Pallithode

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Pallithode
Village
Pallithode is located in Kerala
Pallithode
Pallithode
Pallithode is located in India
Pallithode
Pallithode
Coordinates: 9°46′42″N 76°16′51″E / 9.778352°N 76.280782°E / 9.778352; 76.280782Coordinates: 9°46′42″N 76°16′51″E / 9.778352°N 76.280782°E / 9.778352; 76.280782
Country India
State Kerala
District Alappuzha
Taluka Chertala
Gram Panchayat Kuthiathode
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
[1]

Pallithode is a village in the Alappuzha district, in the state of Kerala, India, on the shores of the Arabian Sea.[1][2] Pallithode is within the Gram Panchayat of Kuthiathode,[3] Pattanakad Block,[4] of Cherthala Taluk. During the 20th century, more than half of its width was eroded away by the action of river backwaters and the sea. The village is very densely populated and has a wet, maritime tropical climate. It has an important role in the fishing industry.[citation needed]

History[edit]

In ancient times, Pallithode was a border post marking the northern border of the Kingdom of Travancore (16th century to 1947), adjacent to Chellanam, a southern border post of the Kingdom of Cochin (Kochi) (12th century to 1947) and which now marks the southern border of Ernakulam district.[5] The border posts demarcated the kingdom boundaries and controlled trade between the kingdoms,[nb 1] which competed with each other for dominance and territory by means of war and diplomacy.[7] Pallithode, as a border village, felt these struggles more intensely.

The arrival of foreign traders, starting with the Portuguese in 1498, followed by the Dutch, and then the British, made the situation more complex.[8] The kingdoms received military aid from the foreigners to fight one another, and ended up being ruled by them, finally as princely states under the British. Under British administration, trade restrictions continued, and the border checkpoints were maintained for collection of trade taxes, part of which went to British coffers.

Stability was finally achieved—with the independence of India in 1947, and with the formation of the State of Travancore-Cochin (Thiru-Kochi) in 1949—by the merger of these two princely states of British India.[9] Pallithode became a village of Alappuzha district bordering Ernakulam district.[nb 2]

Geography[edit]

Pallithode is a green, palm-fringed, scenic village in the coastal region of Kerala, on a narrow strip of land, with white, sandy beaches bordering the Arabian Sea to the west, and a lake (kayal)—the Pallithode Pozhi, a part of the Cochin estuary—to the east, as well as extensive, interconnected paddy fields and backwaters to the east of the Pozhi.[11] In the old days the only access to Pallithode was by water but this has changed today with modern roads, bridges and State Highway 66 (Kerala) (SH66) passing through Pallithode. Chappakadavu beach, in South Pallithode, provides local fishing boats access to the sea.[12] Chellanam is to the north; Valiathode, Parayakad, Chavadi, and Thuravoor are to the east; Andhakaranazhy (4 kilometres (2.5 mi) west of National Highway 47 at Pattanakad), Manokkam Harbor, Azheekal, and Ottamassery are to the south.[13]

The coastal land masses are formed or modified both by action of the sea currents and tides, and by the rainwater flow through the estuaries, from the rivers and backwater systems, supplying sediments.[14] Deposition or erosion of coastal areas are common and dynamic.[15] Sea erosion claims land in some areas with the eroded soil being deposited in other areas.[16] Severe floods and tidal changes have caused more abrupt and drastic transformations at times.[17] The Cochin estuary itself is said to have resulted from the floods of 1341, which caused the silting up of the ancient harbor of Muziris and the opening of the channel at Cochin Azhi.[18][19]

Chellanam, on Pallithode's northern border,[20] extends from Kattiparambu (near Thoppumpady) in the north to St. George's Church at the Pallithode border, where a channel known as Andhakaranazhy once passed through to the sea at the church's current location.[21] The channel connected Pallithode Pozhi to the sea. This channel closed later naturally and reformed at a more southern location and came to be known as the present Andhakaranazhy. Although Pallithode Pozhi is no longer an estuary, but a kayal, or lake, no longer connected directly to the sea except by canals, the name remains.[nb 3].[22]

Recent sea erosion has caused loss of more than half the width of the village in the 20th century.[23] This recent erosion, in many geological analyses, is considered to be an indirect result of the man-made development of the Cochin estuary into Cochin harbor.[24] Sea erosion has been controlled for the last three decades by seawalls.[25] The price paid is the loss of the once long and beautiful white sandy beaches, except in a few areas left free of seawalls. Mechanized gates, where the backwaters flow into the Arabian Sea, regulate the flow of seawater entering the paddy fields of Pallithode, Thuravoor, Pattanakad, and Ezhupunna, and they also prevent flooding of paddy fields during heavy rainfalls.[clarification needed]

Climate[edit]

Pallithode's has a wet and maritime tropical climate, classified as a tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate classification. Temperatures differ very minimally through the year, with average maximum highs between 29 °C (84 °F) and 33 °C (91 °F).

Demographics[edit]

The population is mainly Christian with a minority of Hindus.St.Sebastian’s Catholic Church in Pallithode is built in Portuguese architectural style and dates from 1880.[26] The nearest major Hindu temple is the ancient Thuravoor Mahakshetram.[27]

The local employment is mainly in the fishing industry or agriculture.

Government[edit]

Pallithode is in the Kerala Legislative Assembly constituency of Aroor and the Indian Parliamentary constituency of Alappuzha.[nb 4]

Transportation[edit]

Roads[edit]

Pallithode village is connected to the nearest towns by NH-47, Thuravoor-Ezhupunna Road, and the Pallithode-Chellanam-Kochi Beach Road (State Highway 66 (Kerala)). The Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC), and a number of private bus operators, provide bus service connecting the village to Ernakulam and Alappuzha.

Rail[edit]

The Alapuzha-Ernakulam Railway has a crossing station at Thuravoor providing access to the national railways.[citation needed] The Ernakulam-Kayamkulam coastal railway line connects to the national railways at Kayamkulam Junction railway station.

Inland waterways[edit]

Inland waterway canals and backwaters with chains of lakes connect Pallithode with Kochi in the north and Alappuzha (Alleppey) in the south through National Waterway 3. A canal links Pallithode Pozhi to Chappakadvu.

Economy[edit]

Pallithode is a densely populated village[1] with important fishing and tourism industries.[11]

Fisheries[edit]

The Kerala state government has designated Pallithode as a fishing village for development and has allocated funds.[29] The Manakkodam minor fishing harbor is projected for up-gradation. Chappakadavu in Pallithode is among the major fish landings on the Kerala coast.[30] The Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI), the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT), and the Fisheries ministry of Kerala use Pallithode as a field station for research and development of fisheries projects.[31][32] Pallithode is also a model village in the pilot project of rainwater harvesting sponsored by the Center for Science and Environment to supplement sources of drinking water.[33]

Tourism[edit]

Tourism is a fast developing industry of increasing importance in the Kerala economy. Pallithode with its indisputable scenic beauty is playing its part in the tourism industry.[34] There are cruises on offer in Pallithode Pozhi and surrounds, including excursions to Andhakaranazhy. The sandy beaches are attractive to visitors. Resorts in the backwaters of Pallithode cater to Indian and international tourists.[35] The Kerala government has developed infrastructure at Andhakaranazhy and its beaches to cater to tourists. Ecotourism [36] is being promoted by the Kerala State Tourism Department and nongovernmental agencies.[37] Kumbalangi, the first model tourism village in India, is close by.[38][39] Help and guidance in setting up ecotourism ventures is provided by tourism offices. It's common to have visitors housed with local families, to gain insights into local culture and lifestyle. Apart from local excursions and cultural events, this may include agricultural or fish farm activities. NGO’s, including Women’s Initiative groups (WIN Society), and Farmer’s Co-operatives, give assistance and financial support in setting up home stays and associated activities.

Places of interest[edit]

Palllithode Pozhi[edit]

The Pallithode Pozhi is a backwater lake that is situated very close to the sea, less than two to three hundred meters in many spots. Its network of canals connects it to the Arabian Sea at Andhakaranazhy, as well as to the Kerala backwaters system, and by the Kuthiathode Canal to Vembanad Kayal. The Pozhi, lined with Chinese fishing nets (cheenavala), and the neighboring paddy fields are important sources of freshwater fish, as well as a scenic lake important to tourism.[citation needed]

The action of the sea and backwaters have caused changes in geography through the ages, changes in the nature and location of the sea outlets of the backwater system in the remote past,[21] and the loss of land mass due to sea erosion in the more recent times.[40]

Andhakaranazhy[edit]

Andhakaranazhy means "Azhi of darkness". [nb 5] It is a part of the Kerala backwater system at the Arabian Sea.[citation needed] There are sandy beaches at Andhakaranazhy. The area has been developed by the Kerala Tourism Development Corporation into a tourist spot.[41] There are Restaurants and an aerial walkway.[42] It is a natural harbor rated as a minor port by the Central Port Authority. The Kerala government, the Indian Ports Association, and the Inland Waterways Authority of India are planning its development jointly.[43]

Manakkodam fishing harbor, with its lighthouse, is at Andhakaranazhy, and is designated as a minor port and a green field site.[44]

Chappakadavu[edit]

Chappakadavu[nb 6] is the mainstay of the fishing industry in the area.[30] Earlier it was a unique place close to the sea, with a canal having quick and easy access to the backwater system and thence to the consumers.[citation needed] Now transport is mainly overland, but the prominence of this fish processing area and market continues. The provision of the fishing gap has helped to retain the importance of Chappakadavu.[30][clarification needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The borderstones called “KothiKallu” (because “Thi” and “Ko” were written on their sides) are seen along Pallithode Chellanam borders.[6]
  2. ^ The State of Kerala was formed in 1956 by the merger of the state of Travancore Cochin with the Malabar District of Madras State during that reorganization of Indian states.[10]
  3. ^ There is a spot at the old location known as Azhikkal as a remainder of the past. Azhikkal means by the Azhi.
  4. ^ Census villages are more numerous and heterogenous than political units (gram panchayats).[28]
  5. ^ Azhi means a bar, a sand bar in this context. It can also mean "sea" or "deep".
  6. ^ Kadavu means a landing place.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Director, census operations (1981). Census of India Volume 3. Kerala,India: Controller of Publications. 
  2. ^ "Official Website of Alappuzha District, Kerala State, India". Collectorate, Alappuzha District, Kerala State, India. Retrieved 9 January 2015. 
  3. ^ "MoPR-Home - NPP". Panchayat.gov.in. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  4. ^ G.R., Madan (1990). India’s Developing Villages Edition 2. India: Allied Publishers. p. 60. ISBN 9788170232810. 
  5. ^ George, Mathew (1989). Communal Road to A Secular Kerala. New Delhi,India: Concept Publishing Company. p. 20. ISBN 9788170222828. 
  6. ^ "History Etched in Stone". The Hindu. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2013. 
  7. ^ A Sreedhara, Menon (January 1, 2007). A Survey of Kerala History. DC Books. pp. 97–99. ISBN 9788126415786. 
  8. ^ P.Shungoonny, Menon (1879). A History of Travancore from the Earliest Times. Madras: Higginbotham & Co. p. 307. 
  9. ^ Varma, Sivadas. "Glimpses of a historic moment". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  10. ^ Paslithil, A. (2006). Public Library Movement: Kerala. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. p. 117. ISBN 9788178355795. 
  11. ^ a b Staff (14 July 2013). "Fantastic family-friendly travel destinations". News.com.au. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  12. ^ Chacko, Tomy (1998). "Artisanal Fishing along Alleppey Coast, Southwest India". Human Organization. Society for Applied Anthropology. 57 (1): 61–62. ISSN 0018-7259. Retrieved 17 January 2015. 
  13. ^ Harikumar, A. (28 December 2005). "Rehabilitation work progressing". Kerala - Alappuzha. The Hindu. Retrieved 17 January 2015. 
  14. ^ Rajan, R. V. (November 2006). Texture, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Sediments from the Coastal Plains Between Kodungallur and Chellanam, Central Kerala, India (PDF) (Thesis). Retrieved 16 January 2015. 
  15. ^ Narayana, A.C.; Priju, C.P. (July 2006). "Landform and Shoreline Changes Inferred from Satellite Images along the central Kerala Coast". Journal of the Geological Society of India. 68: 35–49. 
  16. ^ Nair, K.K. (2007). Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology of Coastal Plains of Kerala (Technical report). Special Publication No.88, vi. Kolkata: Geological Society of India. ISSN 0254-0436. 
  17. ^ Sharma, Yogesh, ed. (2010). Coastal Histories: Society and Ecology in Pre-modern India. Delhi: Primus Books. p. 81. ISBN 9789380607009. 
  18. ^ Tomy, P.J. (2007). The Kerala Coast:Causes of its' ruin and methods for revival (PDF). Kerala Agricultural University. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  19. ^ "Search for India's ancient city". BBC News. 11 June 2006. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  20. ^ Staff (17 June 2013). "Maintenance dredging may harm Kochi port". Hellenic Shipping News Worldwide. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  21. ^ a b Sebastian, P.L. (1998). The Parayakattil Story. Mukhachitra Publications. p. 4. 
  22. ^ Soman, K. (2002). Geology of Kerala (2nd ed.). Geological Society of India. pp. 12, 315. ISBN 9788185867502. 
  23. ^ "Rs 16.73 crore additional aid for five districts". The New Indian Express. Express News Service. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  24. ^ Santhosh, K. (16 June 2013). "Maintenance dredging may harm Kochi port". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 January 2015. 
  25. ^ "Coir to be used in bio-engineering technology". The Indian Express. Bombay: The Indian Express Newspapers, Ltd. United News of India. 9 December 2000. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  26. ^ "St Sebastian Church Pallithode,Churches In India". Churchesinindia.com. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  27. ^ Administrator (28 July 2011). "Thuravoor Mahakshetram". Thuravoortemple.org. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  28. ^ Clark-Decis, Isabelle (2011). A Companion to the Anthropology of India. p. 1980. Retrieved 16 January 2015. 
  29. ^ "Fund sanctioned for 15 'Matsya Gramams'". The Hindu. 2012-11-10. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  30. ^ a b c Jayakumar, C.; Dillepkumar, N. (September 2004). "Study of turtles, traditional practices and rights of fishermen in the Kerala coast and development of an education strategy for protecting the coastal biodiversity through a community based Turtle conservation programme" (PDF). Thanal Conservation Action and Information Network. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
  31. ^ Prasad, G. "Length-Weight Relationships of Penaeus monodon Reared in Semi-Intensive Culture Systems of Kerala, India" (PDF). Naga, ICLARM Quarterly. 24 (1 & 2 (January–June 2001)). Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  32. ^ Rajendran, G. (September 2009). Success Story of Matsya Keralam First Phase (PDF) (Technical report). Thiruvananthapuram: Department of Fisheries. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  33. ^ "Pallithode : Rural Water Harvesting". Rainwaterharvesting.org. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  34. ^ Biju, Mathew (2012). Kerala Traditions & Fascinating Destinations. Info Kerala. p. 20. ISBN 9788192128412. 
  35. ^ "Backwater Heritage Resort". Kondai Lip. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  36. ^ "What is Ecotourism? | The International Ecotourism Society". Ecotourism.org. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  37. ^ "Kerala's Ecotourism Initiatives" (PDF). dQi analytics.com. Retrieved 20 January 2015. 
  38. ^ "Kumbalangi.Kerala.com - Kumbalangi, The Model Tourist Village, Kumbalangi, Kerala, India. A Worldviewr.com / Kerala.com Site". Kerala.com. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  39. ^ "Kumbalangi". Keralatourism.org. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  40. ^ Ward, B.S.; Conner, P.E. (1891). Geographical and Statistical Memoir of the Survey of Travancore & Cochin States 1816-20. II. Madras: Government Press. 
  41. ^ "The shadow lines". The Hindu. 2012-09-06. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  42. ^ "Kerala Tourism Guide". 4yathra.com. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  43. ^ G K, Aby Abraham (26 March 2012). "Taking to the water". Enterprise & Economic Update Kerala. Economic-update.in. Archived from the original on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2015. 
  44. ^ "Department of Ports Index". Official Website of Kerala.gov.in. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Puthur, John Jacob (19 February 2013). The Untold Story of a Coast. CreateSpace IPP. ISBN 978-1482531558. 
  • Jayappa, K S; Narayana, A C (15 June 2009). Coastal Environments: Problems And Perspectives. I.K.International. ISBN 978-9380026282. 

External links[edit]