Parachinar

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Parachinar
  • پاړه چنار
  • پاڑہ چنار
A forest in Parachinar
A forest in Parachinar
Parachinar is located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Parachinar
Parachinar
Parachinar is located in Pakistan
Parachinar
Parachinar
Parachinar is located in Asia
Parachinar
Parachinar
Parachinar is located in Earth
Parachinar
Parachinar
Coordinates: 33°54′N 70°6′E / 33.900°N 70.100°E / 33.900; 70.100
Country Pakistan
Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
DivisionKohat
DistrictKurram
TehsilUpper Kurram
Elevation
1,705 m (5,594 ft)
Population
 • Town5,502
 • Estimate 
()
115,502
 • Rank9th, Kohat Division
Time zoneUTC+5 (PST)

Parachinar (Pashto: پاړه چنار; Urdu: پاڑہ چنار) is a small Pashtun (Turi tribe) town which is the capital of Kurram District in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.[2]

Parachinar is situated on a neck of Pakistani territory west of Peshawar, that juts into the Logar and Nangarhar provinces of Afghanistan. With a distance of 110 kilometres (68 mi) from the Afghan capital Kabul, Parachinar is the closest point in Pakistan to Kabul.

It is one of two urban areas in Kurram District, the other one being Sadda, and has shrunk considerably in population over the past few decades, becoming the least populous urbanized area in Kohat Division. Major tribes residing there are Turi, Bangash, Maqbal, Para Chamkini, Zazi and Mangal.

History

The British soldier and historian C. M. Enriquez described the early history of Parachinar in his book The Pathan Borderland. He writes that Malak (leader) Pare was a reputable Malak of the Para Chamkini tribe, who were Sunni Muslim and another tribe called Turi (Shia), planted poplar trees some 200 years ago. Before much settlement, the area was mostly arid. In terms of distribution, the ancient poplar tree and the surrounding land belonged to the Parakhel tribe. This ownership is still authentic in official records or deeds of property. Parakhel tribesmen used to cultivate wheat in this desert area. During the wheat harvest, tents were pitched here, and in the shade of this poplar tree, jirgas and consultations were held.[3]

The name Parachinar is derived as a result of social meetings conducted under a large chinar tree.[4][3] The remains of that tree are still there at a place now encompassed by the headquarters of Kurram Agency. As this poplar tree was located right between the British established offices and the Kurram militia, and people from remote areas of the Kurram Valley often came and gathered here, it became known as Parachinar instead of Totkai Bazar.

Durand Line Agreement

In 1893, during the rule of Abdur Rahman Khan (Barakzai dynasty) of Afghanistan, a Royal Commission for demarcating a boundary between Afghanistan and the territory of British governed India negotiated terms, agreeing to the Durand line. Two parties camped at Parachinar, now part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, which is near Khost, Afghanistan.

From the British side, the camp was attended by Sir Mortimer Durand and Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum, assistant political agent, Khyber Agency. The Afghanistan interest was represented by Sahibzada Abdul Latif and the Governor of Khost Sardar Shireendil Khan, represented King Amir Abdur Rahman Khan.[5]

2007 Kurram Agency conflict

On 6 April 2007, a security gunman of Sunni Pashtun tribe fired upon a Shia Pashtun crowd protesting against Taliban, during Milad days in Parachinar.[6] Violent clashes in the region occurred in the following week until a ceasefire was reached on 12 April 2007.[7]

Terrorist incidents

Parachinar has been the target of several terrorist attacks from 2007 to 2014 in which over 3000 people have died, making it the second-most targeted Pakistani city by militants after Peshawar.[8]

Climate

Parachinar has a moderate humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). Although the city's southeasterly aspect relative to the valley in which it is situated allows it to receive on occasions significant monsoonal rainfall, the most frequent source of rain is western depressions and related thunderstorms. During the winter, snowfall is common, and frosts occur on most mornings. Snow closes the Peiwar Pass, located on the Paktia border just over 20 km west of Parachinar, for up to five months per year.

Climate data for Parachinar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.6
(69.1)
20.2
(68.4)
29.0
(84.2)
31.7
(89.1)
37.4
(99.3)
38.6
(101.5)
36.4
(97.5)
34.6
(94.3)
36.2
(97.2)
32.2
(90.0)
26.3
(79.3)
23.0
(73.4)
38.6
(101.5)
Average high °C (°F) 10.2
(50.4)
13.4
(56.1)
14.9
(58.8)
21.3
(70.3)
26.6
(79.9)
30.7
(87.3)
29.8
(85.6)
28.8
(83.8)
27.2
(81.0)
23.3
(73.9)
18.5
(65.3)
12.7
(54.9)
21.5
(70.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.2
(39.6)
6.7
(44.1)
9.6
(49.3)
15.4
(59.7)
20.3
(68.5)
24.5
(76.1)
24.1
(75.4)
23.2
(73.8)
21.0
(69.8)
16.3
(61.3)
11.7
(53.1)
6.7
(44.1)
15.3
(59.6)
Average low °C (°F) −3
(27)
−1.8
(28.8)
4.2
(39.6)
8.5
(47.3)
12.9
(55.2)
16.9
(62.4)
18.2
(64.8)
17.2
(63.0)
14.3
(57.7)
8.8
(47.8)
3.5
(38.3)
−0.3
(31.5)
9.47
(49.05)
Record low °C (°F) −15
(5)
−11.2
(11.8)
−6.6
(20.1)
1.7
(35.1)
5.2
(41.4)
8.0
(46.4)
13.3
(55.9)
12.8
(55.0)
6.1
(43.0)
3.4
(38.1)
−2.0
(28.4)
−7.2
(19.0)
−15
(5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44.9
(1.77)
73.3
(2.89)
127.3
(5.01)
87.6
(3.45)
65.8
(2.59)
44.8
(1.76)
107.1
(4.22)
102.2
(4.02)
55.1
(2.17)
22.4
(0.88)
17.4
(0.69)
33.8
(1.33)
781.7
(30.78)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 214.5 198.8 209.4 233.5 292.1 297.3 285.7 280.6 270.2 284.3 260.1 199.2 3,025.7
Source: NOAA (1971-1990) [9]

Demographics

Historical Population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1961 22,953—    
1972 9,069−8.10%
1998 8,042−0.46%
2017 5,502−1.98%
Source: [10][1]

The population of Parachinar is predominantly Shia Muslim.[11] It is a small town of about 5,500 which has seen itself shrink considerably in population due to political strife caused by the Afghanistan Wars. It peaked in population in 1961, when it had over 22,000 people.

Education

FATA University plans to open a sub-campus at Parachinar.[12]

Transportation

The Thall-Parachinar road is the main road connecting Parachinar to the rest of the country.[13]

Parachinar has an airport but currently it is non-functional. In the past there was a flight service between Peshawar and Parachinar.[14][15]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLD DETAIL FROM BLOCK TO DISTRICT LEVEL FATA (KURRAM AGENCY)" (PDF). KURRAM_AGENCY_BLOCKWISE.pdf. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. 3 January 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  2. ^ "Suspected suicide blast in Parachinar; 15 killed". Samaa TV. Pakistan. March 31, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  3. ^ Enriquez, Colin Metcalfe (2020-02-10). The Pathan Borderland: A Consecutive Account of the Country and People on and Beyond the Indian Frontier from Chitral to Dera Ismail Khan. Alpha Editions. ISBN 978-93-5400-030-0.
  4. ^ Enriquez’s, C M (1989). The Pathan Borderland. p. 117. ISBN 8171410626. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  5. ^ Ahmad, Sahibzada Zahoor (Speaker) (July 13, 2003). "100 Years of the Martyrdom of Sahibzada Abdul Latif of Khost, Afghanistan (14th July 1903 to 14th July 2003)". Hazrat Sahibzada Abdul Latif Shaheed (MP3) (Audio) (in Urdu). Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam.
  6. ^ "Deadly clashes rage in Pakistan". BBC News. April 7, 2007. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  7. ^ "Jirga negotiates truce in Kurram Agency: Forces from across border blamed for unrest". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Herald Publications. April 13, 2007. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  8. ^ Khan, M. Ilyas (January 26, 2017). "The little boy killed at the market". BBC News. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  9. ^ "Parachinar Climate Normals 1971-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
  10. ^ "TABLE-1: AREA & POPULATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS BY RURAL/URBAN: 1951-1998 CENSUSES" (PDF). Administrative Units.pdf. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 June 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  11. ^ Sirmed, Marvi (April 2, 2017). "What makes Parachinar hotbed of terrorism". Daily Times. Lahore, Pakistan. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  12. ^ Mir, Rukhshan (July 25, 2017). "FATA University To Establish Sub Campus At Bajaur Agency". UrduPoint. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  13. ^ Mashal, Mujib (June 25, 2011). "A community under siege in tribal Pakistan". Al Jazeera. Doha, Qatar. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  14. ^ Ali, Zulfiqar (January 17, 2008). "Airfield in Wana, Miramshah upgraded". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Herald Publications. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  15. ^ Ashraf, Syed Irfan (November 9, 2011). "The Kurram blockade". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Herald Publications. Retrieved April 11, 2018.