinates: 53°31′21″N 7°20′16″W / 53.5224°N 7.3378°W / 53.5224; -7.3378Coordinates: 53°31′21″N 7°20′16″W / 53.5224°N 7.3378°W / 53.5224; -7.3378
CountryIreland
ProvinceLeinster
CountyWestmeath
Government
 • Dáil ÉireannLongford–Westmeath
 • Local authorityWestmeath County Council
Elevation
101 m (331 ft)
Population
 (2016)
 • Total20,928
Time zoneUTC±0 (WET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (IST)
Eircode routing key
N91
Telephone area code+353(0)44
Irish Grid ReferenceN425523
WebsiteOfficial website Edit this at Wikidata

Mullingar (/ˌmʌlɪnˈɡɑː/[6] muhl-in-GAR; Irish: An Muileann gCearr, meaning "the incorrect mill, because it turned in a counter-clockwise fashion") is the county town of County Westmeath in Ireland. It is the 3rd most populous town in the midlands region, with a population of 20,928 in the 2016 census.[7]

The Counties of Meath and Westmeath Act 1543 proclaimed Westmeath a county, separating it from Meath. Mullingar became the administrative centre for County Westmeath. The town was originally named Maelblatha, and takes its modern name from a mill noted in the legend of Colman of Mullingar.[8]

Traditionally a market town serving the large agricultural hinterland, Mullingar remains a significant commercial location. It had a tradition of cattle-trading until 2003 when its cattle market was closed for development of a mixed commercial and residential scheme called Market Point. However, in 2014 the local County Council have allowed an annual Christmas Market to take place on Mount Street.

Mullingar has a number of neighbouring lakes, including Lough Owel, Lough Ennell and Lough Derravaragh. Lough Derravaragh is also known for its connection with the Irish legend of the Children of Lir. The town of Mullingar is linked to Lough Ennell via Lacy's Canal and the River Brosna. Another nearby waterway is the Royal Canal, which loops around Mullingar.

Local government and politics[edit]

Westmeath County Council is the local authority for Westmeath. The county council comprises two constituencies or "municipal districts". Mullingar town is in the Mullingar Municipal District which comprises thirteen members.[9]

The town is part of the Longford–Westmeath constituency for elections to Dáil Éireann.

There is a Chamber of Commerce in Mullingar, and Mullingar is one of the three towns that forms the Midlands Gateway region,[10] along with Athlone and Tullamore, set up as part of the Government's National Spatial Strategy 2002–2020.

Tourism[edit]

Mullingar's main tourist attractions are its lakes – Lough Owel, Lough Derravaragh and Lough Ennell – which are visited by anglers and the Royal Canal which flows through the Town. Also nearby is Belvedere House and Gardens. The town has several hotels. The Greville Arms Hotel has latterly begun creating a mini-museum, and also holds the two Brit awards presented to Niall Horan.[11][12] James Joyce's connection with the hotel is marked on the premises. In the rooftop garden, there stands a large granite monument which formerly stood at Dominick Street. It was presented to the town by Lord Greville.

One of Mullingar's notable buildings is the cathedral of Christ the King Mullingar, the cathedral of the Diocese of Meath. The cathedral was dedicated on the day World War II broke out.

Columb Barracks, which closed in March 2012, was a military base which housed the 4th Field Artillery Regiment, the 4th Field Supply & Transport Company[13] and the HQ of the 54 Reserve Field Artillery Regiment (Army Reserve). The 1916 Centenary Monument Green Bridge Mullingar was unveiled by Cllr Billy Collentine MCC on Easter Monday 2017. Mullingar Tidy Towns were the organisation that built this monument in memory of the 1916 Easter Rising.[14]

1916 Monument

Mullingar Town Park (Irish: Páirc Bhaile an Mhuilinn Chearr) is a public park located in Mullingar, Co. Westmeath, Ireland. The park includes a wide variety of playgrounds, a swimming pool and a large pond near the centre. On 22 July 2016, the park became one of 22 public spaces in Ireland to be awarded a Green Flag.[15]

Economy[edit]

Among Mullingar's exports are items of pewterware produced by Mullingar Pewter.[16] Also associated with Mullingar is Genesis Fine Art, which produces gift items. The "Pilgrims" sculpture on Mullingar's Austin Friars Street, at which location there once stood an Augustinian Friary, was crafted by Genesis on foot of a commission by the Mullingar chapter of Soroptimists International.

Mullingar's commercial sector has expanded in recent years[when?] from just a few shops on the town's main thoroughfares – Oliver Plunkett Street, Austin Friars Street, and Mount Street – to several major shopping areas. There is an out-of-town retail park at Lakepoint (about 1.6 km from the town centre), the Harbour Place Shopping Centre near the town centre, and a development at the Green – on the site of the former Avonmore and Penneys units.

The town has a mix of local retailers and chain stores, and branches of the major banks. The town also has a credit union, Mullingar Credit Union (formerly known as St. Colman's House).[17]

A proposed development, named "Mullingar Central", was to have been located between Mount Street, the Railway station and Blackhall Street. Planning permission was granted for retail, commercial and residential units. Phase 1, which included tax offices, library, civic offices and County Council buildings was officially opened on 11 June 2009.[18] Phase 2, however, did not proceed.[19]

The Famine Memorial Fountain and a millstone, recalling the origin of the town's name
Castle Street is one of the town's high streets

Mullingar contains several industrial estates including Lough Sheever Corporate Park and Clonmore Industrial Estate and Mullingar Business Park. The Industrial Development Authority (IDA) also has a business park at Marlinstown. As of 2015, only one plot on the site has been acquired by an employer, Patterson Pumps, which is constructing a new plant to which it intends moving its entire Irish operation from its current location, at Mullingar Business Park.[20][21] Two of the town's manufacturing plants – Penn tennis balls and Tarkett[22] – both closed in the early 2000s causing many job losses. Other local employers include the Midland Regional Hospital at Mullingar,[23] P.E.M. Engineering,[24] Trend Technologies,[25] Taconic International,[26] and Mullingar Pewter.[16]

The town is home to a €25m Lidl warehouse and distribution centre.

Mullingar has a Chamber of Commerce which represents almost 200 businesses from varying commercial sectors.[27]

Transport[edit]

Road[edit]

The Royal Canal

Mullingar lies near the national primary route N4, the main DublinSligo road, 79 km (49 mi) from the capital. The N52 also connects Mullingar to the Galway-Dublin M6 motorway at Athlone to the southwest, and Kells, Ardee and Dundalk to the northeast. The town is served by Bus Éireann services to Dublin, Athlone (where passengers can catch connecting buses), Sligo, Cavan, Tullamore and Ballina.

Waterway[edit]

In the 19th century the town was served for a time by the Royal Canal – however displaced first by the railway and then the car, it is no longer commercially used for the transport of goods or people.[citation needed] The town of Mullingar is also linked to Lough Ennell via Lacy's Canal and the River Brosna.

Railways[edit]

The Midland Great Western Railway line to Mullingar from Dublin opened in stages from 1846 to 1848, arriving in Mullingar on 2 October 1848. This was to a temporary station, adjacent to the greyhound stadium. The original mainline ran from Dublin (Broadstone Station) to Galway via Mullingar, then via Moate to Athlone, the Mullingar to Galway section opening in August 1851. The present station opened with the branch line to Longford on 14 December 1855.

There were two secondary stations in Mullingar, Canal Crossing cattle bank was on the Sligo Line and on the Athlone Line, Newbrook racecourse had its own station. This was a two-platformed station with both platforms on the Down Line.

These days, the Dublin-Sligo railway line northwest to Longford and Sligo is the mainline, Galway is accessed from Heuston Station via Portarlington and the line between Mullingar and Athlone is currently disused. Mullingar station is served by national rail company Iarnród Éireann's Arrow commuter services to Dublin and InterCity trains to/from Sligo.

The Railway Preservation Society of Ireland have a secondary base in the town. There is a photo survey of the disused Athlone Line via Moate.

Healthcare[edit]

Midland Regional Hospital, Mullingar

The Midland Regional Hospital at Mullingar serves the Longford-Westmeath area. An extension was built in the early 1990s.[28] A change in government, however, halted investment and the extension lay as an empty shell until late 2006 when funding was finally secured to ensure its completion.[citation needed] There are several other hospitals in the town: St Loman's, which provides psychiatric services to the Irish Midlands; St Mary's, a care centre for older people; and the St Francis Private Hospital.

Education[edit]

The town has several primary schools. Those run under the Catholic ethos are Presentation NS, St Mary's NS and St Colman's NS, as well as the Irish language primary school, Gaelscoil an Muileann. All Saints NS is a Church of Ireland School. Other schools serving the town are the Educate Together NS; Gaelscoil an Choilin, at Cullion, and Curraghmore NS. Second-level schools are Coláiste Mhuire, the town's oldest post-primary school, St Finian's College; Loreto College[29] and Mullingar Community College.[30] Coláiste Mhuire is primarily a boys school,[31] however, the repeat Leaving Certificate class is co-educational.[32] Just to the north of Mullingar on the old Longford Road is St Finian's College. Until 2003, St Finian's was an all-boys boarding school; however, in 2003 the decision was made to phase out the boarding school by 2007, and to admit girls as well as boys.[33] Loreto College for girls is the largest secondary school in the town,[29] while Mullingar Community College is a co-educational school for boys and girls.[30] The Community College also runs evening courses for adults and awards the FETAC certificates.

Wilson's Hospital School, a co-educational boarding school, operates under the patronage of the Church of Ireland (Anglican Communion). It is located in the nearby village of Multyfarnham. It serves day-students from the Mullingar area.

Culture[edit]

Earl Street, Mullingar, in the late 19th century

Media[edit]

Two print newspapers serve the community: the Westmeath Examiner[34] and the Westmeath Topic.

Music[edit]

The Mullingar Town Band was founded in 1879 by Father Polland as a Holy Family Confraternity Band.[35] The local military barracks supplied some of the early members, who themselves were serving members of the British Regimental bands stationed in Mullingar. The Mullingar Confraternity Band remained under the auspices of the Confraternity until the 1940s, when it was handed over to a committee and continued under the title of Mullingar Brass and Reed Band. The band has a dual role as a concert band and a marching band (the latter known as the Celtic Crusaders).[36] In 2017, the Celtic Crusaders won the Irish Marching Band Association League.[37]

First opened in 1989, "The Stables" is a music venue in Mullingar, which critic and writer Ronan Casey described as an "essential" stop for national touring acts.[38]

Niall Horan, born and raised in Mullingar, is a member of the boy band One Direction. Horan has won four Brit Awards and four MTV Video Music Awards with One Direction. Niall Breslin, from the band The Blizzards, is also from Mullingar. The Academic is another local band.

Live venues include the Mullingar Arts Centre, the Greville Arms, and the Mullingar Park Hotel.

In popular culture[edit]

Knockdrin Castle, which lies outside Mullingar town

In Doubt, a 2008 film adaptation of the John Patrick Shanley stage play, starring Meryl Streep and Philip Seymour Hoffman, the town is referenced in dialogue between the main character, Sister Aloysius (Streep), and the school caretaker.

Mullingar featured on Three Men in a Boat on BBC 2 on 30 December 2009, in an episode called "Three Men Go to Ireland". Dara Ó Briain, Rory McGrath and Griff Rhys Jones were greeted by a large crowd on the Market Square and spent a night at the Mullingar Greyhound Stadium during this episode where Dara O'Briain's dog Snip Nua raced.

The Furey Brothers also sang "The Reason I Left Mullingar", a song written in 1980 by Pat Cooskey.[39]

The song "Ode in Praise of The City of Mullingar", was written by William J Macquorn Rankine.[40]

Mullingar is mentioned in the song "The Rocky Road to Dublin" by The Dubliners. It is one of the few songs in the 2009 film, Sherlock Holmes that was not composed for the film.[41]

The town is also associated with Irish author James Joyce, who was an occasional visitor to Mullingar during his youth. Joyce's father, John, was a civil servant posted from Dublin to compile an electoral register of Mullingar and the surrounding townlands. He often stayed in the Greville Arms Hotel. James referred to Mullingar in three of his novels, mentioning it twelve times in Ulysses,[42] in chapter 14 of Stephen Hero,[43] and three times in Finnegans Wake.[44][45][46][47][note 1]

Mullingar was mentioned at the end of the song "Horse Outside" by the Rubberbandits, in which the bridesmaid was promised a horse-back ride out to Mullingar.

Pat of Mullingar is an Irish rebel song.

Outside Mullingar, a play by John Patrick Shanley. Starred Will and Grace star Debra Messing.

Sport[edit]

Athletics[edit]

Mullingar has a tradition in athletics with the club Mullingar Harriers producing many international athletes and several Olympians. Bobby Begley was Irish Team Manager when Eamonn Coughlan won the 5,000 meters World Championship in Helsinki.

GAA[edit]

There are seven G.A.A. football clubs in the Mullingar area: Mullingar Shamrocks,[48] St. Loman's Mullingar, Ballymore GAA, Raharney GAA, St. Mary's GAA and The Downs[49] and Shandonagh are the senior teams. St Oliver Plunkett's[50] and Cullion respectively facilitate both senior and intermediate hurling players. The Westmeath GAA team plays its home games at Cusack Park. Mullingar also supports women's teams including Mullingar Shamrocks and St Lomans Mullingar.

Football[edit]

Mullingar has three adult football teams; Mullingar Athletic (who play in Gainstown),[51] Mullingar Town (who have their grounds in D'Alton Park), and Hibernian Celtic AFC (who play their home games in the Raithin community pitch which is shared with Grange Utd, an under 18 side).[citation needed]

Tennis and badminton[edit]

Tennis clubhouse and courts

The facilities of the Mullingar Tennis and Badminton Club include eight outdoor tennis courts and a hall containing two badminton courts.[52][53] The club was founded in 1892 by members of the Uisneach Badminton Club.

Greyhound racing[edit]

Greyhound Track, Lynn, Mullingar

When programmed, greyhound track racing occurs upon the Lynn Greyhound track on Thursday and Saturday evenings. For television broadcasting purposes, races are interlaced with those from Shelbourne Dublin. The track featured on the BBC 'Three Men Go to Ireland' show where Dara O'Briain's dog Snip Nua raced.

Golf[edit]

Mullingar Golf Club, view from carpark

Mullingar Golf Club was created in 1953,[54] and hosts an annual competition, the Mullingar Scratch Cup, every August. This competition has been won by Des Smyth, Pádraig Harrington, Darren Clarke, and Paul McGinley. The 2006 winner was Rory McIlroy.[55]

Boxing[edit]

Two-time Olympian boxer John Joe Nevin is from Mullingar. He won a silver medal in the bantamweight competition at the 2012 Summer Olympics.[56]

Hockey[edit]

Mullingar Hockey Club is based in Loreto College and was formed in 1979. The club has two men's teams, one ladies' team and an underage section.[57]

Club Logo Jpeg copy.jpg

Snooker[edit]

Westmeath Snooker Ranking events are hosted by St Mary's Snooker Club Mullingar. The four ranking events are the Midland Open, St Marys Open Classic, Westmeath Championships & the Mullingar Open Snooker Championship at all levels.[citation needed]

Other sports[edit]

Mullingar Hockey Club

Mullingar rugby football club is located in Cullionbeg. The club also made it to the 1989 towns cup final.[58]

There has been an Australian Rules Football team, the Midland Tigers – based in the town since 2000.[59]

In basketball, the Mullingar Monarchs club was formed in 2001 and is one of the most decorated in the Midland League.[citation needed] The Mullingar Dragons, formed in 2007, play in the North-Eastern Basketball League.[60][61]

The Cricket club is based on the St. Finian's ground in Mullingar, and fields men's teams in Leinster and Midland Cup and league competitions.[citation needed]

Lakeside Wheelers Mullingar Cycling club, previously known as Mullingar Cycling Club, is affiliated to Cycling Ireland.[62]

The Mullingar Jets Swimming Club is based in the town swimming pool located in Mullingar Town Park.

Mullingar Equestrian Centre, outside the town, hosts competitions and offers lessons.[63] Other schools in the area include Ladestown House Riding Stables and Catherinestown Riding School.[64][65] Studs include Tally Ho Stud,[66] Cleaboy Stud,[67] and Charlestown Stud.[68]

Notable people[edit]

Climate[edit]

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[72] With a yearly mean of 9.3 degrees Celsius, Mullingar is the coldest place in Ireland.

Climate data for Mullingar (1979–2008, extremes 1943–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.8
(56.8)
15.4
(59.7)
20.5
(68.9)
22.6
(72.7)
25.5
(77.9)
29.8
(85.6)
29.7
(85.5)
29.5
(85.1)
25.5
(77.9)
22.9
(73.2)
17.3
(63.1)
14.6
(58.3)
29.8
(85.6)
Average high °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
7.9
(46.2)
9.8
(49.6)
12.1
(53.8)
14.9
(58.8)
17.3
(63.1)
19.2
(66.6)
18.9
(66.0)
16.7
(62.1)
13.2
(55.8)
9.9
(49.8)
7.9
(46.2)
12.9
(55.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
4.7
(40.5)
6.3
(43.3)
8.1
(46.6)
10.6
(51.1)
13.2
(55.8)
15.2
(59.4)
14.8
(58.6)
12.8
(55.0)
9.7
(49.5)
6.7
(44.1)
5.0
(41.0)
9.3
(48.7)
Average low °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
1.5
(34.7)
2.8
(37.0)
4.1
(39.4)
6.3
(43.3)
9.2
(48.6)
11.1
(52.0)
10.8
(51.4)
8.9
(48.0)
6.2
(43.2)
3.5
(38.3)
2.2
(36.0)
5.7
(42.3)
Record low °C (°F) −14.9
(5.2)
−12.2
(10.0)
−9.2
(15.4)
−4.4
(24.1)
−2.6
(27.3)
0.2
(32.4)
3.4
(38.1)
2.1
(35.8)
−0.1
(31.8)
−4.4
(24.1)
−6.9
(19.6)
−14.1
(6.6)
−14.9
(5.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 91.7
(3.61)
72.0
(2.83)
78.3
(3.08)
62.1
(2.44)
68.7
(2.70)
70.5
(2.78)
61.8
(2.43)
80.8
(3.18)
73.8
(2.91)
102.1
(4.02)
82.4
(3.24)
97.1
(3.82)
941.3
(37.06)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 19 17 20 15 16 16 16 17 17 19 18 19 209
Average snowy days 5.0 4.4 3.5 1.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 2.7 17.8
Average relative humidity (%) 83.4 77.8 72.8 68.1 67.1 69.1 69.9 70.6 72.1 77.0 82.2 85.9 74.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.8 70.6 99.2 147.0 179.8 150.0 142.6 142.6 117.0 99.2 66.0 49.6 1,319.4
Mean daily sunshine hours 1.8 2.5 3.2 4.9 5.8 5.0 4.6 4.6 3.9 3.2 2.2 1.6 3.6
Source: Met Éireann[73][74][75]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mullingar appears in Ulysses in the Calypso episode; in Lotus Eaters; twice in Hades; in Lestrygonians; in Nausicaa; twice in Oxen of the Sun; in Circe; in Eumaeus; and twice in Ithaca. The town is also mentioned three times in Finnegans Wake in Book 1, Section 6, page 138, line 19; in Book 2, Section 2, page 286, line 21; and in Book 2, Section 3, page 345, line 34. Mullingar does not appear in Dubliners nor in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Census for post 1821 figures. Archived 20 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Cso.ie.
  2. ^ Histpop.org Archived 7 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) 2013 Archived 17 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Nisranew.nisra.gov.uk (27 September 2010).
  4. ^ Lee, JJ (1981). "On the accuracy of the Pre-famine Irish censuses". In Goldstrom, J. M.; Clarkson, L. A. (eds.). Irish Population, Economy, and Society: Essays in Honour of the Late K. H. Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  5. ^ Mokyr, Joel; O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700–1850". The Economic History Review. 37 (4): 473–488. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x. hdl:10197/1406.
  6. ^ "Mullingar". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  7. ^ "Population Distribution – CSO – Central Statistics Office". www.cso.ie. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  8. ^ From: Betha Colmáin Maic Lúacháin, or, The Life of Colmán son of Lúachan Life of Colman of Lynn Archived 14 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine alternatively, one may find where the old copy of the original has been many years in France Bibliothèque de Rennes Archived 17 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "Westmeathcoco.ie". westmeathcoco.ie. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  10. ^ MidlandGateway.ie Archived 12 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "Why there's no place like Niall Horan's home". Irish Examiner. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  12. ^ "Local Attractions". www.grevillearmshotel.ie. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  13. ^ "Westmeath Examiner - Responses flood in following publication of old gort photo". Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  14. ^ "News Updates". Mullingartidytowns.com. Archived from the original on 19 November 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  15. ^ "Green Flags awarded to 22 public spaces in Ireland". RTE.ie. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  16. ^ a b Mullingar Pewter, Gifts of a Lifetime Archived 19 May 2004 at the Wayback Machine. Mullingarpewter.com.
  17. ^ "Mullingar Credit Union, Oliver Plunkett Street". www.buildingsofireland.ie. National Inventory of Architectural Heritage. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  18. ^ €40m county buildings officially opened Archived 24 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Advertiser.ie (19 June 2009).
  19. ^ "Rejuvenating Mullingar". Irish Independent. 19 March 2008. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
  20. ^ "International Manufacturer Aims to Create 65 Skilled Jobs in Ireland by 2020". IDA Ireland. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  21. ^ "Westmeath jobs boost announced". Westmeath Independent. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  22. ^ Tarkett Group Archived 1 October 2004 at the Wayback Machine. Tarkett.com.
  23. ^ Mullingar Hospital
  24. ^ PEM Ireland Archived 26 September 2004 at the Wayback Machine. Pem.ie.
  25. ^ Injection Moulding, Plastic Mouldings, Medical Devices, Automotive Components -Trend Technologies Archived 18 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Trendtechnologies.ie.
  26. ^ Taconic Corporate Homepage Archived 21 September 2004 at the Wayback Machine. 4taconic.com.
  27. ^ "About Us". www.mullingarchamber.ie. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  28. ^ "Midland Regional Hospital, Mullingar" (PDF). Sisters of Mercy. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  29. ^ a b "Index of /". www.loretomullingar.com. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2009.
  30. ^ a b "Mullingar Community College". www.mullingarcc.ie. Archived from the original on 18 November 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  31. ^ "The History of Coláiste Mhuire - The Hevey Institute". www.cbsmullingar.ie. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  32. ^ "Repeat Leaving Certificate (6R)". www.cbsmullingar.ie. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  33. ^ "Seat of Learning". Maroon and White, Westmeath GAA yearbook. Irish Identity. 2003. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  34. ^ "Westmeath Examiner". Westmeath Examiner. Archived from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  35. ^ Mullingar Town Band website – History Archived 5 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Aughey, Olga (21 May 2019). "Town Band to mark 140 years of history with major concert". Westmeath Examiner. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  37. ^ O'Loughlin, Brian (6 September 2017). "Mullingar Town Band Celtic Crusaders win All Ireland title". Westmeath Examiner. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  38. ^ Casey, Ronan. "The Stables celebrates twenty years". Ronan Casey. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  39. ^ Cooksey, Pat. "PAT COOKSEY – The Reason I Left Mullingar Lyric". www.patcooksey.com. Archived from the original on 21 February 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  40. ^ Rankine, William John Macquorn (17 November 1874). "Songs and fables. Illus. by F.B". Glasgow J. Maclehose. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2017 – via Internet Archive.
  41. ^ Sherlock Holmes Soundtrack Is Anything But Elementary Archived 29 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Reelsoundtrack.wordpress.com.
  42. ^ Online-literature.com Archived 19 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  43. ^ James Joyce's Stephen Hero Archived 29 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, robotwisdom.com, Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  44. ^ Searchable online text of Finnegans Wake Archived 8 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, Canada. Retrieved 3 August 2010. (Note that this e-text contains errors, many of which are listed at F.W.E.E.T. Archived 12 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine)
  45. ^ Finnegans Wake: Book 1, Section 6, page 138, line 19 Archived 30 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Trent University. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  46. ^ Finnegans Wake: Book 2, Section 2, page 286, line 21 Archived 8 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine, in left hand column. Trent University. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  47. ^ Finnegans Wake: Book 2, Section 3, page 345, line 34 Archived 1 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Trent University. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  48. ^ Mullingar Shamrocks Archived 9 October 2002 at the Wayback Machine. Mullingar Shamrocks.
  49. ^ The Downs GAA Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Naduntagaa.com.
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Mullingar at Wikimedia Commons