|Current season, competition or edition:|
2019–20 NFL playoffs
|No. of teams||12|
14 (starting with 2020–21 NFL playoffs)
|Kansas City Chiefs|
|Most titles||Green Bay Packers|
The National Football League (NFL) playoffs are a single-elimination tournament held after the regular season to determine the NFL champion. Seven teams from each of the league's two conferences qualify for the playoffs. A tie-breaking procedure exists if required. The tournament culminates in the Super Bowl: the league's championship game in which two teams, one from each conference, play each other to become world champion.
NFL postseason history can be traced to the first NFL Championship Game in 1933, though in the early years, qualification for the game was based solely on regular-season records. From 1933 to 1966, the NFL postseason generally only consisted of the NFL Championship Game, pitting the league's two division winners (pending any one-game playoff matches that needed to be held to break ties in the division standings). After 1967, the playoffs were expanded to allow four teams to qualify for the tournament. When the league merged with the American Football League (AFL) in 1970, the playoffs were expanded to eight teams. The playoffs were expanded to ten teams in 1978 and twelve teams in 1990. They are scheduled to expand to 14 teams in 2020.
Among the major professional sports leagues in the United States, the NFL postseason is the oldest continuously run playoffs to use a single-elimination tournament in all of its rounds. Major League Baseball (MLB) has traditionally used "best-of" series formats, first holding its Wild Card postseason round in 2012. Major League Soccer (MLS) did not begin to use a full single-elimination tournament until 2019. Both the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the National Hockey League (NHL) continue to use "best-of" series formats.
Current playoff system
|Schedule for the NFL playoffs|
|Wild Card||Jan 4–5||Jan 9–10||Jan 8–9||Jan 7–8|
|Divisional||Jan 11–12||Jan 16–17||Jan 15–16||Jan 14–15|
|Conference||Jan 19||Jan 24||Jan 23||Jan 22|
The 32-team National Football League is divided into two conferences, the AFC and NFC, with 16 teams each. Since 2002, each conference has been further divided into four divisions of four teams each. Qualification into the playoffs works as follows:
- The four division champions from each conference (the team in each division with the best overall record) are seeded 1 through 4 based on their overall won-lost-tied record.
- Three wild-card qualifiers from each conference (the three teams with the best overall record of all remaining teams in the conference) are seeded 5, 6, and 7.
The names of the first two playoff rounds date back to the postseason format that was first used in 1978, when the league added a second wild-card team to each conference. The first round of the playoffs is dubbed the wild-card round (or wild-card weekend). In this round, the second-seeded division winner hosts the seventh-seeded wild card, the third hosts the sixth, and the fourth hosts the fifth. There are no restrictions regarding teams from the same division matching up in any round. The top seed from each conference receives a bye in the first round which automatically advances them to the second round. The second round is dubbed the divisional round. The top seed hosts the lowest-seeded surviving seed from the first round (seed 4, 5, 6, or 7), and the other two winners from the wild-card round play each other with the higher seed having home-field advantage. The two surviving teams from each conference's divisional-round playoff games then meet in the respective AFC and NFC Conference Championship games (hosted by the higher seed). The winners of those contests go on to face one another in the Super Bowl which is played at a pre-determined neutral site.
One disadvantage to the system is that the teams with the two best records in a conference could play each other before the conference championship if they are in the same division. The better team would be seeded #1, while the lesser team would be seeded #5 as the top wild-card team, and as shown in the diagram, it is possible for the #1 division winner to play the top wild-card team in the divisional round. Another disadvantage is that the division a team is in can have a greater impact than their regular-season record. For example, the 2010 Seattle Seahawks won the NFC West with a 7–9 record and hosted a playoff game, while the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and New York Giants missed the playoffs that season despite going 10–6 and defeating Seattle in the regular season by huge margins (the current format which expanded the playoffs from six to seven teams per conference helps mitigate this issue to a degree since the New York Giants would have made the playoffs in 2010 as the number 7 seed).
The New York Giants and New York Jets have shared the same home stadium since 1984 (Giants Stadium from 1984 to 2009, and MetLife Stadium since 2010). Thus, if both teams need to host playoff games on the same weekend, they are required to play on separate days, even during the Conference Championship round when both games are normally scheduled the same day. The only time such a scheduling conflict has occurred was during Wild Card weekend in 1985, when only 10 teams qualified for the postseason and there were only two wild-card games. Instead of playing both Wild Card games on the same day, as was the case when the 10-team system was used from 1978 to 1989, the Jets hosted their game Saturday, December 28, before the Giants hosted their game on Sunday, December 29. This same scheduling conflict could occur for the Los Angeles Chargers and Los Angeles Rams, who began sharing SoFi Stadium in 2020.
Often, teams will finish a season with identical records. It becomes necessary, therefore, to devise means to break these ties, either to determine which teams will qualify for the playoffs, or to determine seeding in the playoff tournament. The rules below are applied in order until the tie is broken. If three teams are tied for one playoff spot and the third team is eliminated at any step, the tie breaker reverts to step one for the remaining two teams. If multiple playoff spots are at stake, the rules are applied in order until the first team qualifies, then the process is started again for the remaining teams.
The tie-breaking rules have changed over the years, with the most recent changes being made in 2002 to accommodate the league's realignment into eight four-team divisions; record vs. common opponents and most of the other criteria involving wins and losses were moved up higher in the tie-breaking list, while those involving compiled stats such as points for and against were moved to the bottom.
The current tiebreakers are as follows, with coin tosses used if all of the criteria fail:
|Divisional tiebreakers||Conference tiebreakers|
The NFL introduced overtime for any divisional tiebreak games beginning in 1940, and for championship games beginning in 1946. The first postseason game to be played under these rules was the 1958 NFL Championship Game between the Baltimore Colts and New York Giants (the so-called "Greatest Game Ever Played"), decided by a one-yard touchdown run by Colt fullback Alan Ameche after eight minutes and fifteen seconds of extra time. Overtime under the original format was sudden death, the first team to score would be declared the winner.
In March 2010, the NFL amended its rules for postseason overtime, with the rule being extended into the regular season in March 2012. If a team scores a touchdown, or if the defense scores a safety on its first possession, it is declared the winner. If it scores a field goal on its first possession, however, it then kicks off to the opposing team, which has an opportunity to score; if the score is tied again after that possession, true sudden death rules apply and whoever scores next will win. Double overtime & thereafter is just true sudden death.
Since postseason games cannot end in a tie, unlike the preseason or regular season, additional overtime periods are played as necessary until a winner is determined. Furthermore, all clock rules apply as if a game had started over. Therefore, if the first overtime period ends with the score still tied, the teams switch ends of the field prior to the second overtime. If a game was still tied with two minutes to go in the second overtime, there would be a two-minute warning (but not during the first overtime period as in the regular season). And if it were still tied at the end of the second overtime, there would be a kickoff to start a third overtime period. Although a contest could theoretically last indefinitely, or last multiple overtime periods like several National Hockey League postseason games, no NFL playoff game has ever gone past two overtime periods. The longest NFL game played to date is 82 minutes, 40 seconds: Miami Dolphins kicker Garo Yepremian made the walk-off 37-yard field goal after 7:40 of the second overtime to defeat the Kansas City Chiefs, 27–24, in an AFC playoff game on December 25, 1971.
|Length of game||Date||Away team||Score||Home team||Winning score|
|82:40||December 25, 1971||Miami Dolphins||27–24||Kansas City Chiefs||Garo Yepremian 37-yard field goal|
|77:54†||December 23, 1962||Dallas Texans||20–17||Houston Oilers||Tommy Brooker 25-yard field goal|
|77:02||January 3, 1987||New York Jets||20–23||Cleveland Browns||Mark Moseley 27-yard field goal|
|76:42||January 12, 2013||Baltimore Ravens||38–35||Denver Broncos||Justin Tucker 47-yard field goal|
|75:43||December 24, 1977||Oakland Raiders||37–31||Baltimore Colts||Dave Casper 10-yard touchdown pass from Ken Stabler|
|75:10||January 10, 2004||Carolina Panthers||29–23||St. Louis Rams||Steve Smith 69-yard touchdown pass from Jake Delhomme|
|† AFL game prior to the AFL–NFL merger.|
Playoff and championship history
The NFL's method for determining its champions has changed over the years.
From the league's founding in 1920 until 1932, there was no scheduled championship game. From 1920–1923, the championship was awarded to a team by a vote of team owners at the annual owners' meeting. From 1924–1932, the team having the best winning percentage was awarded the championship (the de facto standard owners had been using anyway). As each team played a different number of games, simply counting wins and losses would have been insufficient. Additionally, tie games were not counted in the standings in figuring winning percentage (under modern rules, ties count as ½ win and ½ loss). There was a head-to-head tiebreaker, which also was weighted toward the end of the season: for two teams that played each other twice, each winning once, the team winning the second game was determined to be the champion (the criteria used to decide the 1921 title).
1932 playoff game
In 1932, the Chicago Bears (6–1–6) and the Portsmouth Spartans (6–1–4) were tied at the end of the season with the identical winning percentage of .857 (the Green Bay Packers (10–3–1) had more wins, but a lower winning percentage (.769) as calculated under the rules of the day, which omitted ties). An additional game was therefore needed to determine a champion. It was agreed that the game would be played in Chicago at Wrigley Field, but severe winter weather and fear of a low turnout forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium. The game was played under modified rules on a shortened 80-yard dirt field, and the Bears won with a final score of 9–0. As a result of the game, the Bears had the better winning percentage (.875) and won the league title. The loss gave the Spartans a final winning percentage of .750, and moved them to third place behind the Packers. While there is no consensus that this game was a real "championship" game (or even a playoff game), it generated considerable interest and led to the creation of the official NFL Championship Game in 1933.
Before the Super Bowl
Given the interest of the impromptu "championship game", and the desire of the league to create a more equitable means of determining a champion, the league divided into two conferences beginning in 1933. The winners of each conference (the first place teams in the conferences) met in the NFL Championship Game after the season. There was no tie-breaker system in place; any ties in the final standings of either conference resulted in a playoff game being played in 1941, 1943, 1947, two games in 1950, and one each in 1952, 1957, 1958, and 1965. Since the venue and date of the championship game were often not known until the last game of the season had been played, these playoff games sometimes resulted in delaying the end of the season by one week.
The playoff structure used from 1933 to 1966 was considered inequitable by some because of the number of times it failed to match the teams with the two best records in the championship game, as only the conference winners would qualify for playoff contention. Four times between 1950 and 1966 (in 1951, 1956, 1960, and 1963) the team with the second-best win-loss record did not qualify for the playoffs while the team with the best record in the other conference, but only the third-best in the league, would advance to the championship game.
For the 1967 NFL season, the NFL expanded to 16 teams, and split its two conferences into two divisions each, with four teams in each division. The four division champions would advance to the NFL playoffs, and to remain on schedule, a tie-breaker system was introduced. The first round of playoffs determined the conference's champion and its representative in the NFL Championship Game, played the following week. Thus, 1967 was the first season there was a scheduled playoff tournament to determine the teams to play for the NFL Championship.
During the three years (1967–69) that this playoff structure was in effect, there was one use of the tie-breaker system. In 1967, the Los Angeles Rams and Baltimore Colts ended the season tied at 11–1–2 for the lead in the Coastal Division. The Colts came into the last game of the season undefeated, but were beaten by the Rams. Though the Colts shared the best win/loss record in the NFL that year, they failed to advance to the playoffs while three other teams with worse records won their divisions. This event figured into the decision in 1970 to include a wild-card team in the playoff tournament after the AFL–NFL merger.
During the 1960s, a third-place playoff game was played in Miami, called the Playoff Bowl. It was contested in early January following the 1960–69 seasons. Though official playoff games at the time they were played, the NFL now officially classifies these ten games (and statistics) as exhibitions, not as playoff games.
AFL and AAFC playoffs
Since it would eventually merge with the NFL, the history of the AFL's playoff system merits some explanation. For the 1960–68 seasons, the AFL used the two-divisional format identical to the NFL to determine its champion. There was no tie-breaker system in place, so ties atop the Eastern Division final standings in 1963 and Western Division in 1968 necessitated playoff games to determine each division's representative in the championship.
For the 1969 season, a first round was added whereby each division winner played the second-place team from the other division. The winners of these games met in the AFL Championship Game. In the only year of this format, the AFL Champion Kansas City Chiefs were the second-place team in the Western division. The Chiefs went on to win Super Bowl IV that season, thus becoming the first non-division winner to win a Super Bowl.
During its brief history, the AAFC, which would merge into the NFL for the 1950 season, used an identical playoff format to the NFL from 1946 to 1948. In 1949 (its last year), the AAFC would merge its two conferences when one of its teams folded, and use a four-team playoff system. In 1948, the aforementioned issue of playoff inequity came into play when the San Francisco 49ers would miss the playoffs with a 12–2 record; they were in the same conference as the 14–0 Cleveland Browns, who would go on to win the Western Conference and then the AAFC's championship game against the 7–7 Buffalo Bills (AAFC).
Super Bowl and merger
The Super Bowl began as an inter-league championship game between the AFL and NFL, an idea first proposed by Kansas City Chiefs owner Lamar Hunt. This compromise was the result of pressures the upstart AFL was placing on the older NFL. The success of the rival league would eventually lead to a full merger of the two leagues.
From the 1966 season to the 1969 season (Super Bowls I–IV) the game featured the champions of the AFL and NFL. Since the 1970 season, the game has featured the champions of the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).
When the leagues merged in 1970, the new NFL (with 26 teams) reorganized into two conferences of three divisions each. From the 1970 season to the 1977 season, four teams from each conference (for a total of eight teams) qualified for the playoffs each year. These four teams included the three division champions, and a fourth wild-card team.
Originally, the home teams in the playoffs were decided based on a yearly rotation. From 1970 to 1974, the divisional playoff round rotated which of the three division champions would have home field advantage, with the wild-card teams and the teams they would face in the divisional playoff game would never have home field advantage throughout the playoffs. Starting in 1970, the divisional playoff games consisted of the AFC Central champions and the NFC West champions playing their games on the road. Then in 1971 it rotated to the AFC East champions and the NFC East champions playing their games on the road. In the 1972 divisional playoff games, the AFC West champions and the NFC Central champions were the visiting teams. And 1973 it would start all over with the AFC Central and NFC West again, and so on.
The rotation system led to several playoff inequities, such as:
- In 1971, the teams with the two best records in each conference met in the divisional round.
- In 1972, the Dolphins had to take their perfect record to Three Rivers Stadium to face the Pittsburgh Steelers, who went 11-3, in the AFC championship game.
- In 1973, the Cowboys finished 10-4 but hosted two 12-2 teams, the Los Angeles Rams and Minnesota.
The league did not institute a seeding system for the playoffs until 1975, where the surviving clubs with the higher seeds were made the home teams for each playoff round. Thus, the top seeded division winner played the wild-card team, and the remaining two division winners played at the home stadium of the better seed (which meant that the lowest-seeded division winner had to open the postseason on the road). However, two teams from the same division could not meet prior to the conference championship game. Thus, there would be times when the pairing in the divisional playoff round would be the 1 seed vs. the 3 seed and 2 vs. 4.
Following an expansion of the regular season from 14 to 16 games in 1978, the league added one more wild-card team for each conference. In a format similar to what the MLB currently uses, the two wild-card teams played the week before the division winners. The winner of this game played the top seeded division winner as was done from 1970–1977. The league continued to prohibit intra-divisional games in the divisional playoffs, but allowed such contests in the wild-card round. This ten-team playoff format was used through the 1989 season. Under this system, the Oakland Raiders became the first wild-card team to win a Super Bowl following the 1980 season.
During the strike-shortened 1982 season, only nine regular season games were played, and a modified playoff format was instituted. Divisional play was ignored (there were some cases where division rivals had both games wiped out by the strike, although each division ultimately sent at least one team to the playoffs), and the top eight teams from each conference (based on W-L-T record) were advanced to the playoffs. As a result, this became the first time that teams with losing records qualified for the playoffs: the 4–5 Cleveland Browns and the 4–5 Detroit Lions.
Several times between 1978–89, the two wild-card games had to be played on different days. Normally they both would be held on Sunday. In 1983 and 1988, the games were split between Saturday and Monday because Sunday was Christmas, and the NFL had avoided playing on that day at the time. In 1984, both games were played in the Pacific Time Zone, so they had to be played on Saturday and Sunday to accommodate for time differences. In 1985, both the New York Giants and Jets hosted wild-card games. As they have shared a home stadium since 1984, the games had to be played on different days.
For the 1990 season, a third wild-card team for each conference was added, expanding the playoffs to the current twelve teams. The lowest-seeded division winner was then "demoted" to the wild-card weekend. Also, the restrictions on intra-divisional games during the divisional playoffs were removed.
The 2001 season became the first time that playoff games were played in prime time. Thus, the league no longer had the same restrictions like in 1984 as to when to schedule games in the Pacific Time Zone.
The 1990 format continued until the 2002 expansion and reorganization into eight divisions. In this format (from 2002-2019), as explained above, the four division winners and two wild cards are seeded 1–6, with the top two seeds receiving byes, and the highest seed in each round guaranteed to play the lowest seed. Seedings also determine the home-field advantage.
A limitation of the 12-team format was that division winners, including one with a .500 regular season record or a losing season, could play a home playoff game against a wild card teams who had superior regular season records. Home field advantage does not guarantee success, however; during the 2015–16 season, every road team won their respective playoff game, the first such occurrence in NFL history. Through 2019 however, NFL owners remained adamant that every division winner should still be rewarded with a home playoff game regardless of record.
Calls to expand the playoffs to 14 teams began in 2006. Proponents of expansion noted the increased revenue that could be gained from an additional two playoff games. They also noted that the 12-team playoff system was implemented when the league still had 28 teams, four fewer than the 2002 expansion. The opposition to such a move notes that an expansion of the playoffs would "water down" the field by giving access to lower-caliber teams. Opponents to expansion further point to the NBA playoffs and the NHL playoffs where more than half of the teams qualify for the postseason, and there is often a decreased emphasis on regular season performance as a result. In October 2013, NFL commissioner Roger Goodell announced plans to revisit the idea to expand the playoffs to 14 teams, with the increased revenue gained from the two additional postseason games being used to offset plans to shorten the preseason. The 14-team playoff proposal remained tabled until December 2014, when no team in the NFC South could finish better than .500; Goodell stated that the league would vote on it at the March 2015 Owners' Meetings. However, by February 2015, the Washington Post reported that support among team owners had eroded, and league leaders expressed reluctance to make a change until the end of the 2015 season. The proposal then lost all interest by 2017.
NFL playoff appearances
Correct as of 2019 NFL postseason.
*Tiebreaker playoff appearances based on the team with the more recent playoff appearance.
Appearances by active teams
- Dating back to when the NFL playoffs were first held in 1933, the Green Bay Packers have nine NFL titles before the Super Bowl era, and four Super Bowl championships afterwards.
- Does not include the appearance in the 1932 NFL Playoff Game. The NFL officially records it as an additional regular season game
- Includes American Football League postseason appearances. Per the conditions of the AFL–NFL merger, all history, playoffs and records of the AFL were incorporated into the NFL.
- The NFL does not officially recognize the Cleveland's Browns' playoff appearances and records from 1946 to 1949 when they were part of the All-America Football Conference.
- The Baltimore Ravens were originally the Cleveland Browns, and moved to Baltimore in 1996. Due to an agreement with the city of Cleveland that allowed the club to move, the Browns name, colors, and team history/records were left for a new Cleveland Browns team while the team, personnel, and staff of the old Browns team were allowed to move to Baltimore. As such, the Ravens are considered to have begun play in 1996 while the current Cleveland Browns are considered to have joined the NFL in 1950, were inactive from 1996–98, and resumed play as a new team in 1999.
- Active NFL playoff appearance streaks
- List of NFL playoff games
- National Football League championships
- NFL playoff results
- NFL starting quarterback playoff records
- "NFL Champions 1920-2018". ProFootballHOF.com. NFL Enterprises, LLC. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- "NFL Playoff Procedures and Tiebreakers". Yahoo! Sports. December 31, 2006. Archived from the original on January 10, 2010. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
- "NFL Football Playoff Bracket". CBS Sportsline. Archived from the original on May 23, 2007. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
- "FoxSports.com – NFL Tiebreaking Procedures". December 9, 2006. Archived from the original on December 30, 2008. Retrieved December 25, 2008.
- NFL Tiebreaking Procedures
- "Colts win 23-17 in overtime". Milwaukee Sentinel. Associated Press. December 29, 1958. p. 4, part 2.
- Maule, Tex (January 5, 1959). "The best football game ever played". Sports Illustrated. p. 8.
- "2011 Official Rules and Case Book of the National Football League" (PDF). Rule 16, Section 1, Article 4, Paragraph d
- Banks, Don (December 22, 2011). "Remembering the Christmas gift that was The Longest Game Ever". SI.com. Retrieved January 6, 2012.
- "Field goal gives Miami overtime win". Lewiston Morning Tribune. (Idaho). Associated Press. December 26, 1971. p. 19.
- Underwood, John (January 3, 1972). "Up, up up and away!". Sports Illustrated. p. 12.
- "NFL Record and Fact Book – Overtime Games" (PDF). NFL. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "NFL History". NFL.com. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
- 2006 NFL Record and Fact Book. p. 410. ISBN 1-933405-32-5.
- Hickock, Ralph (November 19, 2004). "The 1932 NFL Championship Game". HickokSports.com. Archived from the original on October 30, 2002. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
- Hickock, Ralph. "NFL Playoff and Championship History". HickokSports.com. Archived from the original on January 25, 2013. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
- "The Playoff Bowl (Bert Bell Benefit Bowl)". Archived from the original on April 15, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2007.
- "1969 Standings". Pro Football Reference. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
- "History of the Wild Card". Pro Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved January 13, 2007.
- "Chasing perfection: 2005 Colts vs. '72 Dolphins". NFL.com. November 22, 2005. Archived from the original on July 19, 2006. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
- "1975 Standings". NFL.com. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
- "1983 Standings". NFL.com. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
- "1980 Standings". Pro Football Reference. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
- "1982 Standings". Pro Football Reference. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
- Platania, Joe "1990 Rule Change Makes Ravens-Steelers Possible" PressBox (Baltimore), January 2011
- "NFL playoff games going prime time". Chicago Tribune. June 13, 2001. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
- "Wild Card weekend makes history as all four road teams win". Fox Sports. January 10, 2016. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
- "Proposal to reseed playoff teams withdrawn by owners". Retrieved January 3, 2011.
- Schefter, Adam (December 9, 2019). "Source: Reseeding playoff teams has 'never been a consideration' for NFL". ESPN. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
- Weisman, Larry (March 22, 2006). "Expanding playoffs, instant replay on NFL owners' agenda". USATODAY.com. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
- Clayton, John (December 30, 2005). "Playoff format is matter of integrity". ESPN.com. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
- "Expanded NFL playoffs eyed for 2015". ESPN. October 9, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- Maske, Mark (February 18, 2015). "Expanded NFL playoffs no longer seen as likely for next season". Washington Post. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- Maske, Mark (June 5, 2017). "Whatever happened to the expanded NFL playoffs? They were going to happen, and then … nothing". Washington Post. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
- Patra, Kevin (March 31, 2020). "Owners approve expanding postseason to 14 teams". NFL.com. NFL Enterprises, LLC. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- Battista, Judy (March 15, 2020). "NFL players approve CBA: Impact on league in 2020 and beyond". NFL.com. NFL Enterprises, LLC. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- "Inside the Numbers". NFL Record & Fact Book 2014. NFL. p. 315. ISBN 978-1618933942.
- "NFL History: 1931–1940". NFL.com. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
After the season finale, the league office arranged for an additional regular-season game to determine the league champion
- 2006 NFL Record and Fact Book. Time Inc. Home Entertainment. ISBN 1-933405-32-5.
- Total Football II: The Official Encyclopedia of the National Football League. Harper Collins. ISBN 1-933405-32-5.
- The Sporting News Complete Super Bowl Book 1995. ISBN 0-89204-523-X.
- Super Bowl History
- Pro-Football-Reference.com – Large online database of NFL data and statistics. Many of the game scores and records in this article can be found there.