Polish Navy

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Polish Navy
Marynarka Wojenna
POL Marynarka Wojenna.svg
Polish Navy's Eagle
Active 1918 - present
Country  Poland
Branch Navy
Size 12,600 military (2016) [1]
Part of Polish Armed Forces
Headquarters Gdynia
Engagements Standing NRF Maritime Group 1
War in Iraq
Commanders
Commander Admiral Tomasz Mathea
Chief of Staff Vice Admiral Ryszard Demczuk
Insignia
Naval Flag PL navy flag IIIRP.svg
Naval Ensign Naval Ensign of Poland.svg
Naval Jack Naval Jack of Poland.svg

The Polish Navy (Polish: Marynarka Wojenna, "War Navy") is the military branch of the Polish Armed Forces responsible for naval operations. The current navy consists of 113 ships (including 5 submarines, 2 frigates, 1 corvette, 3 missile boats - as of 2014) and about 18,000 commissioned and enlisted personnel. The traditional ship prefix in the Polish Navy is ORP (Okręt Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, "Vessel of the Republic of Poland").

The Polish Navy is one of the largest navies on the Baltic Sea and one of the best equipped. It is mostly responsible for Baltic Sea operations. Other duties include search and rescue operations covering parts of the Baltic, as well as hydrographic measurements and research.

Origins[edit]

The Polish Navy has its roots in naval vessels that were largely used on Poland's main rivers in defense of trade and commerce. During the Thirteen Years' War (1454–66), this small force of inland ships for the first time saw real open sea combat. At the battle of Vistula Lagoon, a Polish privateer fleet defeated the Teutonic Knights Navy and secured permanent access to the Baltic Sea. The Second Peace of Thorn (1466) acquired for Poland the strategic naval city of Danzig (Gdańsk), and with it the means of maintaining a large fleet on the Baltic. In 1561, following a victory over Russian Naval forces in the Baltic, the Polish Navy acquired a second key port at Riga, in modern-day Latvia.

At that time, as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania became involved in conflicts in Livonia, Polish king Sigismund II Augustus organized a Sea Commission (Komisja Morska) operating in the years 1568-1572 and supported the operations of privateers, but that met with opposition of the Poland's primary port, Gdańsk (Danzig), which saw them as a threat to its trade operations (see Hanseatic League).[2] This led to the development of a privateer port in Puck.[2]

Defeat of Swedish naval forces, Battle of Oliwa, 1627

Around the start of the 17th century, Poland became ruled by the House of Vasa, and was involved in a series of wars with Sweden (see also dominium maris baltici).[2] Vasa kings attempted to create a proper fleet, but their attempts met with repeated failures, due to lack of funds in the royal treasury (Polish nobility saw little need for the fleet and refused to raise taxes for its construction, and Gdańsk continued its opposition to the idea of a royal fleet).[2] During the reign of Sigismund III of Poland, the most celebrated victory of the Commonwealth Navy took place at the Battle of Oliwa in 1627 against Sweden, during the Polish–Swedish War. The victory over Sweden secured for Poland permanent access to the Atlantic, and laid the foundations for expeditions beyond Europe. The plans for the independent fleet fell through shortly afterwards due to a badly executed alliance with the Habsburgs who in 1629 took over the fleet.[2]

The Commission of Royal Ships (Komisja Okrętów Królewskich) was created in 1625. This commission, along with the ultimate allocation of funds by the Sejm in 1637, created a permanent Commonwealth Navy. Władysław IV Vasa, Sigismund's son and successor who took the throne in 1632, purchased 12 ships and built a dedicated port for the royal navy called Władysławowo.[2] The Fleet, however, was entirely destroyed in 1637 by Denmark, without a declaration of war.[3] Support for this navy was weak and it largely withered away by the 1640s; the remaining ships were sold in the years 1641-1643, which marked the end of the Commonwealth Navy.[2] A small privateer navy was also created by Augustus II the Strong in 1700 during the Great Northern War.[4]

The Duchy of Courland, by the time a fief of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, had a strong navy: it established colonies on Tobago island in the West Indies (named New Courland) and on the estuary of the Gambia River.

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, though the dominant force in Central and Eastern Europe during the 16th-18th centuries, never developed its navy to its full potential. The proportionally small Polish coastline and the limited access to the Atlantic never allowed for a massive buildup of naval forces to the level of colonial powers such as England and France. The Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century brought an end to the independent Polish Navy.

20th century[edit]

Torpedo boat ORP Mazur, one of Polish Navy's first ships after World War I.

Following World War I, the Second Polish Republic on 28 November 1918, by the order of Józef Piłsudski, commander of the Armed Forces of Poland, founded the modern Polish Navy. The token naval force was placed under the command of Captain Bogumił Nowotny as its first chief. The first ships were acquired from a division of the Imperial German Navy (because of Great Britain's politics, it was very small part, limited to six torpedo boats).

In the 1920s and 1930s the Polish Navy underwent a modernisation program under the leadership of Vice-Admiral Jerzy Świrski (Chief of Naval Staff) and Rear-Admiral Józef Unrug (CO of the Fleet). A number of modern ships were built in France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Despite ambitious plans (including 2 cruisers and 12 destroyers), the budgetary limitations placed on the government by the Great Depression never allowed the navy to expand beyond a small Baltic force. The building of one submarine, ORP Orzeł, was partly funded by a public collection. One of main goals of the Polish Navy was to protect the Polish coast against the Soviet Baltic Fleet, therefore it put emphasis on fast submarines, large and heavily armed destroyers and mine warfare. By September 1939 the Polish Navy consisted of 5 submarines, 4 destroyers, big minelayer and various smaller support vessels and mine-warfare ships. This force was no match for the larger Kriegsmarine, and so a strategy of harassment and indirect engagement was implemented.

World War II[edit]

ORP Conrad, a World War II Polish Navy cruiser leased from the Royal Navy.

The outbreak of World War II caught the Polish Navy in a state of expansion. Lacking numerical superiority, Polish Naval commanders decided to withdraw main surface ships to Great Britain to join the Allied war effort and prevent them from being destroyed in a closed Baltic (the Peking Plan). On August 30, 1939, 3 destroyers (ORP Błyskawica, ORP Grom, and ORP Burza) sailed to the British naval base at Leith in Scotland. They then operated in combination with Royal Navy vessels against Germany. Also two submarines managed to flee from Baltic through the Danish straits to Great Britain during the Polish September Campaign (one of them, ORP Orzeł, made a daring escape from internment in Tallinn, Estonia, and traveled without maps). Three submarines were interned in Sweden, while remaining surface vessels were sunk by German aircraft.

During the war the Polish Navy in exile was supplemented with leased British ships, including two cruisers, seven destroyers, three submarines, and a number of smaller fast-attack vessels. The Polish Navy fought alongside the Allied navies in Norway, the North Sea, the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and aided in the escort of Atlantic and Arctic convoys, in which ORP Orkan was lost in 1943. Polish naval vessels played a part in the sinking of the Bismarck, and in the landings in Normandy during D-Day. During the course of the war, one cruiser, four destroyers, one mine layer, one torpedo boat, two submarines and some smaller vessels (gunboats, mine hunters etc.) were sunk; in total, twenty-six ships were lost, mostly in September 1939. In addition to participating in the Bismarck sinking, the Polish Navy sank an enemy destroyer and six other surface ships, two submarines and a number of merchant vessels.

Operations[edit]

The following selection illustrates the breadth of Polish Naval activity.

Postwar[edit]

After World War II, on July 7, 1945, the new Soviet-imposed Communist government revived the Polish Navy with headquarters in Gdynia. During Communist times, Poland's Navy experienced a great buildup, including the development of a separate amphibious force of Polish Marines. The Navy also acquired a number of Soviet-made ships, including 2 destroyers, 2 missile destroyers, 13 submarines and 17 missile boats. Among them was a Kilo-class submarine, ORP Orzeł and a modified Kashin-class missile destroyer, (ORP Warszawa). Polish shipyards produced mostly landing craft, minesweepers and auxiliary vessels. The primary role of the Warsaw Pact Polish Navy was to be Baltic Sea control, as well as amphibious operations along the entire Baltic coastline against NATO forces in Denmark and West Germany. The collapse of the Soviet Union, the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, and the fall of Communism ended this stance.

21st century[edit]

Poland's entrance into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization has greatly changed the structure and role of the Polish Navy. Whereas before, most of Naval High Command was concerned with coastal defense and Baltic Sea Operations, the current mindset is for integration with international naval operations. The focus is on expansion of subsurface naval capabilities, and in the creation of a large submarine force. To facilitate these changes the Republic of Poland has undertaken a number of modernization programs aimed at creating a force capable of power projection around the world. This includes a number of foreign acquisitions, including the acquisition of four Kobben-class submarines from Norway, and two Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates from the United States. The Polish Navy has also one Kilo-class submarine (ORP Orzeł). The Naval air arm has also acquired a number of SH-2G Super Seasprite helicopters. Highly appreciated is a naval commando unit Formoza (since 2007 part of the Wojska Specjalne).

The Polish Navy has taken part in numerous joint force operations. In 1999 the naval base at Gdynia became the home base of all NATO submarine forces in the Baltic, codenamed "Cooperative Poseidon". That same year joint American-Polish submarine training manoeuvres codenamed "Baltic Porpoise" for the first time utilized the port in a multinational military exercise.

Modernization in 2018[edit]

ORP Kormoran
ORP Grom

The Polish Navy is undergoing a full modernization. Initially planned as a 9 billion zloty project, the budget was reduced to 5 billion zloty in 2012 which caused projects delays or cancellations over the allotted time 2010 - 2018.[5] The latest strategy for the navy considers larger warships as unsuitable for the Baltic Sea, however one Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate will be upgraded to extend its operation life beyond 2020. 12 new ships worth around 10 billion PLN were to be acquired before 2026. The plan was updated in 2017 for 2013-2022 period to be worth 13 billion zloty and call to acquire 22 new vessels.[6] This include three Coastal Defence Vessel, code name Miecznik with displacement of 2600 tons, three patrol/mine countermeasure vessel, code name Czapla with 1700 tons displacement.[7][8] Three new submarines are planned with delivery expected in 2024-2025. Three Kormoran 2-class minehunter are planned.[9][10] Other purchases include six tugboats, two tankers, two rescue ships, one ELINT, one logistical support ship and one Joint Support Ship. However some deliveries are expected up to 2026.[6] Meanwhile, to reduce costs, serving vessels will be upgraded and overhauled to maintain operational status. Concerns have been risen about the Polish Navy, as more vessels are being withdrawn from service without being replaced in the near future.[11][12] With the increased tension in the area surrounding Poland, plans have been put in place to potentially procure up to 3 new submarines with cruise missile launch capability. The cruise missiles carried are planned to have an 800 km range.[13]

In late March 2017, Michał Jach, the chairman of the National Defence Committee in the Polish parliament, suggested that the Polish Navy could buy two Adelaide-class frigates from the Royal Australian Navy. The Polish government has formally expressed their intentions to the Australian government.[14][15]

The Polish Navy has already acquired 36 Swedish RBS15 Mk3.[16] and 50 (50/74) Norwegian Naval Strike Missiles[17] for vessels and coastal defence units. It is planned to reinforce the Navy's helicopter fleet with four to eight ASW/SAR units.[18] The Gawron-class corvettes program has been cancelled with sole surviving unit to be built as a patrol vessel.[5] On 2 July 2015 ORP Ślązak was christened during official launching ceremony, becoming the first new Polish-built Navy ship in 21 years.[19] In June 2013 the Coastal Missile Division (NDR) equipped initially with 12 Naval Strike Missiles and two TRS-15C radars achieved initial readiness.[20]

Naval colors[edit]

The flag of the Polish Navy is a red flag with the emblem of the Polish Armed Forces – Navy on the foreground. The Naval Emblem has an anchor to distinguish it from other Armed Forces branches. It is traditionally flown on naval bases on land, and at the headquarters of naval command in Gdynia.

The naval jack of the Polish navy is based on a traditional 17th Century fighting jack design of a scimitar ready to strike at the enemy. It was first used during the battle of Oliwa in 1627 against Sweden, during the Polish-Swedish War. It is traditionally flown from the bow of the ship, with the ensign at the stern, when in port. The jack used before 1955 and in 1960–93 was similar, but the armed hand was in flesh colour, with blue sleeve. In 1955–59 a different jack was used.

Naval Ensign (1945–93)
Naval Ensign (1945–93)
Naval Jack (1946–55)
Naval Jack (1946–55)
Auxiliary ships' ensign
Auxiliary ships' ensign

Organization and mission[edit]

M-28B Bryza-1RM bis
M-28B Bryza-1R
Mi-14PŁ
SH-2G Super Seasprite
W-3WARM Anakonda
Scheme of painting SAR helicopters in the Polish Navy

The Polish Navy is organized into 2 separate flotillas, and a Naval Air Brigade, reporting to the Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Navy.[21]

  • Operational Headquarters of the Armed Forces in Warsaw
  • Maritime Operations Center - Marine Component Command in Gdynia
  • General Command of the Armed Forces in Warsaw
  • 3 Flotilla Boats in Gdynia
  • Submarine Squadron in Gdynia
  • Squadron of Battle Battles in Gdynia
  • Support Division in Gdynia
  • Hydrographic Security Squadron in Gdynia
  • Group of Reconnaissance Boats in Gdynia
  • Coastal Rocket Squadron in Siemirowice
  • Naval Security Branch in Gdynia
  • 9th anti-aircraft squadron in Ustka
  • 43 sapper battalions in Rozewie
  • Command of the Port of War in Gdynia
  • Hel's Hel Helvet
  • Naval Technical Base in Gdynia
  • 8 Coast Defense Flotilla in Swinoujscie
  • 2nd Division of Transport and Minor Ships in Swinoujscie
  • 12th Division of Trałowców in Swinoujscie
  • 13th Division of Trałowców in Gdynia
  • 8 MW Bombardment Battalion in Dziwnów
  • 8th anti-aircraft squadron in Dziwnów
  • Commander of the War Port in Swinoujscie
  • Command Point of Naval Point in Kołobrzeg
  • Naval Aviation Brigade in Gdynia
  • 43 Maritime Aviation Base in Gdynia
  • 44 Maritime Aviation Base in Siemirowice
  • Information Center for Naval Information and Naval Support in Wejherowo
  • 7 Area of Observation and Communications in Hel
  • 8 Area of Observation and Communications in Swinoujscie
  • Department of Computer Science in Gdynia
  • Naval Hydrographical Office in Gdynia
  • 6 Radio Broadcasting Center in Gdynia
  • Navy Training Center in Ustka
  • Naval Officer School in Ustka
  • Diving and Scuba Diving Training Center of the Polish Army in Gdynia
  • Navy Sailing Training Center in Gdynia
  • Navy Club "Riviera" in Gdynia

In addition to this the Polish Navy supplies nearly 40 ships as part of the NATO Rapid Reaction Force, designed to be a force projection and conflict response force around the world. The main mission of the Polish Navy is the defense of Polish territorial waters, the Polish coastline, and Polish interests abroad. Secondary roles include the support of NATO allied operations, such as in the Middle East, and search and rescue operations throughout the Baltic Sea.

Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Navy[edit]

The current Commander-in-Chief is Vice Admiral Tomasz Mathea[22] Previous Commanders include

Ships and naval aircraft[edit]

The ship is a Navy vessel carrying its Navy flag, commanded by a Naval Officer registered as an officer with a crew subject to military discipline. Navy ships are subject only to the authorities of the Commonwealth and have immunity. Except for the exceptions indicated in the provisions of international law ratified by the Republic of Poland, no authority of a foreign state can intervene in or interfere in the conduct of domestic acts of a marshal. Any attempts at interfering with the ship should be resolutely rescinded, and in the event of a threat to the life of the crew or a serious violation of the immunity of the ship, the Rules of Engagement should be followed and the rules of international law. Exception is a contribution to allied forces in relation to which Allied documents apply, provided that they do not conflict with national laws. On foreign territorial waters, territorial seas and in economic zones and in foreign ports, MW vessels are required to comply with the local coastal state regulations.

Name Unit number Type Photo In service of Notes
Frigates
ORP Gen. K. Pułaski[23] 272 Oliver Hazard Perry OPR Gen K Pułaski.JPG 2000 Ex US Navy
ORP Gen. T. Kościuszko[23] 273 Oliver Hazard Perry ORP Gen. T. Kościuszko.JPG 2002 Ex US Navy
Corvette
ORP Kaszub[24] 240 proj. 620 ORP Kaszub Gdynia.jpg 1987
Patrol Vessel
ORP Ślązak 241 proj. 621M Wodowanie i chrzest ORP „Ślązak” (8).jpg Built on Stealth technology, on the hull of the unfinished Corvette of the Gawron Corvette. Launched on July 2, 2015. Planned entry into service in 2017.
Missile ships
ORP Orkan[25] 421 Orkan ORP Orkan 2012 2 maja Oksywie.JPG 1992
ORP Piorun[25] 422 Orkan ORP Piorun.JPG 1994
ORP Grom[25] 423 Orkan ORP Grom (korweta) 2.JPG 1995
Submarines
ORP Orzeł 291 proj. 877 Paltus (NATO: Kilo) ORP Orzeł foto 3.JPG 1986
ORP Bielik 296 Kobben ORP Bielik.jpg 2002 Raising the Polish flag:
September 8, 2003. Dehydrated on January 27, 1967
ORP Kondor 297 Kobben ORP Kondor (projektu 207).jpg 2002 Raising the Polish flag:
October 20, 2004. Deactivated on June 16, 1964.
ORP Sokół 294 Kobben ORP Sokół 294 2012 2 maja Oksywie.JPG 2003 Raising the Polish flag:
June 4, 2002. Launched on 02.09.1966
ORP Sęp 295 Kobben Ćwiczenia 3 Flotylli Okrętów (06).jpg 2003 Raising the Polish flag:
16 August, 2002. Launched on 24.03.1966 r.
Mines destroyers
ORP Kormoran (2015) 601 proj. 258 (Kormoran II) Próby morskie ORP „Kormoran”.jpg 2017 Launched on September 4, 2015. Planned build of two more Kormoran II units.
ORP Flaming 621 proj. 206FM (Mewa) ORP Flaming 4890.JPG 1966
ORP Mewa 623 proj. 206FM (Mewa) ORP Mewa.JPG 1967
ORP Czajka 624 proj. 206FM (Mewa) 624 ORP Czajka (8643095409).jpg 1967
Minesweepers
ORP Gopło 630 [[proj. 207DM (Gopło) Tralowce bazowe projektu 207.JPG 1982
OORP Gardno, Bukowo, Dąbie, Jamno, Mielno, Wicko,
Resko, Sarbsko, Necko, Nakło, Drużno, Hańcza
631–642 projekt 207P (Gardno) ORP Resko.JPG 1984-1991
OORP Mamry, Wigry, Śniardwy, Wdzydze 643–646 proj. 207M (Mamry)]] ORP Wdzydze.JPG 1992-1994
Okręty transportowo-minowe
ORP Lublin 821 Proj. 767 Lublin ORP Lublin i Świnoujście.jpg 1989
ORP Gniezno 822 proj. 767 Lublin Polish Lublin Class Medium Landing Ship Type 767 1 (dark1).jpg 1990
ORP Kraków 823 proj. 767 Lublin ORP Kraków i Świnoujście.jpg 1990
ORP Poznań 824 proj. 767 Lublin ORP Poznań DN-SD-05-02984.JPEG 1991
ORP Toruń 825 proj. 767 Lublin ORP Torun kz1.jpg 1991
Logistics Support Ships
ORP Kontradmirał Xawery Czernicki 511 proj. 890 ORP Kontradmirał Xawery Czernicki (1).jpg 2001
Tankers
ORP Bałtyk Z-1 proj. ZP-1200 ORP Bałtyk.JPG 1991
Ships radio recognition
ORP Nawigator 262 proj. 863 (Nawigator) 1975
ORP Hydrograf 263 proj. 863 (Nawigator) ORP Hydrograf.JPG 1976
SAR ships
ORP Piast 281 proj. 570 (Piast) ORP Piast DN-SC-94-00863.JPEG 1974
ORP Lech 282 proj. 570 (Piast) ORP Lech 5612.JPG 1974
ORP Zbyszko R-14 proj. 5002 (Zbyszko) ORP Zbyszko.jpg 1991
ORP Maćko R-15 proj. 5002 (Zbyszko) ORP Macko PICT0083.jpg 1992
Hydrographic vessels
ORP Heweliusz 265 proj. 874 (Heweliusz) ORP Heweliusz.JPG 1982
ORP Arctowski 266 proj. 874 (Heweliusz) ORP Arctowski.JPG 1982
Training ships
ORP Iskra 253 proj. B79/II Widok prawej burty2 ORP Iskra.JPG 1982
ORP Wodnik 251 okręty szkolne typu Wodnik ORP Wodnik (projektu 888).jpg 1976 Museum ships
ORP Błyskawica H34 Grom Blyskawica l d.jpg 1937 In line service until 1975, ship museum since 1976.

Aircraft[edit]

Aircraft Origin Type Variant In service[26] Notes
Special Mission
PZL M28B Bryza 1R Poland Maritime Patrol M-28 9
Transport
PZL M28 Skytruck Poland Transport M-28 4
Helicopter
Mil Mi-2 Poland Command & Utility Mi-2 4
Mil Mi-8/17 Soviet Union Transport Mi-17 2
Mil Mi-14 Soviet Union ASW
SAR
Mi-14PŁ
Mi-14PŁ/R
4
2
To be replaced by 8 ASW/SAR units.[27]
SH-2G Super Seasprite USA ASW SH-2G 4
PZL W-3 Sokół Poland SAR W-3WARM
W-3RM
W-3T/SAR
3
3
2
2 W-3T upgraded to W-3WARM

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.bip.mon.gov.pl/pliki/file/wersja%20polska.ppt
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Juliusz Bardach, Boguslaw Lesnodorski, and Michal Pietrzak, Historia panstwa i prawa polskiego (Warsaw: Paristwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe), 1987, p.231
  3. ^ Michael Roberts (27 April 1984). The Swedish Imperial Experience 1560-1718. Cambridge University Press. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-0-521-27889-8. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  4. ^ Jerzy Pertek Polacy na morzach i oceanach: Do roku 1795, p. 176
  5. ^ a b "Rozczarowujące BME 2010". Altair. Retrieved 2012-04-17. 
  6. ^ a b Nowy harmonogram modernizacji MW RP. Altair, January 20th, 2017. (in Polish)
  7. ^ The Polish Navy Development Concept. amberexpo.pl
  8. ^ Miecznik i Czapla częściowo odtajnione. Altair (in Polish)
  9. ^ TECHNICAL MODERNIZATION PLAN FOR ARMED FORCES in the years 2013-2022. (in Polish)
  10. ^ "Polish Navy to Acquire New Submarine". Defense News. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  11. ^ "Gawron na wodzie". Altair. Retrieved 2012-04-17. 
  12. ^ "ORP Pułaski – pływający złom". Altair. Retrieved 2012-04-17. 
  13. ^ "Rakiety dla samolotów, okrętów i wyrzutni naziemnych. Polska armia ostrzy kły". TVN24.pl. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  14. ^ Adamowski, Jaroslaw (29 March 2017). "Poland eyes frigates from Australia, new submarines". Defense News. Warsaw, Poland. Retrieved 14 April 2017. 
  15. ^ Kerr, Julian (30 March 2017). "Ex-RAN FFGs for Poland?". Australian Defence Magazine. Sydney, Australia. Retrieved 14 April 2017. 
  16. ^ "RBS15 Mk 3 Surface to Surface Missile SSM in use". Saab Group. Archived from the original on October 24, 2010. 
  17. ^ "defence.professionals". defpro.com. Retrieved 2012-04-17. 
  18. ^ "Poland evaluates three bids for helicopter acquisition". Retrieved 2017-04-08. 
  19. ^ Defence Minister: We need to expand Polish Navy. 02.07.2015
  20. ^ "Ukompletowanie NDR". Altair. 
  21. ^ "Polish Navy". Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  22. ^ "Polish Navy". Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  23. ^ a b "Oliver Hazard Perry" (in Polish). www.mw.mil.pl. Retrieved 2012-05-29. 
  24. ^ "ORP Kaszub" (in Polish). www.mw.mil.pl. Retrieved 2012-05-29. 
  25. ^ a b c "Małe okręty rakietowe typu ORKAN" (in Polish). www.mw.mil.pl. Retrieved 2012-05-29. 
  26. ^ "World Air Forces 2016". Flightglobal International. Flightglobal International. December 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  27. ^ Poland speeds acquisition of 16 helicopters.

References[edit]

External links[edit]