Religious views on female genital mutilation
Religious views are one of the stipulated reasons for female genital mutilation (FGM) in some parts of the world, along with others such as culture. FGM is found only within and adjacent to Muslim communities, but the practice predates Islam, and is not required by it. There is no unequivocal link between religion and prevalence.
There is a widespread view in several countries, particularly in Mali, Eritrea, Mauritania, Guinea and Egypt, that FGM is a religious requirement. The only Jewish group known to have practiced it are the Beta Israel of Ethiopia.
Female genital mutilation is found mostly in what Gerry Mackie called an "intriguingly contiguous" zone in Africa – east to west from Somalia to Senegal, and north to south from Egypt to Tanzania. Nationally representative figures available as of 2016 suggest that the practice is concentrated in 27 countries in Africa, as well as in Indonesia, Iraqi Kurdistan and Yemen. Over 200 million women and girls are thought to be living with FGM in those 30 countries. As of 2013, 27.2 million women had undergone FGM in Egypt, 23.8 million in Ethiopia, and 19.9 million in Nigeria.:2
Until the 1980s FGM was widely known as female circumcision, which implied an equivalence in severity with male circumcision. According to Amnesty International, FGM has "acquired a religious dimension" and frequently cited to be required by religion by those who practice it. Those who oppose it or do not practice it deny that there is any link between religion and FGM. According to Abdulrahim Rouzi, FGM is prevalent mainly in Muslim countries but contemporary Muslim religious authorities agree that any type of circumcision is condemned by Islam. Any association of FGM with Islam, states Rouzi, is misplaced. According to anthropologist Carla Obermeyer, FGM is found among Muslims and Christians in Africa, and there is no unequivocal link between religion and prevalence. The anthropologist Ellen Gruenbaum, in the 2013 UNICEF study on FGM, states that all three monotheistic religions – Christianity, Judaism, and Islam – "have at times practised female circumcision and consider their practices sanctioned, or at least not prohibited, by God."
Scholars such as the historian William Gervase Clarence-Smith known for his publications on Africa and Islam, and Sharia (Islamic law) scholar Sami Aldeeb suggest religious views have influenced the practice of FGM. There is an ongoing debate as to the extent FGM practice is influenced by religious views, ethnicity and other factors, in different countries.
According to UNICEF, there is a widespread view, particularly in Mali, Eritrea, Mauritania, Guinea and Egypt, that it is a religious requirement.
FGM is found mostly within and adjacent to Muslim communities in Central-North Africa, but it is not required by Islam or practiced in most Muslim countries, and prevalence rates vary according to ethnicity, not religion. However, Muslim views are claimed to have permitted, justified, even encouraged FGM, over human history.
There is no reference to FGM in the Qur'an. In other Islamic texts the practice is referred to as khafḍ (Arabic: خفض) or khifaḍ (Arabic: خِفَض). Khitan (Arabic: خِتان) usually refers to male circumcision, but in some regions or dialects also encompasses FGM. The less severe forms of FGM, particularly what the World Health Organization calls Type I (removal of the clitoral hood with either part of or the entire clitoris), is known as Sunna circumcision.
In addition to Sharia, the Ijtihad (sometimes spelled igtihad) have been one of the four sources of Muslim law through the centuries. Ijtihad include fatwas (opinions of Muslim religious scholars), which are often widely distributed, orally or in writing, in simple language, to the masses, and describe behavior that conforms with religious requirements. Fatwas are considered by most believers to be morally obligatory.
There are dichotomous differences of opinion among Sunni scholars in regards to female genital cutting. These differences of opinion range from obligatory to acceptable. The Shafi'i and Hanbali schools of Islamic jurisprudence consider circumcision to be obligatory for both males and females, while the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Islamic jurisprudence consider circumcision to be Sunnah (preferred) for both males and females.
- Historical religious views
- The Shafi'i school considers female circumcision to be wajib (obligatory).
- The Hanbali school considers female circumcision to be makrumah (honorable) and strongly encouraged, to obligatory.
- The Maliki school considers female circumcision to be sunnah (optional) and preferred.
- The Hanafi school considers female circumcision to be sunnah (preferred).
The differences in jurist opinions focuses around several hadith from the Sunni collections:
- Hadith Sunan Abu Dawood favoring Female Circumcision
A woman used to perform circumcision in Medina. The Prophet said to her: Do not cut severely as that is better for a woman and more desirable for a husband.
Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani describes this hadith as poor in authenticity, and quotes Imam Ahmad Bayhaqi's point of view that it is "poor, with a broken chain of transmission"  Zein al-Din al-Iraqi points out in his commentary on Al-Ghazali's Ihya ulum al-din (I:148) that the mentioned hadith has a weak chain of transmission." Yusuf ibn Abd-al-Barr comments: "Those who consider (female) circumcision a sunna, use as evidence this hadith of Abu al-Malih, which is based solely on the evidence of Hajjaj ibn Artaa, who cannot be admitted as an authority when he is the sole transmitter.
- Hadith Sahih Muslim favoring Female Circumcision
Abu Musa reported: There cropped up a difference of opinion between a group of Muhajirs (Emigrants) and a group of Ansar (Helpers) (and the point of dispute was) that the Ansar said: The bath (because of sexual intercourse) becomes obligatory only-when the semen spurts out or ejaculates. But the Muhajirs said: When a man has sexual intercourse (with the woman), a bath becomes obligatory (no matter whether or not there is seminal emission or ejaculation). Abu Musa said: Well, I satisfy you on this (issue). He (Abu Musa, the narrator) said: I got up (and went) to 'A'isha and sought her permission and it was granted, and I said to her: O Mother, or Mother of the Faithful, I want to ask you about a matter on which I feel shy. She said: Don't feel shy of asking me about a thing which you can ask your mother, who gave you birth, for I am too your mother. Upon this I said: What makes a bath obligatory for a person? She replied: You have come across one well informed! The Messenger of Allah said: When anyone sits amidst four parts (of the woman) and the circumcised parts touch each other a bath becomes obligatory.
Islamic thinker Mohammad Salim al-Awa states that while the hadith is authentic, it is not evidence of support for FGM. He states that the Arabic for "the two circumcision organs" is a single word used to connote two forms of circumcision. He claims that while the female form is used to denote both male and female genitalia, it should be considered to mean only the male circumcised organ. He suggests this hadith is misunderstood because "in Arabic language, two things or persons may be given one quality or name that belongs only to one of them."
- Hadith Al-Muwatta favoring Female Circumcision
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Said ibn al-Musayyab that Abu Musa al-Ashari came to A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said to her, "The disagreement of the companions in a matter which I hate to bring before you has distressed me." She said, "What is that? You did not ask your mother about it, so ask me." He said, "A man penetrates his wife, but becomes listless and does not ejaculate. She said, "When the circumcised part passes the circumcised part ghusl is obligatory Abu Musa added, "I shall never ask anyone about this after you."
- Hadith Sahih Bukhari favoring Female Circumcision
I heard the Prophet saying. "Five practices are characteristics of the Fitra: circumcision, shaving the pubic hair, cutting the moustaches short, clipping the nails, and depilating the hair of the armpits."
This hadith does not specify the gender, and is sometimes claimed to be a basis for circumcision as a religious requirement for both males and females. However, Mohamed Salim Al-Awwa claims it is unclear if some or all of these religious requirements were meant for females, because cutting a mustache is an act typical to men. See also Muslim hygienical jurisprudence.
- Qur'an verse opposing Female Circumcision
"I will mislead them, and I will create in them false desires; I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, and to deface the (fair) nature created by Allah." Whoever, forsaking Allah, takes satan for a friend, hath of a surety suffered a loss that is manifest.
This sura has been interpreted to mean Qur'an forbids man to change nature or mutilate any creature. Islamic scholars against FGM claim that this verse from Qur'an forbids all things that change what nature has meant it to be, including female circumcision and birth control. Some scholars find this religious view unpersuasive, because Muslim male circumcision also mutilates and changes nature, and male circumcision is a practice that is widely considered as obligatory to recommended under Islam.
Fatwas have been justified by Islamic scholars for a number of reasons, two major reasons being to fulfill makrumah granted by Mohammed, and to avoid falling into a taboo behavior. Some scholars suggest makrumah means that female circumcision adds to the man's pleasure. The majority of fatwas that permit or recommend Muslim female circumcision lean toward it being commendable or meritorious act on the part of the woman. Zakariyya Al-Birri argues it is better to carry out female circumcision, while Al-Qaradawi leaves the choice to parents according to their beliefs, in spite of the fact that he favours female circumcision, because it protects girls' morality "especially nowadays" claims Al-Qaradawi.
Similarly, Al-Azhar - one of the most respected universities of the Islamic World in Cairo - has issued a number of fatwas on female circumcision over its history. On June 23, 1951, a fatwa from Al-Azhar declared that it does not recognise the abandonment of female circumcision as an option, and that female circumcision is advisable because it curbs "nature". Moreover, this fatwa declared doctors' opinions on the disadvantages of female circumcision as irrelevant. On January 29, 1981, another fatwa from Al-Azhar was authored and proclaimed by the Grand Sheikh of Al-Azhar. The fatwa insisted that it is impossible to abandon the lessons of Mohammed in favor of the teaching of others, such as doctors, because the science of medicine evolves. The fatwa then recommended to the Islamic community that female circumcision is a duty, and the responsibility of female circumcision lies with the guardian of the girl. In October 1994, the mufti of Egypt publicly declared that hadiths on female circumcision attributed to the Prophet were unreliable; however, within days of this announcement, Shaykh Gad al-Haq Ali of al-Azhar issued a fatwa that female circumcision is a part of the legal body of Islam and is a laudable practice that honors women. Egyptian government, in 1996, banned female circumcision in hospitals and prohibited licensed professionals from performing FGM. However, in 1997, Shaykh Nasr Farid Wasil, Grand Mufti of Egypt, issued a fatwa that female circumcision should be permitted even though it is not obligatory under Islam. Soon after, Egypt's court overturned the government ban on female circumcision in hospitals and by licensed professionals.
In March 2005, Dr Ahmed Talib, Dean of the Faculty of Sharia at Al-Azhar University, stated: "All practices of female circumcision and mutilation are crimes and have no relationship with Islam. Whether it involves the removal of the skin or the cutting of the flesh of the female genital organs... it is not an obligation in Islam." Both Christian and Muslim leaders have publicly denounced the practice of FGM since 1998. A conference at Al-Azhar University in Cairo (December 2006) brought prominent Muslim clergy to denounce the practice as not being necessary under the umbrella of Islam. Although there was some reluctance amongst some of the clergy, who preferred to hand the issue to doctors, making the FGM a medical decision, rather than a religious one, the then Grand Mufti of Egypt, Ali Gomaa signed a resolution denouncing the practice.
Shiite religious texts, such as the hadith transmitted by Imam Al-Sadiq, states, "circumcision is makrumah for women". Makrumah is usually translated as "meritorious action or noble deed, but something that is not religiously obligatory".
Ayatollah Khamenei issued a ruling for Shiite Muslims in Iran, in 2011, declaring FGM as permissible but not obligatory. He also ruled that if the husband of a Muslim woman wants her to get circumcised then, "(the) implementation of husband's order is obligatory for the wife if it does not have disadvantages or it is not harmful for the wife, she has to listen to her husband's request."
Ayatollah Ali al-Husayni Ali al-Sistani of Iraq, in 2010, issued a fatwa that female genital mutilation is not haram. In 2014, Ali al-Sistani issued a revised ruling stating, "If the purpose of female genital circumcision is cutting clitoris this operation is not right and is not a religious tradition. If the girl is hurt, it is prohibited. Female genital (sexual) mutilation or cutting off a part of her genital is certainly a crime against girls and there is no permission and justification for parents to do this operation."
The former Grand Mufti of Egypt Ali Gomaa stated in 2007 that "The traditional form of excision is a practice totally banned by Islam because of the compelling evidence of the extensive damage it causes to women's bodies and minds." Egyptian Islamist scholars such as Mohammed Emara and Mohammad Salim Al-Awa have opposed FGM, arguing that it is not an Islamic practice and is not endorsed by Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh).
In May 2012 it was reported by several news sources that the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt was working to decriminalize FGM. According to reporter Mariz Tadros, they "have offered to circumcise women for a nominal fee as part of their community services, a move that threatens to reverse decades of local struggle against the harmful practice. ... Many of the Brothers (and Salafis) argue that while it is not mandatory, it is nevertheless mukarama (preferable, pleasing in the eyes of God). They also quote hadith (saying attributed to the Prophet) which stipulates that FGM should involve 'cutting, but only lightly'."
In Mauritania, where "health campaigners estimate that more than 70 percent of Mauritanian girls undergo the partial or total removal of their external genitalia for non-medical reasons", 34 Islamic scholars signed a fatwa banning the practice in January 2010. Their aim was to prevent people from citing religion as a justification for genital mutilation. The authors cited the work of Islamic legal expert Ibn al-Hajj as support for their assertion that "[s]uch practices were not present in the Maghreb countries over the past centuries". FGM is "not an instinctive habit, according to the Malkis; therefore, it was abandoned in northern and western regions of the country," added the authors. 
In Gambia, the country's most senior iman, Muhammed Alhajie Lamin Touray, expressed his support for FGM in 2013. He was then President of the Islamic Council, and a year later the president of the country, Yahya Jammeh, named him iman of State House mosque.
Scholars suggest the start and widespread acceptance of FGM in Southeast Asian countries, such as Indonesia and Malaysia, undermines the argument that female circumcision is purely a pre-Islamic custom, or the theory that religion never introduced this practice. Buddhism and Hinduism were the predominant religions in Southeast Asia before the arrival of Islam; male as well as female genital mutilation is prohibited in its religious beliefs. Islam introduced FGM into Indonesia and Malaysia from the 13th century as part of its drive to convert people to Islam. Populations in some islands of Indonesia underwent only partial conversion to Islam in the 17th century. In these islands, only Muslim females are circumcised. Even in modern times, some in Indonesia refer to FGM as an 'Arab custom'.
- Current religious views
Over 80% of Malaysian women claim religious obligation as the primary reason for practicing FGM, with hygiene (41%) and cultural practice (32%) as other major motivators for its prevalence. The 86th conference of Malaysia's Fatwa Committee National Council of Islamic Religious Affairs held in April 2009 announced that female circumcision is part of Islamic teachings and it should be observed by Muslims, with the majority of the jurists in the Committee concluding that female circumcision is obligatory (wajib). However, the fatwa noted harmful circumcision methods are to be avoided.
In Indonesia, FGM is widespread among Muslim women and considered a religious necessity. More than 90% of Muslim adults support the practice to continue. In 2013, the Indonesian Ulema Council - Indonesia's top Muslim clerical body - ruled that it favors FGM, stating that although it is not mandatory, it is still "morally recommended". The Ulema has been pushing Indonesian government to circumcise girls, claiming it is part of Islamic teachings.
Christian authorities unanimously agree that FGM (i.e. clitoridectomy and infibulation) has no foundation in the religious texts of Christianity. Some Christian women, in Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria and Tanzania, however do undergo a procedure of genital mutilation believing it to be a religious requirement.
In Africa, missionaries have tried to discourage FGM (i.e. clitoridectomy and infibulation). However, in some instances, in order to retain converts from other religions, they have either ignored or condoned the continuation of these practices. When in the 1930s European Christians tried to make opposition to FGM a condition of church membership and a test of loyalty, they provoked a far-reaching campaign in colonial Kenya. Mary Nyangweso, a Kenyan researcher who studies "the interplay of religion, culture, and gender", states, "Christianity, it is important to stress, does not advocate the total eradication of the Nandi female initiation rite. Rather it advocates the need to eradicate the practice of female circumcision that involves clitoridectomy and excision because it is physically unhealthy and does not conform to Christian teaching. The initiation rite can continue to be practised and the actual circumcision can be replaced by some other symbolic acts not harmful to women's bodies. This can be derived from the culture itself or Scripture that now forms part of the Nandi way of life."
Regardless of these views, in Ethiopia, there resides a Jewish minority group, often referred to as Falasha or Beta Israel, who practice the procedure of female genital cutting. However, there is still a question to the validity of the Beta Israel's claim. "Non science scholars today excessively rely on the existing religious texts of the Beta Israel to analyze their Jewish heritage and distinctive traits that are not shared with the Abyssinian Christian society. Researches, however, suggest that the sum of authentic Jewish material within the religious texts of the group is small (Devens, 1995, p. ix). Rather, the texts are shown to contain significant borrowings from Christian sources. These conclusions are widely accepted by scholars as supporting evidence to the argument of the traditional theory that the Beta Israel people were originally non-Jewish (Quirin, 2010, p. 5-6)." jewry/
Some animist groups in Africa practice female genital mutilation. Their religious views on the subject are undocumented.
- Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism
- Gerry Mackie, "Ending Footbinding and Infibulation: A Convention Account", American Sociological Review, 61(6), December 1996, pp. 1004–1005,
Quote: "FGM is found only in or adjacent to Islamic groups"
- "Ending Footbinding and Infibulation: A Convention Account", American Sociological Review, 61(6), December 1996, pp. 999–1017
- Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf. "Female Genital Surgeries: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable", Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 13(1), March 1999 (pp. 79–106), p. 88 (also here)
- William G. Clarence-Smith (2012) ‘Female Circumcision in Southeast Asia since the Coming of Islam’, in Chitra Raghavan and James P. Levine (eds.), Self-Determination and Women's Rights in Muslim Societies, Brandeis University Press; ISBN 978-1611682809; see pages 124-146
- Mackie and LeJeune 2008, p. 8: An ethnic or religious explanation of FGM/C is not sufficient since, first, it is practiced in a wide variety of ethnic and religious groups; and second, the practice is not necessarily universal within the broad descriptive group, but is often practiced only within a number of subgroups. Take religion: there are Muslim communities who practice FGM/C, often believing that the practice is required by the holy book. Yet, nearby communities of the same religion may not engage in FGM/C, and worldwide most Muslims do not follow the practice. Religious obligation is an important factor in the decision to practice FGM/C, but is typically just one of several elements within what one WHO report (1999) calls a mental map that incorporates the stories, beliefs, values, and codes of conduct of society, and which are in fact "interconnected and mutually reinforcing and, taken together, form overwhelming unconscious and conscious motivations" for its continuation
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- Mohamed Abdel Wedoud. "Mauritanian Islamic leaders ban genital mutilation". Magharebia. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
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- Sue Lloyd-Roberts (3 September 2013). "Gambian women fleeing female genital mutilation threat". BBC. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
The hold such traditions have in The Gambia was made apparent when I met Muhammed Alhajie Lamin Touray, the country's most senior imam and president of the Islamic Council in The Gambia. "Apart from the religious reasons in favour of female genital mutilation, I have heard on reliable authority that the clitoris makes a woman itch, making her want to scratch all the time and that the clitoris makes water leak from her private parts," he said. To which I retorted, "I have had a clitoris for 60 years and this has never happened to me." "Then you are an exception among women!" he said, laughing. It was the laughing that I found most shocking. It was as if he was admitting to the absurdity of his position. Surely if he truly believes that the mutilation of young girls is ordained by God and is good for women, he would not laugh.
- Touray, Suntou (4 Nov 2014). "Jammeh Dumps State House Imam". KairoNews. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
The Office of the President further wishes to inform the general public that Imam Muhammed Lamin Touray, the President of Supreme Islam Council has been appointed Imam of State House mosque with effect from Tuesday, November 4th, 2014.” a press release from President Jammeh’s office, relayed over national radio and television, read.
- A. Feillard and L. Morcoes (1998), Female Circumcision in Indonesia: To Islamize in Ceremony or Secrecy Persee, Vol. 56, Issue 56, pages 337-367
- Ghadially, R. 1991. "All for 'Izzat': The Practice of Female Circumcision among Bohra Muslims." Manushi 66 (Sep—Oct); pages 17—20
- Robert Hefner (1985), Hindu Javanese: Tengger Tradition and Islam, Princeton University Press, pages 34-39, 142-147, 255-258
- Ali K. (2006), Sexual Ethics and Islam: Feminist Reflections of Qur'an, Hadith, and Jurisprudence, Oxford
- Nocholas Gervaise, Historical description of the Kingdom of Macasar in the East Indies, Westmead, Hampshire, England 1701/1971 Reprint, pages 138-145
- Ahmad Ramali, Peraturan-peraturan untuk memelihara kesehatan dalam hukum sjara' Islam, Balai Pustaka, Jakarta (1951), pages 65-72; National Library of Australia
- The Practice of Female Circumcision in Malaysia Maznah Dahlui, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia (May 10, 2012)
- "A Tiny Cut": Female Circumcision in South East Asia The Islamic Monthly (March 12 20313)
- Malaysia storm over female circumcision ABC News Australia (December 7, 2012)
- A Cutting Tradition Sara Corbett, New York Times (January 20, 2008)
- The day I saw 248 girls suffering genital mutilation Abigail Haworth, The Guardian United Kingdom, (November 17, 2012)
- Female Circumcision in Indonesia Population Council and USAID, September 2003; see pages 24-27 and full report
- "MUI pushes government to circumcise girls". The Jakarta Post. January 22, 2013. Archived from the original on January 25, 2013.
- Caldwell, J. C., Orubuloye, I. O., & Caldwell, P. (1997), Male and female circumcision in Africa from a regional to a specific Nigerian examination, Social Science & Medicine, 44(8), pages 1181-1193
- Jones, S. D., Ehiri, J., & Anyanwu, E. (2004). Female genital mutilation in developing countries: an agenda for public health response. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 116 (2), pages 144-151
- El-Damanhoury, I. (2013). "Editorial: The Jewish And Christian View On Female Genital Mutilation". African Journal of Urology. 19.3: 127–129. doi:10.1016/j.afju.2013.01.004. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Title of 2007 book Female Circumcision: The Interplay of Religion and Culture and Gender in Kenya
- Nyangweso, Mary (2002). "Christ's Salvific Message And The Nandi Ritual Of Female Circumcision" (PDF). Theological Studies. 63.3: 579–600. doi:10.1177/004056390206300307.
- Editors: R.J. Zwi Werblowsky, Wigoder G. (1997), Oxford dictionary of the Jewish religion, New York & Oxford, Oxford University Press
- Kadri, J. (1986). "The Practice Of Female Circumcision In The Upper East Region Of Ghana:". A Survey Report.
- Clarence-Smith, William G (2008). "Islam and Female Genital Cutting in Southeast Asia: The Weight of the Past.". Finnish Journal of Ethnicity & Migration. 3.2: 14–22.
- "Circumcision". Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia: 1. 2014.
- Religious perspectives on FGM by Islamic school (non-English sources)
- The Shafi'i school: Dr. Wahba A;-Zuhayli, Al-Fiqh Al-Islami wa Adillatuhu, 3rd Ed, Damascus 1989, v 1, pages 306-311; al-Sharabāṣī, Aḥmad 1980, Yas'alunak fi'l-din wa'l-hayat, 4th Edition, Vol I, pages 253-254
- The Hanbali school: Rashid Rida, Fatwa Rashid Rida, 1st Edition Beirut 1970, v 1, pp 245–246 (fatwa no. 1904); Sheikh 'Allam Nassar, Al-Fatwa Al-Islamiyaa, Cairo 1982, v6, pp 1985–1986 (see fatwa June 23, 1951);
- The Maliki school: Ibn Babwayhi (1957), Man la Yahduruhu Al-Faqih, 4th Ed, Najf, Vol 3, pages 314-319; Fatwa 'Abd Al-Halim Mahmud, Cairo 1986 vol 2, pages 304-305; Jad Al-Haqq 'Ali Jad Al-Haqq (Jan 29 1981) in Al-Fatwa Al-Islamiyya, Vol 9, pages 3119-3125
- The Hanafi school: Sheikh Muhammad 'Ali 'Abd Al-Rahim, Majallat al-Tawhid, Sha'ban 1408, no 8, pp 20
- Discussion of Quran and Hadiths on FGM (non-English sources)
- Hadiths: 'Abd-al-Raziq, Abu-Bakr: Al-khitan, ra'y ad-din wal-'ilm fi khitan al-awlad wal-banat, Dar Al-i'tissam, Cairo, 1989, page 16; Khallaf, 'Abd-al-Wahhab: Khitan al-banat, in 'Abd-al-Raziq: Abu-Bakr: Al-khitan, ra'y ad-din wal-'ilm fi khitan al-awlad wal-banat, Dar Al-i'tissam, Cairo, 1989; pages 70–79; Shaltut, Dar al-shuruq, Cairo &Beirut, 10th edition, 1980, pages 333-334; Nassar, 'Allam: Khitan al-banat, in Al-fatawi al-islamiyyah min dar al-ifta' al-masriyyah, Wazarat al-awqaf, Cairo, Vol. 6, 1982, p. 1986; also see Chapter III, Paragraph 3, point 2 of the fatwa; Gad-al-Haq, Gad-al-Haq 'Ali: Khitan al-banat, in Al-fatawi al-islamiyyah min dar al-ifta' al-masriyyah, Wazarat al-awqaf, Cairo, Vol. 9, 1983, pages 3119-3125
- Quran: Buti, Muhammad Sa'id Ramadan Al-: Mas'alat tahdid al-nasl wiqayatan wa-'ilagan, Matba'at Al-Farabi, 2nd edition, Damascus, , pp. 33–34; Khatib, Um Kulthum Yahya Mustafa Al-: Qadiyyat tahdid al-nasl fil-shari'ah al-islamiyyah, Al-Dar al-su'udiyyah, 2nd edition, Jeddah, 1982, pp. 143–146