|Mavelikara, Alleppy, Kerala
Mavelikkara, Allepy, Kerala
|Town, Taluk, Municipality, Assembly constituency, Lok Sabha Constituency|
Mavelikara Railway Station
|• Body||Municipal Council|
|• MLA||R Rajesh|
|• Official||Malayalam, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Mavelikara, (Malayalam: മാവേലിക്കര) is a taluk and municipality in the Alappuzha district of the Indian state of Kerala. It is located in the southern part of the district on the banks of the Achankovil, and one of the oldest municipalities of the state. It also has a very strong historical and cultural background; Chettikulangara Devi Temple, known for the Kumbha Bharani festival located there, and home to one of the 108 Shiva temples of Kerela created by Lord Parasurama, Kandiyoor Mahadeva Temple (popularly known as Dakshina Kashi). It was also a major centre of trade and commerce in ancient Kerala and the erstwhile capital of the rulers of Onattukara. As a result of the close association with the Travancore Royal Family, Mavelikara gained modern facilities well ahead of other places in the state. This included a mainline station and its development into a municipality. Even before India attained independence, Mavelikara had to its credit a super express transport service to Trivandrum.
- 1 Demographics
- 2 Transport
- 3 Economy
- 4 Politics
- 5 New Central Travancore District
- 6 Culture
- 7 Notable residents
- 8 Cultural Events
- 9 Main Places
- 10 Religion
- 11 Education
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
According to the 2001 Indian census, Mavelikara town has a population of 28,440 with males constituting 47% of the population. The average literacy rate is 86%, much higher than the national average of 59.5%, with male literacy at 87% and female literacy at 85%. Approximately 10% of the population is under 6 years old.
Kerala State Road Transport Corporation has a sub depot at Mavelikkara (Sation Code:MVKA) which is one among the 46 sub depots in the state. The KSRTC sub depot at Mavelikkara has an inter state bus service which is operated to Tenkasi.
Mavelikkara (Station Code:MVLK) is a mainline station in the Trivandrum Division of the Southern Railway Zone (India), with connections to Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune, Mangalore, Bhopal, Guwahati, Nagpur and Jammu. Other nearby stations are Kayamkulam Junction railway station and Chengannur Railway Station.
Local industries in and around Mavelikkara include:
- KSRTC Regional Workshop and Bus Body Building Centre Mavelikkara
- ALIND Switchgear, Mannar
- Travancore Oxygen, Kunnam
- Sangrose Laboratories, Mavelikkara, specialises in the manufacture of soft-gelatin capsules. It is also one of the few companies in the world to manufacture clofazimine.
Several small-scale industries are present in the Industrial Estate (an initiative of SIDCO) located at Kollakadavu.
Mavelikara has its own constituency in the Lok Sabha. Until the 2002 Lok Sabha Delimitation took effect in 2008, the constituency consisted of Chengannur, Mavelikara, Kayamkulam, Pandalam, Thiruvalla and Kallupara. Since then, the assembly constituencies have comprised Changanassery, Kuttanad, Mavelikara (SC), Chengannur, Kunnathur (SC), Kottarakkara and Pathanapuram. The constituency is now reserved for a scheduled caste candidate.
New Central Travancore District
The formation of a long awaited proposed new district Pandalam taluk is hoped will ensure a more efficient administration of the region and provide a boost the local economy. The badly organised formation of Pathanamthitta district affecting the Central Travancore is considered the root cause of the poor development of the area. The proposal has been in the air since the late eighties. It involves the inclusion of Thiruvalla taluk and parts of adjoining panchayats of Pandalam, Thumpamon and Pandalam-Thekkekkara of the present Pathanamthitta district and Mavelikara and Chengannur taluks wholly and parts of the adjoining Karthikappally taluk of Alappuzha district. The new district will have five taluks, namely, Thiruvalla, Chengannur, Pandalam and Mavelikara and Kayamkulam. It may be noted that a major chunk of the culturally renowned Onattukara will be part of the new district along with the Thiruvalla-Kumbanad NRI belt, which accounts for a substantial inflow of foreign currency. The Central Travancore region has a cultural identity of its own, its geographical topography is unique, neither part of the "hilly" Pathanamthitta district nor the "watery" Alappuzha.
The cultural capital of Alappuzha is Mavelikkara. Mavelikara was once part of the principality of Onattukara and has been a centre of religious harmony, culture and arts for several centuries.
As a testament to its link to that flourishing centre of Buddhist culture, Mavelikkara is one of the rare places in Kerala where one can find the Statue of Buddha in Seated Position, which dates back to the 9th century AD.
- Raja Ravi Varma - the current line of the Travancore royal family
- Ravindra Varma - Minister for Labour and Parliamentary Affairs in the Morarji Desai Ministry in India from 1977 to 1979
- P. G. N. Unnithan- P G N Unnithan was the last Diwan (Prime Minister) of independent Travancore
- C. M. Stephen - Leader of Congress and the INTUC
- Marthanda Varma Sankaran Valiathan - Indian cardiac surgeon. Former president of the Indian National Science Academy
- Archbishop Aboon Geevarghese Mar Ivanios - Founding father of the Syro–Malankara Catholic Church.
- Abu Abraham - Cartoonist and writer
- Yesudasan - Cartoonist
- Mavelikkara Velukkutty Nair - Carnatic mridangam player
- Mavelikkara Prabhakara Varma - Carnatic singer.
- Mavelikkara Krishnankutty Nair - Carnatic mridangam player.
- Ramesh Chennithala - Home affairs minister
- Mavelikkara S. R. Raju - Carnatic mridangam player
- P. C. Alexander - Principal Secretary to former Prime Ministers Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi
- T K Madhavan - Reformist leader of modern Kerala
- K. E. Mathai (Parappurath) - novelist and short story writer from Kerala, India.
The event is an offering of the people of Chettikulangara to their beloved deity known for her spontaneous blessings on true devotees as a mark of gratitude for their devotion and unflinching faith and for showering prosperity and protection on their lives. Kettukazhcha displays sculpted and decorated forms of six temple cars known as Kuthiras (Horses), five Therus (Chariots) and icons of Bhima and Hanuman. All the temple cars, chariots and icons are gigantic in size and many times larger than any other similar Kuthiras and Therus built during the festivities at other temples in the Central Travancore region.
Padanilam is a developing small town situated in the Mavelikkara Taluk of the Alappuzha district. The Padanilam Temple is situated in Padanilam. The temple has a number of festivals,one being the Sivarathri, usually celebrated in the month of February or March. During the day, thousands of devotees, including those from other districts come to the temple for the Kettukazhcha. On Sivaranthi day morning there is a Kaavadiyaattam for Lord Murugan. Thousands take Kaavadi and visit the temple in large groups. On the evening of the day, Large kettukazhchas of bulls (which are the vehicle of Lord Siva) come to the temple. The crowd dances to the rhythm of Kerala,The Sinkaarimelam.
Other festivals celebrated in Padanilam include the Vrischikamahotsavam in the Malayam month of Vrischikam. The celebrations last for 41 days, although the majority of the celebrations take place in the first 12 days.
Pathamudayam is a temple festival conducted at Vettiyar Palliyarakkavu temple. The 1000-year-old temple has 7 Karas (territories). Pathamudayam is held in April. The highlight of the festival is the Kettukazhchas. The preparation for Pathamudayam begins several days before the festival day which itself is usually the day of Vishu. Meanwhile, the people from 7 Karas of Vettiyar will arrange for the construction of Kettukazhcha to the temple. People from each area will pull the Kettukazhcha from the construction sites to the temple to present them before the Devi and after having darshan the parties take up their respective position in the ground lying east of the temple.
Eravankara is a small village in Mavelikkara. Anandeshwarathu Mahadevadeva temple in Eravankara is known for its Shivarathri Mahotsavam and Kaavadiyaattam, which are celebrated during the month of February or March. The temple is more than 1000 years old. Eravankara is derived from the concept of Mahabharatha as the land of Eravaan ( Eravaan kara) who is the son of Khadotghaja (Bheeman's son who is born in Hidumbi)...
Mother Teresa Trophy Boat Race
The Mother Teresa Trophy Boat Race is held during Onam along the stretch of the River Achankovil.
Kandiyoor is nearly 1 km far from Mavelikara and the Kandiyoor Sree Mahadeva temple is one of the most famous temple in South India and it is also Known as Dakshina kashi.
- 'Kottakkakam, or "Fort Mavelikkara" is located at the heart of Mavelikkara. Old palaces were situated in this region and the government offices are located in this area. Sreekrishna swamy temple is also to be found in Kottakkakam.
- Padanilam is located in the eastern part of Mavelikkara Taluk. It is famous for the Padanilam Parabrahma Temple, which is known for its Sivarathri festival.
- Bharanikavu and Pallickal is located on the Mavelikkara-Kurathikadu-Kayamkulam road. Bharanikavu is famous for its Devi Temple and its swarna jeevitha, and houses one of the four Buddha Statues. The famous churches of Kattanam add to the glory of this calm and peaceful panchayat. Government School Bharanikkavu, Pope Pius XI High School and CMS High School are some of the major educational institutions. The panchayat was awarded the Best Grama Panchayat Award by the President of India.
- Chennithala is located in the northern part of Mavelikkara. Chennithala Panchayath shares its border with the municipal boundary of Mavelikkara.
- Cherukunnam is a village five kilometres away from Mavelikkara Town.
- Chettikulangara is located about five kilometres southwest of Mavelikkara. It is famous for the Chettikulangara Devi Temple, at which the Kumbha Bharani Festival is conducted during February or March. The important festivity associated with this utsavam is Kettu-Kazhcha, which resembles the Chinese festival celebrated on the birthday of Buddha. Kuthiyottam is also another important festivity. This is the second-largest temple under the Travancore Devaswom Board. Chettikulangara Amma is considered the mother goddess of Onattukara.
- Chunakkara is a village in the eastern part of Mavelikkara, approximately 11 kilometres away from Mavelikkara Town. It is best known as the home of the Chunakara Mahadevar temple.
- Kallumala, which roughly translates as "mountain of stones", is on an elevated terrain made of stony laterite substrate. Educational institutions in the area include Bishop Moore Vidyapith and Bishop Moore College.
- Kandiyoor is a place of historical importance. It was there that the Travancore Raja gained the decisive victory over Kayamkulam Raja. The Mahadeva temple contains the sub-shrines considered to have been made especially sacred by the presence of all the gods of the Hindu pantheon. It contains ancient inscriptions and it is noted for stone sculptures.
- Thekkekkara Panchayath lies between Chettikulangara, Bharanicavu and Thazhakkara Panchayaths of Mavelikkara Taluk.
- Vallikunnam is situated in the southern part of Mavelikkara.
- Varenickal is a village situated in Thekkekara Panchayat in Mavelikkara which is home to the Shree Parabhramodya and Kunnam Kuzhi temples. The festival at the temples is held during the Mandala season.
- Vathikulam is located about seven kilometres south of Mavelikkara and is surrounded by temples. Two schools are located there: Vathikulam LP School and Alummoottil LP School. Bethel Marthomma Church and Vathikulam Martomma Church are also found there, together with Vathikulam, Changeth and Alampeth temples.
- Olakettiambalam is a small village situated in the southern part of Alappuzha district,Olakettiambalam is a part of Mavelikara (Lok sabha constituency). six kilometers south,from Mavelikkara and six kilometers apart from Kayamkulam.Three schools are located there: Thekkekara govt.UP School. koipallikarazhma, Koypallikarazhma High School, Vignjaana santhaayani Sanskrit high school (VSSHS).It is famous for temples and named Koipallikarazhma Devi temple,Vathikulangara Devi temple,Cheruvalli Bagavathi temple. Olakettiambalam has a public library which has been running for the last 49 years. The new building was inaugurated by the minister V. M. Sudheeran.
Nearby Villages,Olakattiambalam,Kurthicad, Mullikulangra, Bharanikavu,peringala etc. This place belongs to Onattukara.
- Vazhuvady is a village, approximately four kilometres away from Mavelikkara Town. The northern side of the village is bordered by Achankovil river flowing from east to west. The famous Malankara orthodox church, commonly known as "Vazhuvady Pally", is located in the heart of the village. The church has got the Holy relic of His Holiness Baselios Geevarghese II, Third Catholicos of the East in Malankara. The village is also home to several temples like Kirathankavu Siva Temple, Panayannarkavu Devi Temple and Sri Muruga Temple. There are two schools.
- Vettiyar is located about seven kilometres east of Mavelikkara, on the banks of the Achenkovil river. Green paddy fields stretch to acres of lands with rubber plantations, cashew trees, coconut trees and bettel leaves, as well as other plantations. Vettiyar is a small village which has not yet been urbanised. Pathamudayam, the famous temple festival, is conducted at the Palliyarakkavu temple.
- Kurathikadu is located approximately six kilometres away from the Mavelikkara town. The old name of Kurathikad was "Vallat". The place is in the Thekkekkara panchayath of Mavelikkara taluk. The major Hindu worship centre in Kurathikad is the Malimel Devi temple, which is also home to a Syro-Malankara Catholic Church and a Mar Thoma Church in. The school in this place is NSS HS, this great school donates many of great citizens & professionals for the society.
- Thazhakara is a village located roughly 5 km east of Mavelikara. Most of the industries in mavelikara are located in this village.
- Chettikulangara Devi Temple, founded in AD 823, is a Bhagawathy Temple. The major festival is Kumbha Bharani.
- Kandiyoor Temple, also known as Dakshina Kashi, is the oldest historical evidence of the rich heritage of Mavelikkara. The Kandiyoor Temple is one of 108 temples dedicated to Shiva. Saint Mrikandu, the father and guru of Markandeya, got an idol of Kiratha Moorthy, while taking a bath in the Ganges. He heard a divine voice telling him to put the idol in a holy place. Mrikandu travvelled far and finally reached Kandiyoor (whose name derives from "Kandathil Nalla Ooru" meaning "the best place ever seen"). Thus, the temple was established and renamed Kandiyoor.
- Sree Krishna Swami Temple is managed and owned by the Travancore Devaswom board. The main festival is held during Meenam. The Statue of Buddha at the Buddha junction in front of the temple has been recovered from the Achankovil River.
- Puthiyacavu Devi Temple is managed and owned by NSS.
- Perkattu Sree Dharma Sastha Temple, Puthiyacavu.
- Malimel Devi Temple:located in Kurathikad,owned by Nadalayil family trust. Main festival is the 'Revathi Thirunal' festival in meenam(Malayalam) month. The Sapthaha yanjam & anpoli vazhipadu by youngsters of the village are the main attractions during the festival time.Devotees believing that One of the upadevatha calling " Ammumma' giving protection during pregnancy period & delivery time if the pregnant woman keeping one stone from the ammumma's temple. Pregnant ladies from other areas also coming & following the custom.
- Chunakara thiruvairoor mahadevar temple is the oldest historical temple located in chunakara, which is 11 km from Mavelikkara. Its festival season is in January and February.
- Vettiyar Palliyarakavu Temple, Vettiyar.
- Padanilam Parabrahma Temple, Nooranad.
- Shree Parabhramodya Temple, Varenickal. There is no building structure for the Shreekovil as the God has forbidden any construction at the site. The festival at the temple held during the December–January Mandala season.
- Shree Saraswati Temple is situated at Thattarambalam dedicated to Saraswati Devi. Recent donations have led to better developments of the temple structure. Its main festival is held during the Navarathri Festival period dedicated to Durga Devi.
- Ponnaramthottam Devi Temple, located near Power House and District Court.
- Dhanwanthari Temple, Prayikkara.
- Subramanya Swamy Temple, Thazhakkara.
- Ganapathy Temple, Aalthara, Padinjare Nada.
- Sree Durga Devi Temple, Karazhma.
- Ulachikkadu Sree Mahavishnu Temple, Karazhma.
- Mannoor Madhom Siva Temple.
- Mattom Narasimha Swamy Temple is situated in the north of Thattarambalam. It is one of the oldest temple in Mavelikara,, situated near Achankovil river. The festival of the temple takes place during Vrichikam (November–December).
- Mannalil Temple is situated to the south of Aranoottimangalam. The festival day is Makaram 28, known as "Irupathettam Ucharam".
- Tharamel Devi Kshethram is another Bhagavathi temple situated in the central part of Aranoottimangalam. This temple originally belonged to the Kalaykkattu Family, but has been handed over to the NSS Karayogam №66 by the family's heads, Nalayyathu Chellappan Nair and Thattarethu Damodara Panicker. It is now owned and managed by the NSS Karayogam, №66, and renovation work has just been completed.
- Ammancheril Devi Kshethram is also in Aranoottimangalam.
- Eravankara Malamutam Mahadeva Temple, Eravankara.
- Eravankara Anandeshwarathu Mahadeva Temple, Eravankara.
- Kattuvallil Shree Dharma Shastha Temple
- Peringra Maha Ganapati Temple, Pela.
- Mullikulangara Temple is a Bhagawathy Temple, situated near Thekkekkara Panchayath. The festival of the temple takes place during Meenam. Mullikulangara Bhagawathy and Chettikulangara Bhagawathy are considered as Sisters.
- Umbernadu Shree Dharma Shastha Temple.
- Umbernadu Chetteyarezthu Bhadrakali Ancient Temple.
- Veerad Vishwakarma Temple, Kurathikadu, Mavelikkara
- Vadakkodukkathu Shiva Temple,Umbernadu,Mavelikara
- Kandiyoor Devi Kshetram,Kandiyoor,Mavelikara 
- St Mary's Orthodox Cathedral, founded in 943 AD.Known as Puthiyakavu Pally. Many historical events like "Mavelikara Padiyola" conducted here.Now this parish belongs Mavelikara Diocese, formerly it included in "Kollam Diocese" one of the very first seven diocese of Malankara Orthodox Church.
- C.S.I. Christ Church is the oldest Protestant church in Mavelikara built by CMS missionary Reverend Joseph Peet and dedicated in 1839. and rededicated on 3 April 1850.
- C.S.I. Ascension Church, Cherukunnam is 150 years old. It belongs to the Central Kerala Diocese of Church of South India. It has 88 families and about 500 members.
- Marthoma Church Thazhakara is 110 years old, and now has a parish with over 335 families.. The Malankara Syrian Christian sect Mavelikara played a vital role in the history of the land. Peedikayil Stephanos Malpan is the first priest of the Marthoma Diocese in Mavelikara. Every alternative week the Marthomites conducted prayers at Puthiyakavu St Mary's Church. During the other days the devotees assembled at a temporary bamboo shed at Thazhakara. In 1898, 32 families belonging to the Marthoma sect forfeited all their rights on the Puthiyakavu church and started regular prayers at the temporary church. Initially the Diocese included the regions of Mullikkulangra, Gramam, Peringillippuram and Kallimel. Under the leadership of P.K. Jacob Kassissa (Kumbathittayil Achan) and with the co-operation of each and everyone of the Diocese, the Marthoma church of Thazhakara became a reality. On December 26, 1928 Theethus II Metropolita and Abraham Suffragan Metropolita jointly performed the Koodasha. Now the Diocese with its 335 and over families has a nursery, parish hall, shop building, parsonage, Polachirakkal colony and Jyothis school.
- St Kuriakose Orthodox Church at Arnoottimangalam is a church dedicated to the lesser known Saint, St Kuriakose.
- St Paul Church, Kallumala
- Church of God in India, a Pentecostal church in Chettikulangara.
- Mar Baselios Orthodox Church commonly known as "Vazhuvady Pally".
- St Mary's Syro-Malankara Catholic Cathedral is a suffurgan diocese of the Major Archiepiscopal Eparchy of Trivandrum. with 94 parishes and 37,000 worshipers.
- Pentecostal Church of God in India was established in 2004 in Erezha South, Chettikulangara.
- Indian Pentecostal Church of God - IPC Kannamangalam, Chettikulangara.
- Assemblies of God Bethal Hall, established in 1924.
- St Sebastian Roman Catholic Church, Valiyaperumpuzha, Thattarampalam
- St Thomas Evangelical Church of India, Thazhakara is 50 years old.
St. Mary's Cathedral Public School(CBSE) Puthiyakavu
- Bishop Moore College, Kallumala, Mavelikkara
- Raja Ravi Varma College of Fine Arts, Mavelikkara.
- Peet Memorial Training College, Mavelikkara. The College was founded in 1960 in memory of the Rev. Joseph Peet, who was one of the leading missonaries, sent by the CMS to South India. He came to Mavelikara in 1836 not only to spread the gospel, but also to uplift the downtrodden. He was mainly instrumental in popularising education in the area. The college is governed by a council, constituted by the Diocese of Madhya Kerala of the Church of South India. The college is affiliated to the university of Kerala, accredited by NAAC, recognised by the NCTE and offers a one-year teachers training course leading to the Degree of Bachelor of Education in Six subjects such as English, Mathematics, Physical Science, Natural Science, Social Studies and Commerce. The sanctioned strength of the college is 150.
- College of Applied Sciences(IHRD), Mavelikkara
- High School and Teachers' Training Institute, Chettikulangara
- Sri Vellapally Natesan College Of Engineering, Pallickal
- Sree Buddha College Of Engineering, Pattoor, Padanilam
- Archana College of Engineering, Nooranad
- Teachers Training Institute, Thazhakara
- Bishop Moore Vidyapith, Kallumala, Mavelikkara
- Bishop Hodges Higher Secondary School, Mavelikkara
- Bishop Moore English Medium School, Kallumala, Mavelikara
- Seventh Day Adventist English Medium High School, Mavelikkara
- Govt. Boys' Higher Secondary School, Mavelikkara
- Govt. Girls' Higher Secondary School, Mavelikkara
- Infant Jesus ISC School, Mavelikkara
- M.S.S High School, Thazhakara
- A.V.Sanskrit U.P. School, Thazhakara
- St John's High School, Mattom
- St John's English Medium School, Mattom
- Higher Secondary and Training School, Kaitha North, Chettikulangara
- Govt. V.H.S.S. Chunakara
- N.S.S.U.P.S. Chunakara
- Sree Buddha Central School, Pattoor, Padanilam
- Sree Narayana Central School, Cherukunnam, Mavelikkara
- St Mary's Cathedral Public School
- Crossland Public School, Kunnom
- S.V.L.P School, Thazhakara.
- Vidhyadhiraja Vidya Peetom Central School, Ponnaramthottam
- Vidyadhiraja Vidyapeedom L.P. School
- Vijnana Santhayani Sanskrit High School (VSSHS), Koypallikaranma
- Thekekkara Government U.P. School, near the major Koypallikaranma Temple
- TMVMHS, Vettiyar
- Pope Pius XI Higher Secondary School, Kattanam
- Govt. Higher Secondary School, Chettikulangara
- TTI School
- Mahatma Higher Secondary School for Boys, Chennithala
- Mahatma Higher Secondary School for Girls, Chennithala
- Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Chennithala.
- Cherupushpa Central School, Chunakkar
- St John's M.S.C.U.P.School, Kurathikad (Pallickal East)
- Amala L.P. School, Erezha
- Vathikulam L.P. School
- Mar Ivanious School, Kallumala
- CNPPM Vocational HS, Kattachira
- NSS High School, Kurathikad
- Govt. L.P. School, Kurathikad
- S.N. Central School, Cherukunnam.
- A.G.R.M.H.S.S, Vallikunnam
- Govt. U.P. School, Varenickal
- A.O.M.M. L.P. School
- Vikram Sarabhai I.T.E.
- St Mary's Central School, Vettiyar
- Erezha U.P. School, Chettikulangara
- Govt. U.P. School, Kandiyoor
- K.K.M. Govt. V.H.S.S, Elippakulam
- Govt L.P.S, Elippakulam
- Padanilam H.S.S., Nooranad
- Little Kingdom Junior School West Fort, Mavelikara
- Mavelikkara (Lok Sabha constituency)
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- Kerala State Road Transport Corporation
- "Assembly Constituencies – Corresponding Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies". Kerala. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
- "Monuments-peeping into the past" Information & Public Relations Department, Government of Kerala
- Kandiyoor Devi Khsetram http://www.kandiyoordevikshetram.com/
- W.S. Hunt. ‘’The Anglican Church in Travancore & Cochin’’ 1816–1916. Pub. CMS Press, Kottayam. 1918. p. 166
- Souvenir published during 100 year celebrations of the congregation.
- John, Eipe, "Rev. Joseph Peet Vyaktiyum Darshanavum (Rev. Joseph Peet – Man and Vision)", Triteeya Suvarana Jubilee Smaranika (150th Jubilee Souvenir), CSI Christ Church Mavelikara, 1996 pp 37–41.
- Mavelkara Diocese
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- Official website of Mavelikkara taluk
- Syro-Malankara Diocese of Mavelikara