It was the Empress Anna Ioannovna’s court jester Pietro-Mira Pedrillo from Italy, who served as a prototype for Petrushka.
Petrushka’s voice was created with the help of a special whistle, and the dialogue was based on a momentary change of the pishchik and the “live” voice of other characters. There were a number of basic plots: the medical treatment of Petrushka, his learning of soldier’s service, the scene with his bride, the buying of a horse and testing it.
Initially, Petrushka was a character of typical slapstick comedy targeting the adult audience. As puppet theatre gradually became predominantly children's entertainment, Petrushka became less vulgar and aggressive. In the Soviet Union, Petrushka appeared widely in agitprop theater, defending poor peasants and attacking kulaks.
Russian Children's Welfare Society (RCWS) hosts annual "Petroushka Ball", which is named after Petrushka character who fell in love with a graceful ballerina.