Portuguese vocabulary

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Most of the Portuguese vocabulary comes from Latin, since Portuguese is a Romance language. However, other languages that came into contact with it have also left their mark. In the thirteenth century, the lexicon of Portuguese had about 80% words of Latin origin and 20% of pre-Roman Gallaecian, Celtic, Germanic and Arabic origin.[1]

Pre-Roman languages of Portugal (Iberian, Proto-Celtic, Celtic, Basque)[edit]

Some traces of the languages of the native peoples of western Iberia (Gallaeci, Lusitanians, Celtici or Conii) persist in the language, as shown below. Many places in Portugal for instance have pre-Roman, Celtic or Celtiberian names, such as the cities of Abrantes, Braga, Briteiros, Cantanhede, Coimbra, Évora, Lapa, Leiria, Setúbal, Sintra and several rivers like Ardila, Douro, Minho or Tâmega.

List of Portuguese words of Iberian and Basque origin[edit]


  • arroio "brook, stream"
  • baía "bay" (cf. Basque ibai 'river')
  • balsa "ferry"
  • barranco "ravine"
  • barranceira "steep climb or cliff" (normally above water)
  • barro "mud; clay"
  • bizarro "quaint, bizarre"
  • boina "Basque berret"
  • cabaça "kalabash, gourd"
  • cachorro "puppy"
  • carapaça "shell, armour"
  • cavaco "small woods"
  • charco "puddle"
  • gordo "fat individual or liquid"
  • gordura "lard, fat content"
  • manteiga "butter" ***Uncertain origin, possibly Lat. mantica[2]
  • mata, mato "woods"
  • medronheiro "strawberry-tree"
  • mochila "rucksack, backpack"
  • morro "hill"
  • mouta, moita "bush"
  • sapato "shoe" ***Uncertain origin[3]
  • sapo "toad"
  • silo "silo" (cf. Basque zilo 'hole')

Projections on Iberian vocabulary, toponyms and derivations in Portuguese, indicate just a few dozen words in total.


A claim of Basque influence in Portuguese is the voiceless alveolar retracted sibilant [], a sound transitional between laminodental [s] and palatal [ʃ]; this sound also influenced other Ibero-Romance languages and Catalan. The apico-alveolar retracted sibilant is a result of bilingualism of speakers of Basque and Vulgar Latin. Basque influence is prominent in Portuguese language and entered through Spanish, because aside from it is a result of bilingualism of speakers of Basque and Vulgar Latin, many Castilians (native speakers of Spanish) who took part in the Reconquista and later repopulation campaigns were of Basque lineage. There are a few words, surnames and forenames:

  • carrasco "executioner" or "Portuguese oak", from Basque karraska "thunder, crash of falling tree"[4]
  • chamorro "close-cropped" (cf. Basque txamorro "grub, subterranean bug or worm" or samur, xamur "tender, delicate")
  • chaparro "dwarf oak" (cf. Basque txapar)
  • esquerdo "left" (from Basque ezker 'left')
  • sarça (archaic), "bramble", fr early Basque (Oihenart; 17th century) çarzi (modern sasi "bramble", sarri "bush, thicket") (Trask 1997, 421)
  • sarna "scabies" from Medieval Latin (7th century, Isidore of Seville, Origines, 4.8.68), but as serna attested in Theodorus Priscianus (Constantinople, 4th century). Trumper (2004) however, after studying the variants of the word in the Latin medical treatises, proposes a Hispano-Celtic origin; cf. Middle Welsh sarn "mess" and sarnaf "to wreck".[5]
  • veiga "meadow, grassland", from Basque (i)bai "river" + relational suffix -ko

Names of Basque origin:


  • Inácio variant of Ignatius. ***Of uncertain origin. Often claimed an Etruscan-Latinised derivation but probably Pre-Roman Iberian, Celtiberian or Basque see* Íñigo, Íñaki
    Variants: Egnatius (Ancient Roman), Iñaki (Basque), Ignasi (Catalan), Ignác (Czech), Ignaas (Dutch), Iggy (English), Ignace (French), Ignatz (German), Ignác (Hungarian), Ignazio (Italian), Ignas (Lithuanian), Ignacy (Polish), Ignatiy (Russian), Ignac, Ignacij, Nace (Slovene), Ignacio, Nacho, Nacio (Spanish)
  • Vasco derived from Basque "belasko", 'small raven'[6]
  • Xavier, from Basque Xabier, from etxe berri, meaning 'new house' or 'new home'[7]
  • Ximeno,[8] a variant of the medieval Basque gifven name Semen, root seme < senbe 'son' as found in the ancient Aquitanian name Sembetten, attested form "sehi" as 'child', hypothetical ancient root *seni (cf. Koldo Mitxelena and modern form "senide" = 'brother or sister', 'relative')



Although there is not a comprehensive study or wordcount on how much Celtic or Celtiberian survived in Portuguese (and Galician), it is fair to say that after Latin, this ancient language or fragments of several languages; is the second largest component in the Portuguese language. Projections on Celtic vocabulary (excluding more modern French and other loanwords), toponyms and derivations in Portuguese, indicate well over 1,000 words.

Placenames: There are numerous Celtic-derived towns and placenames in Portugal like Abrantes, Braga, Braganza (Bragança), Bidoeira, Menir de Forjães, Menir do Castelo, Cabanas de Viriato, Dólmen da Pedreira, Borba, Bouçã, Britelo, Caminha, Carvalhos, Carvalhosa, Carvalhal, Carvalhais, Carvalha, Carvalheira, Carvalhoa, Casal de Cambra, Amieira, Amieiro, Vale do Amieiro, Gouveia, Leiria, Lousã, Maia, Minho, St Antão do Tojal, São Julião do Tojal, Tojeira, Vale de Cambra, Vargem, Vidoeira, Monte das Vargens and many others.


  • Artur, (cognate of English Arthur) derived from the Celtic elements artos "bear" combined with viros "man" or rigos "king". Used in Catalan, Czech, Estonian, Galician, German, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Swedish, with the same spelling. Variants= : Arthur, Tuur (Dutch) Artturi, Arto, Arttu (Finnish), Artúr (Hungarian), Arturo (Italian), Artūrs (Latvian), Tuur (Limburgish), Artūras (Lithuanian), Artair (Scottish), Arturo (Spanish)
  • Breno, (cognate of English Brennus) Latinised form of an ancient Celtic name (or title) that possibly meant either "king, prince" or "raven".
  • Brígida, (cognate of Irish Brighid) which means 'exalted one'. Variants: Breda, Bríd, Bride, Brighid, Brigid (Irish), Bridgette (English), Brighid, Brigid, Brigit (Irish Mythology). Also: Brigita (Croatian), Birgit, Birgitta, Birgitte, Berit, Birte, Birthe, Brita, Britt, Britta, Gitte (Danish), Brigitta (Dutch), Birita (Faroese), Birgitta, Piritta, Brita, Pirjo, Pirkko, Priita, Riitta (Finnish), Brigitte (French), Brigitta, Brigitte, Gitta (German), Brigitta (Hungarian), Brigida (Italian), Brigita (Latvian), Breeshey (Manx), Birgit, Birgitta, Birgitte, Berit, Brit, Brita, Britt, Britta (Norwegian), Brygida (Polish), Brigita (Slovene), Brigida (Spanish), Birgit, Birgitta, Berit, Brita, Britt, Britta, Gittan (Swedish), Ffraid (Welsh)
  • Genoveva, (cognate of English Genevieve) from Genovefa, a Gaulish name possibly meaning "tribe woman". Rare, variants: Geneviève (French), Genevieve (English), Genoveffa (Italian), Genowefa (Polish), Genoveva (Spanish)
  • Lusitânia or Lusitana probably of Celtic origin: 'Lus and Tanus', "tribe of Lusus", connecting the name with the personal Celtic name Luso and with the god Lugh.
  • Nelson also Nélson from the Gaelic name Niall, which is of disputed origin, possibly meaning "champion" or "cloud". This was the name of a semi-legendary 4th-century Irish king, Niall of the Nine Hostages. In the early Middle Ages the name was adopted by Viking raiders and settlers in Ireland in the form Njal.
  • Óscar (cognate of English Oscar) derived from Gaelic "deer" and cara "friend", possibly means "deer friend". Variants: Òscar (Catalan), Oskari, Osku (Finnish), Oskar (German), Oszkár (Hungarian), Oscar (Irish), Óskar (Icelandic), Oskars (Latvian), Oskar (Polish), Oskar (Slovene), Óscar (Spanish)
  • Tristão (cognate of Tristan) from Pictish "Drustan", derived from Celtic drest meaning "riot" or "tumult". This name was borne by several kings of the Picts, including their last king Drust X, who ruled in the 9th century. Variants: Drest, Tristan (Celtic Mythology), Tristan, Tristen, Tristin, Triston (English), Tristram (English (British)), Tristan (French), Tristán (Spanish), Drystan, Tristan, Trystan (Welsh)
  • Viriato, from Ancient Celtic 'viriae' "bracelets". Viriathus was a leader of the Lusitani (a tribe of Portugal) who rebelled against Roman rule in the 2nd century BC. This name is historically unique to Portugal.

Surnames: A considerable number of the Portuguese surnames (spread in all Portuguese-speaking countries and ex-colonies today) is Celtic or of Latinised, Celtic-borrowings. This is not a comprehensive list of those.


  • Abranches Gaulish from 'Abrincate' cognate of Breton *ambrouga 'to lead' or Welsh *hebryngydd, hebryngiad 'leader, guide' + suffix "ate"
  • Abrantes from Proto-Celtic 'Arantis' or Latin 'Aurantes'
  • Abrunhosa, Abrunheiro Latinised prūnum, from Celtic *agrīnio


  • Bacelar (also Bacellar), from Celtic *baccos 'young man, lad' akin to Gaulish and Breton bach
  • Barreto also Barrete from Proto-Celtic *birros 'short coat with a hood'
  • Bico, Bicudo, also Bica, Bicalho, from Proto-Celtic *bekko 'beak, kiss',[9][10][11] cognate of Italian becco, French bec.
  • Borba, from Proto-Celtic *borwâ 'mud, slime, mucus'
  • Bouça, Boiça, probably from Proto-Celtic *baudea-, *baud- smear
  • Braga, from Celtic *braco 'hoop iron, small fortification'
  • Bragança toponymic, also synonymous with the House of Braganza, from Bregança or Bragancia, from 'Brigantia' Proto-Celtic *bhr̥g'hntī, berg'h high, lofty, elevated
  • Brites from Celtic *brig- / brigo- / briga 'great, high, eminent' also relating to Brigantia the celtic deity
  • Brito from Celtic 'brìgh' < Proto-Celtic *brīgos 'strength'


  • Cabanelas from Celtic *cab 'hut'
  • Calhau, from proto-Celtic *ca-la cognate of French caillou 'pebble'
  • Caminha from Latin *cammīnus, from proto-Celtic *kanxsman 'step'
  • Canastra, from Old French 'banaste', from Celtic *benna- 'straw-basket'
  • Canto, Canteiro from Proto-Celtic *kanto 'rim'
  • Cangas, Cangueiro from Celtic *kambika 'collar, yoke'
  • Carpinteiro from Proto-Celtic *carbanto '(wooden) chariot, wooden box'
  • Carvalho, Carvalhal, Carvalheira, Carvalhosa, Carvalheda from cassīcos, from Celtic *cassos 'curly, twisted'
  • Cerveja also Cervejaria from Vulgar Latin *cerevisia derived from Gaulish[12] Cognates: Old French cervoise, Provençal, Spanish cerveza; akin to Old Irish coirm, Welsh cwrw, Breton korev.
  • Charrua, Charruadas also Charraz, from Celtic *carros-
  • Coelho, Coelhos, Coelhoso also Coelha, Coelhas, from Irish coinân, Cornish conyn, Manx coneeyn, Gaelic coineanach, Welsh cwningen, alternatively from Celtiberian *cun-icos 'little dog'[13]
  • Colmeia, from a Celtic form *kolmēnā 'made of straw',[14] from *kolmos 'straw', which gave Leonese cuelmo; cf. Welsh calaf "reed, stalk", Cornish kalav "straw", Breton kolo "stalk").
  • Correia, Corrêa from Gallo-Latin corrigia 'strap'; akin to Old Irish cuimrech "fetter", Irish 'creasa' (belt, girdle), Scottish cuibhreach "bond, chain", 'crios' (belt), Welsh cyfrwy "saddle", Middle Welsh kyfreieu "leashes", Cornish kevrenn "fastening, link", Breton kevre "link, bond"
  • Curral, from Celtic *korro 'corral, pen, corner'


  • Faia, Faial, from Latin loanword 'fagea', from proto-Celtic *bagos 'beech tree'




  • Minhoca, from medieval form *milocca, from Proto-Celtic *mîlo-,[9][17] akin to Asturian milu, merucu 'earthworm', Irish míol 'worm, maggot', Welsh, Breton mil 'animal'

O,P,Q, R[edit]

  • Raia also Raiano, from Celtic *rica- 'furrow, line'
  • Rego, also Rêgo from proto-Celtic *ɸrikā 'furrow, ditch',[18][19][20] akin to Welsh rhych, Breton reg, Scottish/Irish riach 'trace left from something'; cognate of French raie, Occitan, Catalan rega, Basque erreka, Italian riga 'wrinkle'.
  • Rocha, also Rochas, Rochel from old Breton *roc'h, with Latin loanword rocca 'rock, stone'


  • Seara, also Seareiro, Senra, from medieval senara, a Celtic compound of *seni- 'apart, separated' (cf. Old Irish sain 'alone', Welsh han 'other') and *aro- 'ploughed field'.[21][22] (cf. Welsh âr, Irish ár 'ploughed field').
  • Saboga, from celtic *sabauca' or *sabŏlos, see also "sável"
  • Seabra, Celtiberian toponymic of sena-briga, of which *briga means 'castro/fortress'


  • Tojal, Tojeira, Tojo from Celtic *togi 'furze'
  • Tristão from Celtic *drest 'riot'
  • Truta, from Celtic *tructa- freshwater fish of the salmon family.[23] Cognate of French truite, English trout, Catalan truita, Spanish trucha, Italian trota'.


  • Vassalo Latinised 'vassalum' from proto-Celtic *wasto-,[9][24] cognate of French vassal, Spanish vasallo, Middle Irish foss 'servant', Welsh gwas 'servant; lad', Breton gwaz

List of Portuguese words of Celtic origin[edit]

  • alauda [f] 'lark', Latin borrowing 'alauda' from Gaulish *alaio 'swan', cognate of French alouette, Walloon alôye, Provençal alauza, alauseta, Catalan alosa, alova, Spanish alondra, Italian allodola, lodola, Old Irish elu 'swan', Irish/Scottish eala 'swan'; with suffix, Welsh alarch 'lark', Breton alarc'h 'lark'.
  • álamo [m] 'poplar', from Celtic *lēmos 'elm', cognate of Asturian llamera, Irish leamhán, Welsh llwyfen, Spanish álamo.
    derivatives: alameda lane, avenue, alamedar to plant trees in a lane, avenue
  • amieiro [m] 'common alder', a derivative in -arium of *abona 'river', related to Breton avon, Welsh afon, Irish abha/abhainn 'river'.
    derivatives: amieiral alder woods, amieira young alder tree or hand-basket made of alder or chestnut shoots
  • arpente also arpento 'arpent acre' Latin borrowing (old measurement) from Gaulish *arpen, cognate of French arpent, akin to Old Irish airchenn 'short mete, bound (abuttal); end, extremity', Welsh arbenn 'chief'
  • abater [v] 'to knock down, to lower' from Vulgar Latin abbattuere to demolish, knock down, overthrow: from ad- + Latin battuere, see bater below. The d is assimilated to the b in battuere from older Celtic.
  • abrolho 'sprout, thorn, thicket, rocky surfaces just under water, keys', from Celtic *brogilos 'copse',.[25][26]
    derivatives: abrolhar [v] 'to cover with thorns, to sprout (botanics), to get covered in spots, blisters, to sprout', abrolhamento 'to fence smthg with thorns, cover with sprouts, to cause hardship', desabrolhar [v] 'to sprout, to bloom, to blossom'.
  • abrunho/abrunheiro [m] 'sloe', from Vulgar Latin *aprūneu, from Latin prūnum, under the influence of Celtic *agrīnio;[9][27][28] akin to Irish áirne, Welsh eirin 'plum'; cognate of Occitan agranhon, Provençal agreno, Catalan aranyó, Aragonese arañon.
  • albóio [m] 'window-pane (nautical), skylight, from Proto-Celtic *ɸare-bow-yo- akin to Old-Irish airbe 'covered, enclosed'.
  • ardósia [f] 'slate', from Proto-Celtic, probably via Gaulish *artuās, aritisia- originally wall, mural interior, construction material
  • atol a muddy place, bog: from atolar "to dirty to soil," from a- + tol "mire, muddy place" (possibly from a Celtic word represented in Old Irish toll "hole, pit, grave") + the verbal infinitive suffix -ar.
    derivatives: atoleiro[m], atoladoiro, atoladouro 'bog', atolado 'to get swamped, to get bogged down', atoladiço 'place or person with the quality to get swamp/get bogged down'
  • bacelo [m] 'young vine', from Celtic *baccos- 'young man, lad' akin to Gaulish and Breton bach[29]
    derivatives: baceleiro[m] 'young vine nursery, man who specialises in planting new vines', bacelar [v], abacelar [v] 'to plant and tender to new vines', abacelamento 'the act of sorting out young vines (by variety)', bacharelato 'baccalaureat, university degree', Latinised from *baccalaris- person of lower (military) rank or young cadet,[29] bacharel 'same as baccalaureat, chatter-box, chatty or witty person', bacharelar [v] 'to talk too much', bacharelice, bacharelismo 'habbit of chatting too much or for too long', barcelo 'white grape variety from Northern Portugal'
  • bacia [f] 'basin', Latinised borrowing 'baccinum< baccia ('wine or water jug'), from Gaulish *bacca- 'burden, load to bear' cognate of French bassin, Provençal bachè, bacha 'large vat', Amognard bassie 'sink', akin to Irish/Scots Gaelic bac 'hindrance, heed', Welsh baich 'load, burden', Cornish begh 'load, burden', Breton bec'h 'burden, toil'.
    derivatives: bacia-hidrográfica, bacia-fluvial (geology) 'catchment basin, watershed, catchment area', sub-bacia 'sub-catchment basin', bacio 'chamber-pot', baciada 'contents of a basin, pot'
  • balaia [f] also balaio 'small straw-basket' via Old French balain 'broom (plant)', from Gaul *balatno, metathesis of *banatlo, cognate of Breton balannen, Scots-Gaelic bealaidh, Irish beallaidh, Welsh banadl, Cornish banadhel, Asturian baléu
  • bálano [m] 'barnacle, gland' from Gaulish *barenica 'limpet', akin to French balane and barnache, Irish báirneach, Scots-Gaelic bàirneach, Welsh brennig, Cornish brennik, Breton bernig, brennig
  • banzo [m] 'crossbar, beam, parapet, balustrade, nostalgia' from Proto-Celtic *wankio-'beam'.
    derivatives: banzeiro 'moving gently, wind gusts', banzear [v] 'to move gently'
  • barco [m] 'boat, ship' from Proto-Celtic *barga-, loanward into Latin bargo, 'boat'.
  • barca [f] 'small seagoing vessel', from proto-Celtic *barga- 'boat', from Old French 'barge', Old Provençal 'barca'.
    derivatives: barcaça, barça, barcagem, barcada, 'barge, shallow boat with a sail', 'freight', 'boatload'; from Gaulish *barge-, cognate old Provençal 'barca', Medieval Latin loanword from Celtic 'barga'. Maybe from Greek 'baris' "Egyptian boat," from Coptic 'bari' "small boat." Meaning "flat-bottomed freight boat" dates from late 15c.
  • bardo [m] 'bard, poet' from Proto-Celtic *bardos- 'bard, poet' cognate of French 'barde', Scottish Gaelic 'bard', Irish 'bard', Catalan 'bard'.
  • barra [f] 'garret, loft, upper platform', from proto-Celtic *barro-,[9][27] cognate of Irish, Breton barr 'summit, peak, top', Welsh bar.
    derivatives: barrote [m] 'wooden beam'
  • barrete [m] 'hood', from Proto-Celtic *birros- 'short coat with a hood'.
    derivatives: barretada 'greeting someone with your hat', barrete-de-clérigo 'fortification or building work composed of three protruding angles and two sinking ones', enfiar o barrete (popular expression) 'to mislead or deceive someone'.
  • barulho 'noise, confusion, turmoil' from Gaulish *bruge- 'to troat', akin to French bruit, barouf, Welsh broch 'din, tumult', Breton bruchell 'roar, bellow', Scots-Gaelic broiglich 'noise', broighleadh 'turmoil'; Irish brúcht 'belch'.
    derivatives: barulhento 'noisy', barulhar [v] 'to confuse, to deceive', barulheira, barulhada 'disruptive noise, tumult, turmoil'
  • bater [v] 'to beat, to beat up, to win over' Latinised *battuere from Gaulish *battu, bathu-* 'I beat', akin to Welsh bathu 'to coin, mint (money)', Celtic bathi 'to mint (money)'.
    derivatives: combate 'combat, fight', combater [v] 'to fight', combatente 'combatant, fighter', combativo 'combative, contentious', abater [v] 'to strike, to shoot down, to kill with a gun', debate 'debate', debater 'to debate, to discuss', batalhar [v] 'to fight, to battle', batalha 'battle', batalhão 'battalion', batalhador, batalhante 'fighter, combative'.

"desabrochamento", in Dicionário Priberam da Língua Portuguesa [em linha], 2008-2013, https://www.priberam.pt/dlpo/desabrochamento [consultado em 26-05-2017]. .

  • batuta [f] 'an orchestra conductor's baton': from Italian battuta, from battere, from Latin battere, battuerre, see bater above.
  • beiço [m] 'snout, animal's mouth', from Proto-Celtic *beiccion- or *baykkyon- "animal's mouth/snort", from *baicciō "to yell"; akin to Old Irish béccim, Irish béic ‘yell, roar’, Scottish beuc, Welsh beichio ‘to low, sob’, Cornish begi ‘to bray’, Breton begiad ‘to bleat’, Spanish bezo 'big lip'.
    derivatives: gaita-de-beiços 'harmonica, panpipe', beiçola, beiça, beiçorra all to do with 'mouth', there are several popular expressions like: fazer beicinho 'pout', 'pucker', or andar pelo beiço 'to have a crush on someone', beiçudo 'thick-lipped, big-mouth person or animal'.
  • berço [m] 'craddle', from Gaulish *bertu 'I rock', Old French *berta 'load', cognate of French berceau, Provençal bressà 'to rock', brès 'cradle', Irish beartaim 'I rock', beárt 'load, action'; further to Old Irish brith, breth 'carrying, judgment', Middle Welsh bryd 'thought, mind, intent', Cornish brys 'thought'.
    derivatives: berçário (hospital), new-born ward (hospital), 'nursey', berceiro (colloquial) 'lazy man'.
  • betume [m] 'putty', from Celtic *betu- derived from Indo-European *gwetu- with the labialisation of 'gw' into 'b' typical of Celtic, which meant resin. The Latin 'bitumen' (tar) is very likely borrowed from the older Celtic 'betu-'.
  • bezerro [m] 'year old veal', Uncertain: from Proto-Celtic *bicurru- or Iberian *ibicurri- or Latin *Ibex- "wild goat"
  • bétula [f]'birch', from Gaulish *betuo-, derivation from *betu- 'woods, forest', cognate of Gaelic 'beith', Cornish 'betho', Breton 'bezo, bedwen', Welsh 'bedw, bedwen'.
  • bico [m] 'beak, kiss', from Proto-Celtic *bekko-,[9][10][11] cognate of Italian becco, French bec.
    derivatives: bicar 'to kiss', debicar [v] '(bird)pecking'.
  • bilha,[30] [f] 'spigot; stick' to Proto-Celtic *beljo- 'tree, trunk',[31] akin to Old Irish bille 'large tree, tree trunk', Manx billey 'tree', Welsh pill 'stump', Breton pil; cognate of French bille 'log, chunk of wood'.
  • bode [m] 'billy-goat, male goat' from Proto-Celtic *bukko- akin to French bouc, loanword into Dutch bok
  • bodalho also godalho 'male goat, messy or careless person, loose woman', from Celtic *ghaidos 'happiness, folly'
  • borba[30] [f] 'mud, slime, mucus', from proto-Celtic *borwâ-,[32] cognate of French bourbe 'mud'; akin to Irish borb 'mud, slime', bearbh 'boiling', Welsh berw 'boiling', Breton berv 'broth, bubbling'.
    derivatives: borbotar [v], 'to blossom, to bloom', borbulhar [v] 'to burble, to boil', borbulha 'bubble, spot, pimple', borbulhante 'bubbly'.
  • borne [m] 'terminal, metal part of an electrical circuit that connects to an external electrical circuit, inner bark of a tree, lukewarm' from Proto-Celtic *botina 'troop'.,[33] akin to Old Irish buiden and Welsh byddin 'army' (*budīnā).
    derivatives: bornear [v] 'to align an object with the view, generally closing one eye, to put a gun/weapon to aim, ie.: to aim a cannon'.
  • bosta [f], 'excrement from cows and any animal feces, dung, muck, colloquial-derogatory: someone who is a coward, nonsense, shit'.
    derivatives: bostal [m] 'corral for cattle', bostar [v] 'to expel dung, to say very unpleasant or sickening things', bostear [v], embostear [v], embostar [v] 'to cover with dung or manure, to dirty something', bosteiro 'dung-beetle, lamellicorn beetle'.
  • bouça [f], touça [f], boiça [f], toiça [f] 'land with overgrown vegetation ie. gorse, broom, heather', possibly from Proto-Celtic *baudea-, *baud- 'smear'
  • braço [m] 'arm'(anatomy), from proto-Celtic *brac- 'arm', loanword into Latin 'brachium' and Greek βραχίων 'brakhíôn'; cognate of French 'bras', Welsh 'braich', Breton 'brec'h'.
    derivatives: braça, braçada, abraço, abraçar [v]; 'tree-branch', 'breaststroke', 'hug,embrace', 'to embrace, to hug'. See further list of derived words:
    • antebraço [m] 'forearm'
    • antebraquial 'forearm'
    • avambraço 'forearm'
    • braço-curto
    • braço-de-armas
    • braço-de-ferro
    • braço-de-mono
    • braço-de-preguiça
    • braço-forte
    • braquio
    • cana-de-braço
    • guarda-braço
    • quebra-de-braço
    • queda-de-braço
    • rebraço
    • violão-sem-braço
      There are numerous other Portuguese expressions and colloquialisms deriving from the word braço (arm)
  • braça 'treelimb, branch' Latin borrowing branca 'paw', from Gaulish *vranca- cognate of French branche, Breton brank, branc'h 'bough, antlers', Scots-Gaelic bràc 'branch, antler; reindeer'
  • braga [f] '[Old] Hoop iron that held the fetter, male type of trouser, wall that served as a fortification junk, type of naval crane to lift and move weights (ships), small four-string type of guitar'. From [Proto-Celtic] *braco-,[34] cognate of Galician, Spanish, Occitan braga, French braie, Italian brache.
    derivatives: braguilha[30] [f] 'trouser-flier, braguinha [f] 'small guitar', bragal [m] 'coarse fabric whose plot is cord, underclothes, old measurement for land demarcation: Portion of a farm (7 or 8 poles) which served as the unit price in certain contracts, set of bucks and fetter', desbragar [v] 'to make dissolute, profligate, to drop your buckles', desbragado [m] 'riotous, foul-mouthed, indecorous, libertine, dissolute, immoral', desbragadamente 'indecorously', desbragamento [m] 'riotous quality, ribaldry, impropriety (behaviour), Bracarense 'relating to Braga, native of that city', brácaro 'a person native of Braga', bracamarte 'old claymore sword which was swung with both hands'.
  • bravo [m] 'brave, daring, wild' from Gaulish *bragos 'show-off', akin to French brave, Italian bravo 'bold', Occitan/Catalan brau 'wild', Irish breá, Scots gaelic brèagh, Cornish bray, Breton braga 'to strut around'.
    derivatives: bravura [v], braveza [v] bravery, courage, desbravar [v] 'to pave, to clear, to trace out', bravio 'untamed, ferocious, undomesticated, rude', braviamente '(to behave) in a daring, brave, courageous way or manner'
  • brejo [m] 'marsh, marshland, moor' from Celtic *vroikos- akin to French 'bruyère' (often used as Botanical name for Heather but also meaning marsh=marais), old Gaulish 'brucus' (heather blossom), Breton 'brug' Welsh 'grug', Irish and Scottish Gaelic 'fraoch', Galician 'breixo', Occitan 'bruga'.
    derivatives: bregiais, bregieira, bregieiros, bregio, breja, brejão, brejeira, brejenjas, brejinho, brejioso, brejoeira, brejões, brejos all relating to 'marsh, marshlands, moors', and also brejeiro, brejeirice, brejeirar [v], 'meaning naughty person, slightly saucy or cocky talk or behaviour'.
  • brenha [f] 'thick bush' from Celtic *brigna- hill.
    derivatives: embrenhar [v] 'to go deep into a bush or forest, figurative: to go deep in thought', embrenhado 'someone who is lost in a deep forest or in thought, concentrating on smthg'.
  • brio[30] [m] 'pride, courage, might, power', from Italian brio, from Catalan/Old Occitan briu 'wild', from Celtic *brigos,[9] cognate of Occitan briu, Old French brif 'finesse, style'; akin to Old Irish bríg 'power', Welsh bri 'prestige, authority', Breton bri 'respect'.
    derivatives: brioso 'proud, brave, exuberant', briosamente 'proudly, with dignity', desbrio 'lacking pride or courage, a cowardly act', desbrioso 'someone who acts without pride, a coward, a wimp'
  • brita [f] 'grit, stone, gravel' from Proto-Celtic *brīgos 'strength', akin to Old Irish bríg 'force, power, value, Scots-Gaelic brìgh 'strength', Welsh bri 'honour, esteem'.
    derivatives: britar [v] 'to grit, to crush', britadeira 'stone-breaker, trimmer, crusher (machinery)', britamento 'act of crushing, grinding', britador 'person who crushes stone, crusher, trimmer, stamp'
  • Britânico [m], from Latin loanword britannicus, from Britannia; akin to Welsh pryd "form", Irish cruth'
  • broche [m], 'brooch', clasp, clip, fastener: from Old French broche "a spit," from Vulgar Latin (*)brocca "a nail, spike," from Latin broccus, brocchus "a nail, projecting (adj.), buck-toothed (adj.)" loanword from Celtic (*)brokko- "a pin, badger."
    derivatives: desabrochar [v] 'to blossom, to unfasten',
  • broca 'drill, skewer, skew-diver, sharp pointed object' from Gaulish *brocca, akin to French broche 'drill, skewer' Scots-Gaelic brog 'awl; to prod', Welsh procio 'to poke, thrust', Irish broc, Welsh broch, Breton broc'h, Asturian bruecu.
    derivatives: brocar [v] also broquear [v] 'to drill, to sever', brocante 'with a drilling quality'
  • brócolos or brócolis [m] 'broccoli'
  • bruxa [f] 'witch, sorcerer', Latinised *bruxtia, from Gaulish *brixtia-, akin to Old French brixtu 'charms, spells' Middle Welsh brithron 'magic wand', Breton bre 'witch, magic', breoù 'spells, charms', Old Irish brichtu 'spells', brigim 'to light up, illuminate', Brigit 'shining'.
    Derivatives:bruxaria, bruxedo 'witchcraft, sorcery', bruxulear[v] ,'flicker, shimmer'(of light)'a luz bruxuleia= the light shimmers', bruxo 'clairvoyant'
  • bunda [f] 'bottom, bum (colloquial)' from Gaulish. bunda 'base, bottom', cognate of French bonde, Old Irish bunud, Scots-Gaelic bonn 'foundation', Welsh bonedd 'base, foundation'
  • cabana [f] 'hut' Proto-Celtic *cab-
    derivatives: cabine, cabina cabin, gabinete office, telecabine cable-car, pessoal de cabine cabin-crew.
  • cadeira [f] 'chair' often claimed as Latin cathedra loanword from Greek καθέδρα 'cathedral'; is however very likely from Proto-Celtic *cathair- 'chair, seat', akin to Welsh cadair Cornish kador, Breton kador, Irish cathaoir, Scottish Gaelic cathair, Manx caair.
    derivatives: cadeira-de-braços 'armchair', cadeira-de-rodas 'wheelchair', cadeira de escritório 'office-chair', cadeirão 'sofa'
  • cais [m] 'quay, jetty', maybe from French (itself from Norman) quai, from proto-Celtic *kag-yo-,[9][35][36] akin to Welsh cae, Cornish ke, Breton kae 'hedge'; French chai 'cellar'.
  • calhau[m] 'pebble, stone', from Celtic *caliavo- cognate of French caillou, Piccardie caillau, Poitou chail, Provençal calado, Asturian cayuela, Welsh caill, Cornish kell, Breton kell, kall, Irish caull 'testicle'.
    derivatives: calhoada 'cairn'
  • camba[30] [f] 'wheel rim' from proto-Celtic *kambo-,[9][17][37] cognate of Old Irish camm 'crooked, bent, curved'. Cognate of Occitan cambeta 'part of plough', Limousin Occitan chambija (< *cambica) 'part of plough'.
    derivatives: cambada, cambeira 'coil; crooked log for hanging fish', cambela 'type of plough', cambota 'beam', encambar [v] 'to string, to entangle', cambo 'pole, bent', cambaio, cambão 'crooked, lame', cambar [v] 'to change, to alter, to move direction (nautical)', cambalhota 'tumble, gambol', cambalhotar 'to caper, to tumble'.
  • câmbio 'foreign exchange, Forex' Latin borrowing from Gaulish *cambion 'exchange', cognate of French (bureau de) change, Breton kemm 'exchange', Old Irish cimb 'ransom' Spanish/Italian cambio, Asturian cambéu 'exchange'.
    derivatives: cambiar [v] 'to exchange currencies', cambista 'Foreign Exchange agent or trader', cambiante 'changing, or (chameleons and other animals) with the ability to change colours'
  • caminho[30] [m] 'pathway', from Vulgar Latin *cammīnus, from proto-Celtic *kanxsman-,[9][38] cognate of Italian cammino, French chemin, Spanish camino, Catalan camí, Occitan camin, Old Irish céimm, Breton cam 'step'.
    derivatives: caminhar 'to walk', caminhada 'walk, journey', caminhante, caminheiro 'hiker, walker, someone who loves to walk, pilgrim', caminheira 'sort of locomotive used in road transportation', caminhável 'area or place adept/safe to walk'
  • camisa[30] [f] 'shirt' from Latin, from Gaulish camisia.[39] cognate of Spanish/Occitan camisa, Italian camicia, French chainse.
    derivatives: camisola 'jersey', camiseta 'undershirt, singlet', camisa-de-dormir 'nightgown', camisa-de-Venus or camisinha 'condom' (colloquial)
  • camurça 'chamois, suede, fawn' Latinised 'camox' from Celtic *kamoke, akin to French 'chamois'.
    derivatives: acamurçado, camurçado 'made of suede, suede-like', acamurçar [v], encamurçar [v] 'to cover with leather, to die or treat leather making it look like suede', camurcina 'suedette' (fabric)
  • canapé 'Canapé' from Latin 'canāpēum' mosquito net, from Old French *conopé- 'small-size open sandwich'
  • canastra [f] 'basket, large basket' from Old French 'banaste', from Celtic *benna- 'straw-basket'.
    derivatives: canastrada 'basket load, contents in a basket', canastrão 'big basket, pejorative for bad acting or public performance', canastreiro 'someone who makes straw baskets as a trade, canastrel 'small basket with a handle and cover', canastrice 'poor performance or show'.
  • canga[30] [f] 'collar, yoke', from Celtic *kambika.[40]
  • cangalha [f] 'shoulder yoke', from Celtic *kambika.[40]
  • canto [m] 'rim, corner', from proto-Celtic *kanto-,[27] akin to Old Irish cét 'round stone pillar, Welsh cant 'tire rim', Breton kant 'disk'; cognate of Old French chant, Occitan cant.
    derivatives: cantoneiro 'road worker', cantonar[v] 'railway traffic control', recanto 'corner', cantinho 'small corner', Cantão, Cantonal 'Swiss Canton, relating to Canton's legal affairs or government, acantoar[v] or acantonar 'to hide, to isolate', canteiro 'vegetable plot, flowerbed, border', acanteirar[v], encanteirar 'to place/arrange in pods'(gardening, bottles, etc.), encanteirado 'in a pod', cantonado 'engraved corner (heraldry)'.
  • carro [m] 'cart, wagon', from Vulgar Latin carrum, from proto-Celtic *karro-,[9][17][41] cognate of Rumanian car, Italian carro, French char, Provençal car, Spanish carro; akin to Irish carr, Welsh car, Breton karr.
    derivatives: carroça 'cart', carregar 'to load', acarretar, acartar 'to cart, to carry', carreta 'cart', carrear 'to guide animals in a cart, to drive', carroçaria 'bodywork' (vehicle), carruagem 'carriage', carreto 'load', carrinha 'van', carro-de-mão 'wheelbarrow', carrossel 'carousel'.
  • carvalho [m] 'common oak' from *cassīcos, from Celtic *cassos 'curly, twisted',[19] akin to Irish cas 'twist, turn, spin', Old Welsh cascord 'to twist'; cognate of Asturian caxigu, Aragonese caixico, Gascon casse, French chêne 'oak' (< *cassanos).
    derivatives: carvalhal 'oak woods', carvalha, carvalheira, carvalheiro, carvalhiça, carvalhinha all related to different oak-tree sizes
  • caixigo [m] 'oak; Portuguese oak', from *cassīcos, from Celtic *cassos 'curly, twisted',[42][43] akin to Irish cas 'twist, turn, spin', Old Welsh cascord 'to twist'; cognate of Asturian caxigu, Aragonese caixico, Gascon casse, French chêne 'oak' (< *cassanos).
  • carpinteiro [m] 'carpenter', from Proto-Celtic *carbanto- '(wooden) chariot, wooden box'.
    derivatives: carpintaria 'carpentry', carpintar[v] and carpintejar[v] 'to do wood-works', carpinteiragem 'carpentry works'.
  • cavalo [m] 'horse' Latinised *caballus 'nag', from Gaul. *caballos-, variant of cabillos 'work horse, nag', dim. of cabō (> L) akin to Fr. cheval, It. cavallo, Sp. caballo, Rum cal; Germ (Swabish) Kōb 'nag' (< cabō), Mantuan kaval, Welsh ceffyl, Breton kefel, Irish capall, Manx cabbyl.
    derivatives: cavalaria 'cavalry', cavaleiro 'horse ridder', cavalheiro 'gentleman', cavalheirismo 'chivalry', cavalinho 'little horse', cavalgar [v] 'to ride', cavala 'mackerel', cavalgadura 'a horse, mule or ass you can ride, someone rude or beastly'.
  • centola, santola [m] 'European spider crab', akin to Gaulish personal name CINTULLOS 'the first one',[44] from PCl *kintu- 'first'.
  • cerveja[30] [f] 'beer', from Vulgar Latin *cerevisia, from Gaulish[45] Cognates: Old French cervoise, Provençal, Spanish cerveza; akin to Old Irish coirm, Welsh cwrw, Breton korev.
    derivatives: cervejaria[f] 'brewery, brasserie, beer hall', cervejeiro 'brewer'
  • charrua [f] 'plow', from Celtic *carros- car, with Latin borrowing carruca.
    derivatives: charruar[v] 'to plow', charrueco 'a rough plowing machine'
  • cheda[f] 'lateral external board of a cart, where the crossbars are affixed', via Medieval Latin cleta, from proto-Celtic *klētā-,[9][27][30][46] cognate of Irish cloí (cloidhe) 'fence', clíath 'palisade, hurdle', Welsh clwyd 'barrier, wattle, scaffolding, gate', Cornish kloos 'fence', Breton kloued 'barrier, fence'; cognate of French claie 'rack, wattle fencing', Occitan cleda, Catalan cleda 'livestock pen', Basque gereta.
  • choco [m] 'cowbell; squid', from proto-Celtic *klokko-,[9][27][47] akin to Old Irish clocc, Welsh cloch, Breton kloc'h; cognate of Asturian llueca and llócara 'cowbell', French cloche 'bell', German Glock.
    derivatives: chocar 'to bang, to shock', chocalho 'cowbell'.
  • cibalho [m] 'bird food' from Gaelic *cib- 'reed', akin to Irish 'cibeach'[48]
  • clã [m] 'clan', from Gaelic *clann- from Old Irish 'cland' meaning children or family.
  • côdea [f] 'crust, skin, bark' from Gaelic *cotach < cuit < cuid < coda.
    derivatives: descodear [v], escodear [v] ' 'to remove/cut off the crust (i.e. bread, cheese, tree bark)', cotovelo [m] 'elbow', acotovelar, cotovelar [v] 'to push & shove (one's way), decote [m] 'cleavage, neckline', decotar [v] 'to head down, to cut (a head) off, cote [m], cotio[m], quotidiano [m] 'of regular use, daily', cotiar [v] 'to use daily, regularly'.
  • coelho [m] 'rabbit', likely from Celtiberian *cun-icos 'little dog'[13] akin to Irish coinân, Cornish conyn, Manx coneeyn, Gaelic coineanach, Galician coello, Welsh cwningen, Catalan conill, Danish/Swedish/Norwegian kanin, Dutch konijn, Finnish kani, Frisian knyn, German Kanninchen, Icelandic kanína, Italian coniglio, Romansh cunigl, Spanish conejo, Veneto conéjo.
    derivatives: coelheira 'rabbit hutch', coelheiro '(dog) good at hunting rabbits', rabicoelha(ornithology) also rabiscoelha 'corncrake, spotted crake', coelhinha 'bunny'
  • colmeia[30] [m] 'beehive', from a Celtic form *kolmēnā 'made of straw',[49] from *kolmos 'straw', which gave Leonese cuelmo; cf. Welsh calaf "reed, stalk", Cornish kalav "straw", Breton kolo "stalk").
    derivatives: colmeeiro 'hiver', colmeal 'beekeeping space, area'
  • comba [f] 'valley, inflexion', from proto-Celtic *kumbā,[9][27][50] cognate of North Italian comba, French combe, Occitan comba; akin to Irish com, Welsh cwm 'hollow (land form)', Cornish komm 'small valley, dingle', Breton komm 'small valley, deep water'.
  • combo [m] (adj.) 'curved, bent', from Celtic *kumbo-,[9][27][51] cognate of Provençal comb, Spanish combo.
    derivatives: combar 'to bend'.
  • cômoro [m] also combro 'mound, hillock, limit of a patch or field, usually left intentionally unploughed', from proto-Celtic *kom-ɸare-(yo)-,[9] cognate of Old Irish comair 'in front of', Welsh cyfair 'direction, place, spot, acre'. Or either to *kom-boros 'brought together'.[52]
    derivatives: acomarar 'to mark out a field (literally to dote with cômoros)'.
  • correia 'belt, girdle', Latinised Gaulish *corrigia- "strap"; akin to Old Irish cuimrech "fetter", Irish creasa 'belt' , Scottish Gaelic crios, cuibhreach "bond, chain", Welsh cyfrwy "saddle", Middle Welsh kyfreieu "leashes", Cornish kevrenn "fastening, link", Breton kevre "link, bond".
    derivatives: desencorrear [v] 'to unstrap, to unbridle (a horse)', encorreadura 'old leather armour', correada 'strike from a belt'
  • creme [m] 'cream' from French 'crème', in itself a combination of Latin 'chrisma' and Gaulish *kram- 'crust'.
    derivatives: cremoso 'creamy', leite-créme 'one of several popular Portuguese desserts, similar to custard', creme de barbear 'shaving cream', creme de leite 'milk fat, cream', creme de pasteleiro 'cream pastry', cremosidade 'creaminess', cremosamente[adv] 'rich in cream'.
  • crica [f] 'colloquial for vulva, female genitalia' from Proto-Celtic *krīkʷā- akin to Old Irish crích 'juice', Welsh crib 'chrest', Breton krib 'bent, folded'.
  • croca [f] 'plough-shaft' from Proto-Celtic *krowkā- akin to Provençal crauc 'heap, pile', Occitan cruca 'cape'; Irish cruach 'pile, haystack', Welsh crug 'heap, tomb' and Breton krug 'heap, tomb'
  • curral [m] 'corral, pen; corner', from Celtic *korro-,[9] akin to Middle Irish cor 'circle, turn', corrán 'sickle', Welsh cor 'enclosure', Cornish kor 'turn, veering'.
  • dólmen [m] ', from Gaulish/Breton *taol maen- 'table-shapped stone'
  • dorna [f] 'a type of boat; trough, measurement (volume)',[53] from proto-Celtic *durno- 'fist',[54] Irish dorn fish, Breton dorn 'hand'; Akin to Old French, Occitan dorn, 'a handful'.[55] Nevertheless, the Asturian duerna 'bowl' demand a form **dorno-.
  • duna [f] 'dune', from Gaulish *duno or *dunum
  • embaixada [f] 'embassy', from Provençal ambaissada, from ambaissa 'service, duty', from proto-Celtic *ambactos 'servant',[56] akin to Welsh amaeth 'farm', Cornish ammeth 'farming', Old Breton ambaith.
    derivatives: embaixador [m] 'ambassador', embaixatriz 'madam-ambassador'
  • embaraço [m] 'embarrassment, shame'; likely a combination of Celtic *- a noose, or rope combined with the prefix em- (from Latin im- for "in-") with.
    derivatives: [v] embaraçar, embaraçado 'to embarrass or cause shame to someone', 'embarrassed'. desembaraçado 'someone who is expedite, diligent', desembaraçar [v] 'to get rid of, to untangle', desembaraço 'resourcefulness', embaraçante, embaraçoso 'embarrassing, shameful, vexing', embaraçosamente 'in a pickle'.
  • engo [m] 'dwarf elder, loniceraceous plant similar to the elder'
  • enga [f] 'grassland, pasture'
  • escombros 'rubble, ruins, debris' via Latinised combrus 'barricade of felled trees' from Gaulish combero 'river fork, dam', cognate of Spanish escombro, French décombres akin to Breton kember, Welsh cymmer, Irish comar, cumar
  • estancar [v] 'to stall, stagnate, halt, stop temporarily' latinised Celtic *ektankō 'to fix'
  • estanho[m] 'tin, pewter' Latinised stagnum, var. stannum, from Gaulish *stannon (according to Pliny), cognate of French étain, Spanish estaño, Mantuan stajgn 'hard', Irish stán, Old Scots-Gaelic stàn, Welsh ystaen, Cornish sten, Breton stean.
    derivatives: estanhar [v] (chemistry Sn), 'to tin (a surface/material)', estânico 'made of tin, pewter, relating to tin, acid or salts resulted from tin and some salts high on metal contents', estanato (chemistry) 'salt from tin acid'
  • faia [f] 'beech tree' from proto-Celtic *bagos- from Latin loanword 'fagea', cognate of Irish 'feá', Welsh 'ffawydd', Italian 'faggio', Spanish 'haya'.
    derivatives: faial, faiado, faiar [v], desfaiar [v]; 'beechwood', 'loft', 'to insert, intercalate', 'to fall (down a rocky cliff)'
  • flanela [f] 'flannel' from Brittonic or proto-Celtic *u̯lan-ello-s, meaning "little woollen thing", via Gaulish vlana 'wool', cognate of French flanelle, Jersian flianné 'flannel', Mantuan flanèla 'flannel' Welsh gwlân 'wool', gwlanen 'flannel', Cornish gwlan, Breton gloan, Irish olann .
    derivatives: flanelógrafo [m] 'coated frame or table normally done with velcro', flanelinha [f] (colloquial) 'parking attendant'.
  • fronha [f] '(ugly) face, pillow-case', from Celtic *srogna- 'nose, nostril'.
    derivatives: porta-fronha 'main front-door of a house', enfronhar [v] 'to cover a pillow with a case, to disguise or mislead, to educate or inform', desenfronhar [v] 'to remove a pillow-case, to undress, to speak up', afronhado 'in the shape of a pillowcase'
  • gabela, gavela [f] 'handful, faggot', from Proto-Celtic *gabalā or *gabaglā-,[57][58][59] cognate of French javelle, Provençal gavela, Spanish gavilla; akin to Old Cornish gavael 'catch, capture', Irish gabháil 'get, take, grab, capture', gabhal 'fork'.
  • gafa [f] 'hook, grip' from Proto-Celtic *gabalā 'hold, grab' akin to Cornish gavel, Old Breton gabael, Old Irish gabál, verbal noun of *gabi- (“to take, hold”) (compare Old Irish gaibid), from Proto-Indo-European *gʰh₁bʰ-
    derivatives: gafanhoto [m] 'grasshopper'
  • gancho [m] 'hook, hairpin' from Celtic *ganskio or *gansco 'branch', akin to Old Irish gesca, French jachère, Spanish gancho.
    derivatives: ganchar, enganchar [v] 'to hook smthg, to grab/hang/hold with a hook', desenganchar 'to unhook, to free (from hook)', gancheado 'hook shaped'
  • galão [m] 'galon (liquid measure), braid, stripe, galloon, Portuguese traditional caffe-latte drink from Gaulish *glāvo 'rain', akin to Welsh glaw 'rain', Breton glao, Cornish glaw, Catalan galleda 'bucket'
  • galga [f] 'plain stone', from *gallikā, to Proto-Celtic *gallos 'stone',[27] akin to Irish gall, French galet 'gravel' gallete 'plain cake'.
    derivatives: galgar [v] 'carving a stone to make it plain and regular'.
  • galgo [m] 'greyhound dog' from Latin loanword 'gallîcus'(Gaulish, from Gaul); from Old French *Gaule- or *Waulle- (“Gaul”), from Frankish *Walholant- 'Gaul, Land of the Romans, foreigners', from Frankish *Walha- 'foreigners, Romans, Celts'.
  • galhardo [m] 'gallant, distinguished man', from Celtic *gal- force, via Gaulish *galia- combined with Latin suffix 'art' or 'ard'.
    derivatives: galhardete, galardão 'award' galardoar [v] 'to award, to recognise someone officially'; galã, galanteio, galante, galanteador 'gallant, charming, flattery, innuendo, flirtatious, seducer'; galhardear 'to show off, to be ostentatious', galhardia 'elegance, grandeur, generosity', Gala 'Gala, ceremony'.
  • galocha [f] 'Wellington boots', from French 'galoche', from Gaulish *gallos + -oche 'hard-sole shoes' also known by the Romans as gallica 'Gaulish shoes'.
  • garça [f] 'egret', (often mistaken with Latin ardĕa-) from Celtiberian *cárcia- akin to Breton kerc'heiz, Cornish kerghydh, Spanish garza.
    derivatives: garço 'colour: greenish-blue, greenish', garção 'large heron', also (rare) from French garçon 'waiter', garça-real 'Heron', garça-ribeirinha 'grey-heron', garça-boieira 'white-egret'.
  • garrote [m] 'quadruped animal shoulders, torture instrument which causes bleeding' from Proto-Celtic *garra- 'leg' and diminutive *garrito- 'small leg'.
  • garra [f] '(animal)claw, grip' also meaning 'bravery,courage,strength' from proto-Celtic *garra- 'leg' akin to akin to Welsh gar "leg", Cornish/Breton garr "leg, stalk, stem", Old Irish gairri "calves of the leg", Irish cara.
    derivatives: agarrar [v] 'to grab, to hold, to catch', garrar [v] 'to drift, to float (nautical), to split, to cut a suture (medical)', desgarrar [v] 'to take off course (nautic), to escape, to go off course, to be erratic', desgarre 'cockiness, audacity', desgarrado 'daring, erratic, audacious, extrovert, perverse', Desgarrada 'Portuguese popular song involving several singers who dare one another by improvising the verses. Probably a Provençal-Occitan influence originally, Garrano 'Garrano wild horse-breed'
  • gato [m] 'cat' from Latin loanword 'cattus' from Gaulish 'cattos' from Proto-Celtic *cath- cognate of French 'chat', English 'cat', Italian 'gatto', German 'Katze', Welsh 'cath', Irish 'cat', Catalan 'gat', Spanish 'gato', Greek 'γάτα'.
    derivatives: gatinhar [v],gatinha, to crawl (baby-crawl), 'pussycat, attractive female', several expressions/idioms like: aqui há gato, trocar gato por lebre 'English equivalent to 'I smell a rat', 'to rip someone off'.
  • gilbardeira also gilbarbeira[f] 'myrtle, bog myrtle' *possibly from Proto-Celtic *raddi- see Middle-Irish 'raidleog', Irish Gaelic 'raideog' Manx 'roddagagh'
  • goiva [f] 'gouge, chisel, grooving plane, also a deep, narrow stream' from Proto-Celtic 'gulbia' or 'guvia' from *gulb- 'beak', akin to French gouge, Italian gubba, Spanish guba, Old Irish 'gulba' Irish gealbhán (bird) and Welsh gylyf 'sickle' and gylf 'hilltop'.
    derivatives: goivar[v] 'to groove (with a plane), to hurt someone', goivadura 'cut, cavity made with a grooving plane', goiveira 'Dame's violet plant', goivo 'dame's violet (flower)'
  • gorar [v] 'sickness, rotting of an egg (hatching), to get confused (thought)', from Proto-Celtic *gʷor-,[60][61] akin to Old Irish guirid, Welsh and Cornish gori 'to hatch (eggs)' and Breton goriñ.
    derivatives: goro 'unfertilized egg, failure, misfortune', gorado 'an egg which didn't hatch, a failed situation or unfortunate person'.
  • gravilha [f] 'gravel, grit' Celtic *graua- akin to Old French 'gravier'.
    derivatives: greve (via French 'grève') 'strike (workers' union)', greve-geral 'general strike', grevista 'someone who strikes or leads a strike movement', greve de fome 'hunger strike'.
  • jante [f] 'wheel rim', Latinised borrowing 'canthus' < Gaulish *cantos, cognate of French jante, Breton kant 'ring', Welsh cant 'felloe, rim', Irish cétal, Scots-Gaelic canó, Piccardie gante, Occitan cant
  • lançar [v] 'to launch, to throw' Latinised borrowing 'lancea' from Gaulish *lankia, akin to Mantuan lansa 'lance' and lansér 'lancer', Mid-Irish do-léicim 'I toss, fling, launch', Italian 'lancia', Spanish 'lanza'. Probably initially loanword into Latin 'plāga' from Indo-european or Old Germanic *plāk-. The loss of the original /pl into /l is common in the old Celtic languages.
    derivatives: lança 'spear', lanço 'small trap', lanceolado 'lanceolate', lançamento 'launch', lançada 'a spear-strike'
  • landa [f], lande [f] 'uncultivated or sandy plot' from Proto-Celtic *landā,[17][31][62] akin to Old Irish lann 'land, church', Welsh lann 'church lands', French lande 'sandy plot', Provençal and Catalan landa.
  • lapa [f] 'grotto, den, limpet, lighting, slap, bee' from Proto-Celtic *lappa, akin to Irish Gaelic lapa 'paw, flipper', Polish łapa 'paw, flipper, mutton fist'
    derivatives: lapinha 'small grotto, rock shelter', lapeira 'rectangular knife for collecting limpets and other sea molluscs', lapão 'person with no manners, peasant, rude, gluton'
  • lage[30][63] [f] 'stone slab', from the medieval form lagena, from proto-Celtic *ɸlāgenā,[15] cognate of Old Irish lágan, láigean, Welsh llain 'broad spearhead, blade'; akin to Irish láighe 'mattock, spade'.
  • lavego [m], lavega [f], labego [m] 'plough', from Proto-Celtic *ɸlāw-aiko/ɸlāwo-, akin to Lombard plovum', German 'Pflug' and English 'plough'.
  • légua[64] [f] 'league', to Proto-Celtic *leukā, cognate of French lieue, Spanish legua; akin to Old Irish líe (genitive líag) 'stone', Irish lia
  • leira [f] 'plot, delimited and levelled field', from the medieval form laria, from proto-Celtic *ɸlār-yo-,[9][65] akin to Old Irish làr 'ground, floor', Breton leur 'ground', Welsh llawr 'floor'.
    derivatives: leiro 'small, ou unleveled, plot', leirar 'land working', leiroto, leiria 'place of small plots, allotments'.
  • limo [m] 'silt, mudwort', from Celtic *leim- 'mud', cognate of French limon
  • lisonja [f] 'flattery', from Gaulish *lausinga- cognate of old French losenge, Provençal lauzenja 'lie'.
    derivatives: lisonjear 'to flatter, lisongeio alternative spelling of 'flattery' , lisonjeado 'flattered
  • loca [f] 'loach, den, hole' Latinised 'laucca' from Gaulish *loukā- 'light', akin to Fr loche, Asturian lloca, Welsh llug 'shimmer', Old Irish lúach 'bright'
  • lousa also loisa[30] [f] 'flagstone', 'trap', from Proto-Celtic *laws-,[31] cognate of Provençal lausa, Spanish losa, French losenge 'diamond'.
    derivatives: enlousar 'to cover with flagstones', lousado 'roof', lousão 'large flagstone', louseiro or loiseiro' 'stone-mason', enlousar [v]'to cover with stones, to make a stone wall, to trap, to trick or fool someone'
  • lota 'fish auction/market', Latinised borrowing 'lota' < Gaulish *lotta 'flat fish'[66] akin to French lotte, Old Irish lethaid 'he extends, expands', Welsh lledu, llydan 'flounders' Cornish leyth 'flounder, flat-fish'.
  • manto 'cloack, cover, veil, cape' Latinised borrowing 'mantum, mantellum' from Gaulish *mantlon- 'covering, akin to French manteau, Basque mantar 'shirt, barque tarpaulin', Mantuan mantèl 'coat', Spanish mantilla, Breton malan, manal, Cornish manal 'sheaf'.
    derivatives: manta 'mantle, coverlet, blanket', manta-de-retalhos 'patchwork blanket or quilt', manta-morta (ecology) 'biomass', Manta [f] 'sparrow-hawk endemic to Madeira' (ornithology), mantear 'to toss a cape, to hoe the soil (a small garden or plot) in lines
  • marga 'marl' Latinised borrowing 'margila' ("argilla" white clay) from Gaulish *marga- akin to French marne, Spanish/Asturian marga, Lyonese margagni 'deep mud, muck', Breton marg, German Mergel
  • menir [m] or menhir [m], 'menhir', megalithic stone structures prolific in Atlantic Europe. From Breton men 'stone' and hir 'long' cognate of Gaelic 'maen hir'
  • menino [m], menina [f] 'kid, child, baby', from medieval mennino, from proto-Celtic *menno-,[9] akin to Old Irish menn 'kid (goat)', Irish meannán, Welsh myn, Breton menn.
    derivatives: meninice or meninez 'childhood, infancy, childishness', meninote 'nipper', [m].
  • mina [f] 'mine' Latinised *mina from Gaulish *mēna-, *meina- 'ore, mine' akin to French mine, Welsh mwyn 'ore', Cornish moen, Irish míanach 'ore'.
    derivatives: mineiro 'miner', minério 'ore', mineral 'mineral',
  • minhoca [f] 'earthworm', from medieval *milocca, from Proto-Celtic *mîlo-,[9][17] akin to Asturian milu, merucu 'earthworm', Irish míol 'worm, maggot', Welsh, Breton mil 'animal'.
    Derivative: minhoquice 'unfounded suspicions, brooding on smthg unimportant'
  • olga [f], 'small farming land, plain between hills', from Proto-Celtic *ɸolkā,[67][68][69] cognate of French ouche and Provençal olca.
  • peça [f] 'piece', from Vulgar Latin *pettia, from Gaulish petsi, from proto-Celtic *kʷezdi,[9][70][71] cognate of Italian pezza, French pièce, Spanish pieza; akin to Old Irish cuit (Irish cuid) 'piece, share, part', Welsh peth 'thing', Breton pez.
    derivatives: pedaço, pedacinho, pedação[m] 'piece, little piece, big piece'- ** uncertain whether from Lat.pittacĭu < Gr. pittákion or Proto-Celtic *pettia 'piece'.
  • penêdo [m] 'cliff, boulder'
  • pequeno 'small, kid', from Gaelic *bec-, becan-, beag, beagan- 'small'.[48]
    derivatives: pequerrucho[m], pequerruchichinho 'little one', pequenagem, pequenez 'small thing, infancy', pequenino, pequenote, pequeninote pequenininho 'small child, small thing or object', empequenecer [v], empequenitar 'to make small, to make someone feel small', pequenada, pequerruchada 'a group of small children'.
  • pisco [m] 'robin, twinkle, blink' from Celtic, likely Gaulish *pincio- cognate of Welsh pinc, Breton pint, French pinson, Tuscan pincióne.
    derivatives: piscar[v] 'to twinkle, to blink', colloquial expression 'num piscar de olhos= in the blink of an eye', pisca 'small grain, cigaret but, spark', pisca-pisca 'warning-light, parking-light (vehicles)', piscadela (de olho) '(eye) twinkle' (often implying naughtiness), piscarolho 'someone who blinks their eyes often'.
  • pitada [f] 'pinch, handful' from Celtic *pit-, pet-, cuid-, cuit-, coda- 'piece'.[48]
    derivatives: petar [v] 'to break in small pieces, to tell lies', petiscar [v] 'to knible, to snack, to eat delicacies, to touch slightly, to have a vague knowledge about something or someone', petisco [m] 'delicacy, speciality dish, small bites, snack', petisqueira, petiscaria 'snack-bar, restaurant specialising in local dishes', petanisco 'poking stick', pitéu 'delicacy (food)', petiz 'child, kid', petizada 'kids, children', carrapito 'bob (hair), midget (derogatory)', carapeto 'wild pear', carapeteiro 'wild pear tree, liar', carrapeta, carapeta 'small pion, short person', peta 'white lie'.
  • pinto, pito 'baby chicken, female sexual organ (colloquial)' from Celtic *pett, pitt- 'small'.
    derivatives: pitoco[m] 'small person, animal with a small or missing tail', petinga, pitinga 'small varieties of fish, small sardine, light', pintarroxo 'warbler', pintassilgo, pintassirgo 'goldfinch', petimetre 'dandy, vain'.
  • peticego [m], pitosga, pitosca [m], pisco 'short-sighted', from Gaelic *pet, pit- 'small'
  • raia [f] 'ray, line, streak, trail, groove, ray-fish' from Celtic *rica- 'furrow', line on a field (agriculture) created by a plow.
    derivatives: raiar[v] 'to shine (in rays of light), to rise', raio 'ray, thunderbolt, radius, thin and long metal piece', raiado 'with (shiny)lines, streaks'.
  • rego [m], 'furrow, ditch', from proto-Celtic *ɸrikā,[18][19][20] akin to Welsh rhych, Breton reg, Scottish/Irish riach 'trace left from something'; cognate of French raie, Occitan, Catalan rega, Basque erreka, Italian riga 'wrinkle'.
    derivatives: regueira 'small water canal', regato 'stream, gully, glen', regatear [v] 'to haggle, to bargain', regateio 'quibble', regateável 'arguable (price)', regateiro 'person who haggles, presumptuous'
  • rocha [f] 'rock' from old Breton *roc'h- 'rock, stone' with Latin borrowing rocca.
    derivatives: rochedo 'big rock', rochoso 'rocky area', barronco, barranco, barroca 'cliff, ravine, pit, hole on the ground', barrocal '(geology) area with pits ie. clay pits or holes', barrocão 'large pit'
  • rodovalho [m], 'hefty, short man (with a beard), 'pleuronectidae type of fish (round and flat in shape)' from Celtic *roto-ball-jo- [30] [m], da forma composta celta *roto-ball-jo-,[72] meaning 'round edges', akin to Irish roth 'wheel', Welsh rhod, and Breton rod combined with Irish ball 'member, organ'.
  • saiote[73] [m] 'peticoat, under-skirt' and saia [f] 'skirt', from the medieval form sagia, from an ancient Celtic form from which also Latin sagum 'robe'[74], Greek ságos from Gaulish *sagos- 'coat', fr *seg- 'to hold on or together'.
  • sável [m] 'shad (fish)', from proto-Celtic *sabalos-, akin to Old Irish sam 'summer'.
    derivatives: savelha [fm] and alternative saboga 'Yellowtail', smaller fish of the same 'Alosa' family
  • sabujo [m]'hound (dog), someone who is subservient, boot-licker' Latinised *segusiu from Gaulish *segusios, egusia, from segu 'to follow', akin to Old Irish sechem 'Irish follow', Ir seach 'to follow', MW -hei 'seeker', OBr cnouheiat 'nutgatherer'.
  • seara [f] also senra(archaic), sown field recently broken up, but which is left fallow', from a medieval form senara, a Celtic compound of *seni- 'apart, separated' (cf. Old Irish sain 'alone', Welsh han 'other') and *aro- 'ploughed field'.[75] (cf. Welsh âr, Irish ár 'ploughed field').
    derivatives: seareiro 'cereals farmer, small farmer'
  • seira 'traditional long and narrow esparto-grass or straw-basket used to transport or keep food (picnics), fruit or nuts *uncertain, probably from the same root as Gaelic seid 'truss of straw, grass, bedspread on the floor'.
    derivatives: seirão 'large "seira" basket', enseirar [v] 'to pack in a straw basket (usually fruit ie. figs, olives), enseiramento 'act of packing or keeping into straw baskets.
  • tanoeiro [m] cooper from Celtic *tonn- loanword into Latin tunna, cognate of French tonnelier, Spanish tonelero.
    derivatives: tanoaria, tanoar [v], tonel tannery, cooperage, to do cooperage work, wine or beer barrel
  • tasca [f] and tasquinha [m], 'swingle', related to Galatian taskós 'peg, stake'.[76]
  • tola [f] furrow from Proto-Celtic *tullo- 'pierced, pricked'[77]</ref> [m / f], akin to Irish toll 'hole, hollow', Welsh twll 'hole', Breton toull 'hole'; Catalan toll and old French tolon 'hill'.
  • tona [f] 'skin, bark, scum of milk, surface of any liquid', from proto-Celtic *tondā,[9][78][79] cognate of Old Irish tonn, Welsh tonn.
    derivatives: toneira 'pot for obtaining butter from the milk', tonel 'wine barrel'.
  • tojo [m], 'gorse, furze (Ulex europaeus)', from Celtic *togi-,[80] akin to Spanish/Gascon toja, French dialectal tuie.
    derivatives: fura-tojos 'marten'; tojal, tojeira 'place with tojos'.
  • toucinho [m], also toicinho 'bacon, lard, pork rash' via Latin 'tuccinum (lardum)', from Celtic tucca 'buttery juice'.[81]
    derivatives: toucinheiro, toicinheiro 'lard seller, butcher', toucinho-do-céu 'Portuguese regional sweet made with almonds and egg yolk'
  • trado [m] 'auger', from Proto-Celtic *taratro-,[9][27][82] cognate of Irish tarathar, Welsh taradr, Breton tarar, Occitan taraire, Catalan taradre, Spanish taladro, French tarière, Romansch tarader.
    derivatives: tradar, tradear 'to drill'.
  • tranca [f], tranco [m] 'beam, pole, penis', from proto-Celtic *tarankā, tarinca,[83][84] cognate of Spanish tranca 'club, cudgel', French taranche 'screw bar, ratchet (wine press)', Provençal tarenco; akin to OIr tairinge 'iron nail, tine', Ir tairne 'metal nail, Sc tairnge 'nail'.
    derivatives: trancar[v] 'to close, lock or block', destrancar [v] 'to open, unlock or unblock smthg. or someone', trancada 'to hit someone or smthg. with a bat, copulation', trancaria 'pile of wood logs', destrancador 'opener', trança '(hair) brade', entrantrançado 'weaved', tranqueta 'lock, latch, bolt'.
  • trapo ' Latinised borrowing from Gaulish *drappo 'shred, torn-off piece', cognate of French drap, Spanish/Italian trapo, Welsh drab 'piece, shred', drabio 'to tear into pieces'.
    derivatives: trapeira 'trap, shabby woman, dorner window, skipper's post (nautical)', entrapar [v] 'to wrap, cover or bandage (ie. an injury) poorly'
  • trevo [m] 'clover', from Proto-Celtic *trebno- farm house, homestead, akin to Irish treb, Cornish tre, Welsh tref, Asturian truébanu, French trèfle, Spanish trébol and Catalan trèvol.
  • trengo [m] 'silly, nitwit, little brat, idiot', from Celtic *trenco[85][86] 'short, small'.
  • trincar [v] 'to bite, to snap', possible Latin loanword *trinicāre- (cut into three pieces) from Gaulish *trincare, trancare- to cut (the head), cognate of old Provençal trencar, Catalan trencar, French trancher.
    derivatives: tranche 'slice', retrincar, retrinco 'to chew, to cut into smaller pieces', 'patch of a bigger piece', trinco [m] 'latch, lock, bolt', trinca, trincadela, 'bite, knibble, small cut' from Gaulish, possibly from Proto-Celtic *trenco- 'small piece'.
  • trincha [f] 'brush, roller, wood carving knife or chisel', from Celtic *trenco[85][86] 'short, small'.
  • truta [f] 'trout', from Celtic *tructa- freshwater fish of the salmon family.[23] Cognate of French truite, English trout, Catalan truita, Spanish trucha, Italian trota'.
  • truão 'tramp, fool, beggar, impostor' from Celtic *trugo 'miserable' akin to French truand, Scots-Gaelic truaghan, Spanish truhan, Breton truc, Irish trogha.
    derivatives: truanice, truania 'scam, trickery', truanear [v] 'to trick, to fool someone'
  • varanda [f] 'balcony, veranda' from *varandā, from *rannā "part, portion"; Welsh rhan, Cornish/Breton rann, Irish roinn.
    derivatives: varandim, varandinha 'small verandah', varandado 'Brazilian type of porch in colonial country houses'
  • varga [f] 'hut; wall made of hurdles; hurdle, fence', from Celtic *wraga,[87][88] French barge, akin to Old Irish fraig, Irish fraigh 'braided wall, roof, pen', Br gwrac'hell 'haybale, rick of hay'.
  • várgea, vargem, vargedo, vargeiro 'agricultural land or open meadow' (usually referring to cereal or vegetables cultivation) from Gaulish *bargā-, akin to Catalan, Occitan, Ligurian barga "wattle hut", Middle-Irish barc 'fort; woodshed'.
  • vasculho [m] 'bundle of straw; broom', from proto-Celtic *baski- 'bundle',[9] cognate of Gascon bascojo 'basket', Asturian bascayu 'broom', Breton bec'h 'bundle, load'.
  • vassalo [m] from Vulgar Latin vassalus, from proto-Celtic *wasto-,[9][24] cognate of French vassal, Spanish vasallo, Middle Irish foss 'servant', Welsh gwas 'servant; lad', Breton gwaz.
    derivatives: avassalar [v] 'to overwhelm, to stagger, to overpower', avassalador [m], avassalante [n] 'overwhelming'
  • vassoura [f] or vassoira [f] 'broom' from Proto-Celtic *basca- or *baski- 'bind, tangle',[9] via Gaulish bascauda, akin to French bâche 'canvas sheet, tarpaulin' Gascon bascojo 'hanging basket', Asturian bascayu, Béarn bascoyes, Welsh basg 'plaiting', Middle Irish basc 'neckband'.
    derivatives: vassoirar [v] or vassourar [v] 'to sweep with a broom', vassourada or vassoirada 'broom sweep, broomstick strike/hit'
  • velenho 'henbane', via Celtiberian belenion < bhel* 'shiny, burning' cognate of Old Irish béal 'sun', Spanish beleño, Welsh bela. Same etymology as Belenus the Celtic sun-God
  • vereda [f] 'main road', from the medieval form vereda, from Celtic *uɸo-rēdo-,[89][90] 'pathway'; akin to Welsh gorwydd 'steed', Vulgar Latin veredus 'horse', French palefroi 'steed' (< *para-veredus).
    derivatives: enveredar[v] 'to take or chose a path or direction in life or profession'
  • vidoeiro [m] (alternative, archaic spellings bidoeiro [m] or bidoeira [f] 'birch',[91] from Celtic *betu- or *betū-,[9][27] cognate of Catalan beç, Occitan bèç (< bettiu), French bouleau, Italian betulla (< betula); akin to Irish beith, Welsh bedw, Breton bezv.
    derivatives: vidoeiral 'place with birch-trees'.
  • virar [v] 'to turn, to veer off, to swerve' Latinised vīrāre, from Gaulish *viru, viros- 'to deviate, veer off' akin to Old Fr. virer, Sp. virar, Welsh gwyro 'to shift, deviate', Breton goara 'to curve'.
    derivatives: revirar [v] 'to turn upside down', virado(a) 'furious, fuming, mad (with anger)'

Germanic languages[edit]

The Germanic influence (Suebi, Visigoths, Buri, Vandals) in Portuguese is often related to warfare/military topics, but also exists in other vocabulary like animals texugo (badger), natural world orvalho (dew), Human qualities like franqueza (frankness, candour), orgulho (pride), some verbs like brigar (to quarrel), town and placenames such as Ermesinde and Esposende, where sinde and sende for instance; are derived from the Germanic "sinths" (military expedition), numerous Suebi[92] derivations like, Freamunde (from 'Fredemundus'), Vermunde, Amonde (Onomondi), Samonde, Gimonde, Aldão,[93] Guadramil, Gondomil, Samil, Esmoriz, Alhariz (toponymic of Aliaricus), Oriz, Touriz, Roriz, Gondoriz, Gondizalves, Gondar, Gondomar, Gondarém, Gudim, Torres Vedras (from Turres Veteras, 'old tower'[94]), Sousa, Terras de Sousa and Terras de Bouro (land of the Buri), Serra do Bouro, Bouro, are found mainly in the Minho and Douro regions. Many of these words entered the language during the late antiquity, either as words introduced into Vulgar Latin elsewhere, or as words brought along by the Suebi who settled in Gallaecia (Northern Portugal and Galicia) in the 5th century, and also by the Visigoths who annexed the Suebic Kingdom in 585 and ruled until the 8th century AD. Other words were incorporated to Portuguese during the Middle Ages, mostly proceeding from French and Occitan languages, as both cultures had a massive impact in Portuguese during the 12th and 13th centuries. More recently other words with Germanic origin have been incorporated, either directly from English or other Germanic languages, or indirectly through French. Many of these words are shared with the Galician, sometimes with minor spelling or phonetic differences.

List of Portuguese words of Germanic origin[edit]

Because they have different germanic origins, this list is divided into words that come from English, Frankish, Langobardic, Middle Dutch, Middle High German, Middle Low German, Old English, Old High German, Old Norse, Old Swedish, and Visigothic and finally, words which come from a Germanic root, where the specific source is unknown or uncertain. Projections indicate over 600 Germanic words in Portuguese, with a tendency to increase due to English, German and other modern influences. Some of these words existed in Latin as loanwords from other languages. Some of these words have alternate etymologies and may also appear on a list of Galician words from a different language. Some words contain non-Germanic elements. Any form with an asterisk (*) is unattested and therefore hypothetical.


  • bombordo= port side of a ship: from French babord "portside", from Dutch bakboord "left side of a ship", literally "back side of a ship" (from the fact that most ships were steered from the starboard side), from bak "back, behind", (from Germanic (*)bakam) + boord "board, side of a ship", see borde below (in Germanic section). Also see estibordo' "starboard" below in the Germanic section
  • berbequim= carpenter's brace: from regional French veberquin (French vilebrequin), from Dutch wimmelken, from wimmel "auger, drill, carpenter's brace" + -ken, a diminutive suffix, see maniquí below in Middle Dutch section.



  • aguentar= to endure, bear, resist: from Italian agguantare "to retain, take hold of" (originally "to detain with gauntlets"), from a- + guanto "gauntlet", from Frankish (*)want (see guante below) + verbal suffix -are (suffix changed to -ar in Spanish).
  • alojar= to lodge, to house, to provide hospitality: from Old French loge, see lonja below.
  • alojamento= lodging (hospitality): from Old French logo "dwelling, shelter", from Frankish (*)laubja "covering, enclosure", from Germanic (*)laubja "shelter" (implicit sense "roof made of bark")
  • loja= market, building where merchants and sellers gather: from Old French logo "dwelling, shelter", from Frankish (*)laubja "covering, enclosure", from Germanic (*)laubja "shelter" (implicit sense "roof made of bark"), from the IE root (*)leup- "to peel."
  • bordar= to embroider: from Frankish (*)bruzdon (source of Old French brouder, brosder and French broder), from Germanic (*)bruzd- "point, needle", from the IE root (*)bhrs-dh-, from (*)bhrs-, from (*)bhar-, "point, nail."
  • crossa or croça= crosier (religion): from Frankish *krukkja (stick with a bent extremity) akin to French crosse, Dutch kruk, German Krücke, English crutch", Norwegian krykkja.
  • destacar, destacamento= to detach troops: from French détachar (influenced by Spanish atacar), from Old French destachier "to unattach", from des- "apart, away" + atachier, a variation of estachier, from estaca, from Frankish stakka, see estaca below in Germanic section.
  • destacar= to stand out, to emphasize: from Italian staccare "to separate", from Old French destacher, destachier, see destacar above.
  • estandarte= a military standard: from Old French estandart, probably from Frankish (*)standhard "standard that marks a meeting place", (implicit sense: "that which stands firmly"), from (*)standan "to stand", (from Germanic (*)standan, from the IE root (*)sta- "to stand" [1]) + (*)hard "hard, firm", see ardid below in Germanic section.
  • ginja= sweet cherry from Frankish *wihsila- [95]
  • ginjinha= sweet cherry liquor from Frankish *wihsila-
  • ginjeira= sweet cherry tree, colloquial expression "conhecer de ginjeira" (to know someone very well, to know someone's faults) from Frankish *wihsila-
  • guante= glove, gauntlet: from Catalan guant "gauntlet", from Frankish (*)want "gauntlet." [2]
  • loja= market, building where merchants and sellers gather: from Old French logo "dwelling, shelter", from Frankish (*)laubja "covering, enclosure", from Germanic (*)laubja "shelter" (implicit sense "roof made of bark"), from the IE root (*)leup- "to peel."


  • acordeon = accordion from akkordeon
  • apfelstrudel = apple strudel from Apfelstrudel
  • Báltico = baltic from Baltisch
  • benzina = benzine from benzin
  • burgomestre = (City)mayor from Bürgermeister
  • chic or chique = Chic from Schick
  • chope = draft beer from shoppen
  • chucrute = coleslaw from sauerkraut
  • cobalto = cobalt from Kobold
  • estilístico = stylistic from Stylistik
  • faustebol = faustball
  • kaput, caputar = broken from kaputt
  • kitsch = kitsch from Kitsch
  • land = subdivision of a country, e.g. Germany, or Austria
  • Leitmotiv = leitmotiv from Leitmotiv
  • LSD (alucinogénio) = LSD from Lysergsäurediethylamid
  • metapsicológico, metapsicologia = metapsychology from Metapsychologie (S. Freud)
  • plancton = plancton from Plankton
  • poltergeist = poltergeist from Poltergeist
  • pragmatismo = pragmatism from Pragmatismus
  • propedêutico = introductory from Propädeutik
  • protoplasma = protoplasm from Protoplasma
  • Quartzo = quartz from Quarz
  • Rösti (culinária) = rösti from Rösti (Swiss Swiss dish of grated potatoes formed into a small flat cake and fried)
  • sabre = sabre from Sabel
  • social-democrata = social democrat from Sozialdemokrat
  • valsa = waltz from Walzer, walzen
  • vampiro = vampire from Vampir
  • Vermouth or Vermute = vermouth from Vermut (drink)
  • Zinco = zinc from Zink

Latin words of Germanic origin:

  • bisonte (from L bisont-,bison from Gmc, akin to OHG wisant, aurochs)
  • feudal (from Latin feodum, feudum of Gmc origin, akin to OE feoh, cattle, property)
  • filtro; filtrar= "filter; to filter" from ML filtrum felt from Gmc, akin to OE felt, felt
  • instalar (from ML installare from stallum of Gmc origin, akin to OHG stal, stall)
  • sabão= "soap" from Latin sapon-, sapo, soap from Gmc


Middle Dutch:

  • baluarte= bulwark: from Old French boloart "bulwark, rampart, terreplein converted to a boulevard", from Middle Dutch bolwerc "rampart",
  • amarrar= to moor a boat, to tie, to fasten: from French amarrer, "to moor", from Middle Dutch aanmarren "to fasten", from aan "on" (from Germanic (*)ana, (*)anō, from the IE root (*)an-[3]) + marren "to fasten, to moor a boat."
Derivatives: amarra 'mooring', amarração 'binding, strong emotional bond, emotional relationship, mooring', amarrado 'determined, obstinate, bound, moored', amarradura 'mooring place, knot or tool'

Middle High German:

Middle Low German:

Old English:

Old High German:

  • banca= bench: see banco= bench below
  • banco= bench: from Old High German banc "bench, board"
  • banco= bank: from French banque "bank", from Italian banca "bench, money changer's table", from Old High German banc, see banco= bench above

Old Norse:

Old Swedish:

Gothic, Suebian:

  • Aringa (military camp) from Gothic hrings[99]
  • Aleive (treason, traitor) from Gothic lavjan[99]
  • Aleivosia (treason, deception) from Gothic lavjan[99]
  • Aleivoso (person/act of a treacherous nature, traitor) from Gothic lavjan[99]
  • Albergue (hostel, youth hostel) from Gothic haribergo[99]
  • Albergaria (same as above)
  • Albergar[v] (to host or shelter someone) from Gothic haribergo[99]
  • agasalhar= perhaps from Latin *ad-gasaliare, from Visigothic *gasalja (partner, colleague)
  • broa= 'corn and rye bread' from Visigothic *brauth
  • esgrima= fencing, from Visigothic *skirmja (protection)
  • guarda= guard, bodyguard, protection: from Visigothic wardja "a guard", from Germanic wardaz, from the IE root (*)wor-to-, see guardar below in Germanic section.
  • guardião= guardian: from Visgothic wardjan accusative of wardja, see guardia above.
  • atacar= to attack: Old Italian attaccare "to fasten, join, unite, attack (implicit sense: to join in a battle)", changed from (*)estacar (by influence of a-, common verbal prefix) "to fasten, join", from Visigothic stakka "a stick, stake", from Germanic (*)stak-, see estaca in Germanic section.
  • faísca= spark, from Visigothic or Suebian *falwiskan. From medieval 'falisca', cognate of Swedish falaska, Mid-High German valwische (*falwiskō), Norse fọlski.
  • gavião= hawk,from Visigothic *gabila, akin to German Gabel 'fork'.
  • tosquiar= to shear, to cut very short, from Visigothic *skairan
  • Banco (bank, bench) from Gothic banka[99]
  • Banca (banks, banking system, bench) from Gothic banka[99]
  • Banqueiro (banker, financier) from Gothic banka[99]
  • Bancário (bank, banker)from Gothic banka[99]
  • Intrabancário (interbanking (system), interbank) from Gothic banka[99]
  • Multibanco (Cash dispenser, ATM machine) from Gothic banka[99]
  • Barão, Baronesa (baron, baroness) from Germanic baro[99]
  • Branco (white, pale) from Germanic blank[99]
  • Branco (common Portuguese surname) from Germanic blank[99]
  • Branca (female name, white female) from Germanic blanka[99]
  • Brancura (whiteness) from Germanic blank[99]
  • Branquicento (of faded, pale appearance) from Germanic blank[99]
  • Branquela (pejorative for White person) from Germanic blank[99]
  • Branqueio (to bleach, to whiten or launder smthg ie. money laundering) from Germanic blank[99]
  • Branqueamento (same as above)
  • Branquear[v], Esbranquear[v], Embranquecer[v] (to make, turn white, to whiten up)
  • Brasa from Gothic *bras, brasa[100]
  • Braseiro from Gothic *bras, brasa[100]
  • Brasalisco from Gothic *bras, brasa[100]
  • Brasido from Gothic *bras, brasa[100]
  • Brasil (Brazil) from Gothic *bras, brasa[100]
  • Brasão from Gothic *bras, brasa[100]
  • Brasonado from Gothic *bras, brasa[100]
  • Broa "loaf" from Germanic brauþam
  • Broeiro (peasant, rude person) from Germanic brauþam
  • Bucho (stomach, belly, tummy) from Germanic uuasbucho
  • Camisa "shirt" (Fr.: chemise Latin: camisia < Celt < PGmc *khamiþjō, cf OHG hemidi, Germ Hemd "shirt")
  • Destacar[v] (to assign troops, to stand out, to surpass) from Gothic stakka[99]
  • Destaque (surpass, highlight) from Gothic stakka[99]
  • Elmo from Gothic hilms[99]
  • Espanca (spanking) from Ancient Germanic (maybe Nordic, see Danish 'spanke "to strut")
  • Espancar[v] (to spank, to give someone a spanking)
  • Espancamento (a spanking, a beating)
  • Espora (spur) from Gothic spaúra[99]
  • Esporão (spur) from Gothic spaúra[99]
  • Estaca (stake) from Gothic stakka[99]
  • Estacada (stockade) from Gothic stakka[99]
  • Estacar[v] (to stake) from Gothic stakka[99]
  • Escanção (sommelier) from Gothic skankja[99]
  • Escançar[v], Escancear[v], Escanchar[v] (to measure and serve wine) from Gothic skankja[99]
  • Escarnir[v] *Escarniçar[v] (to mock, to show contempt for someone or a situation) from Germanic skernjan [101]
  • Escarniçar[v] (to mock, to show contempt for someone or a situation) from Germanic skernjan [101]
  • Escárnio, from Germanic skernjan [101]
  • Escarninho, from Germanic skernjan [101]
  • Escarninhamente, from Germanic skernjan [101]
  • Escarnecedor, from Germanic skernjan [101]
  • Escarnicação, from Germanic skernjan [101]
  • Escarnicador, etc. from Germanic skernjan [101]
  • Fona from Gothic fon[99]
  • Fornir[v] from Gothic frumjan[99]
  • Ganhar[v] (to gain) from Germanic waidanjan[99]
  • Ganho (gain, profit) from Germanic waidanjan[99]
  • Godo/Gótico from Gothic guthans[99]
  • Guarda (guard, warden, police) from Germanic wardaz, Visigothic wardjan, Suebian wardon Gothic wer[99]
  • Guardião (guard, legal guardian) from Germanic wardaz, Visigothic wardjan Gothic wer[99]
  • Guardar[v] (to guard, to safekeep, to protect) from Germanic wardaz, Visigothic wardjan Gothic wer[99]
  • Aguardar[v] (to wait ie. at a queue) from Germanic wardaz, Visigothic wardjan Gothic wer[99]
  • Resguardar[v] (to shelter, to cover, to protect smthg or someone ie. from the elements) from Germanic wardaz, Visigothic wardjan, Suebian wardon Gothic wer[99]
  • Guarida (shelter, protection) from Germanic warjan
  • Garagem (garage) also Germanic warjan "to protect"
  • Guarnecer[v] (to supply, to replenish) also from Germanic warjan
  • Guelra (gill) from Proto-Germanic gelunaz
  • Guelrita (regional Portuguese fishing basket) from Proto-Germanic gelunaz
  • Guelricho, Galrracho (fishing net or trap) from Proto-Germanic gelunaz
  • Guerra, Guerreio (war, conflict) from Gothic wirro[99]
  • Guerrear[v] (to fight) from Gothic wirro[99]
  • Guerreiro (warrior, fighter) from Gothic wirro[99]
  • Guerreão (troublemaker, ruffian) from Gothic wirro[99]
  • Guerrilha (guerrilla) from Gothic wirro[99]
  • Aguerrido (fierce, courageous, fighter) from Gothic wirro[99]
  • Aguerrir [v], Aguerreirar [v] (to fight, to combat, to challenge without fear) from Gothic wirro[99]
  • Aguerridamente (fiercely, bravely) from Gothic wirro[99]
  • Guia (guide) from Gothic wida[99]
  • Guiar[v] (to guide, to lead, to drive a vehicle) from Gothic wida[99]
  • Lasca (chip, splinter) from Gothic laska[99]
  • Lascar[v] (to cleave, to flake smthg off, to chip smthg) from Gothic laska[99]
  • Lascarino or Lascarinho (joker, troublemaker, petty thief) from Gothic laska[99]
  • Orgulho (pride) from Germanic urgōli
  • Orgulhoso (proud) from Germanic urgōli
  • Orgulhosamente (proudly) from Germanic urgōli
  • Orvalho (dew) from Germanic ur (water) + vallen (to fall)< Proto-Germanic ūrą + fallaną
  • Marta from Gothic marthus[99]
  • Roubo (robbery) from Germanic raubon[99]
  • Roubador (robber, thief) from Germanic raubon[99]
  • Roubar[v] (to rob) from Germanic raubon[99]
  • Roubalheira (robbery, theft) from Germanic raubon[99]
  • Roca from Gothic ruka[99]
  • Sala [f] (room, living-room) from Germanic sal
  • Salão [m] (living or ballroom, hairdressers, manicure, beauty salon) from Germanic sal
  • Sala de Jantar [f] (dining-room) from Germanic sal
  • Sala de espera [f] (waiting-room) from Germanic sal
  • Saleta, Salinha, Antessala or Ante-Sala [f] (antechamber) from Germanic sal
  • Tampa from Gothic tappa[99]
  • Texugo or Teixugo (badger) from Gothic *thahsuks, shortening of *thahsus-[102]
  • Triscar[v] from Gothic thriskan[99]
  • Tascar[v] from Gothic taskon[99]
  • Trégua (truce) from Gothic trigivo[99]
  • Atreguar[v] (to discuss/negotiate conditions of a truce) from Gothic trigivo[99]
  • Ufa from Gothic ufjo'[99]
  • Ufano (glorious, vain) from Gothic ufjo'[99]
  • Ufanear[v] or Ufanar[v] (to glorify, to praise) from Gothic ufjo'[99]
  • Vaga (wave) from Gothic vega < vigan[98]


  • abandonar= to abandon: from Old French a bandon, from a + bandon "control" from ban "proclamation, jurisdiction, power", from Germanic (*)banwan, (*)bannan "to proclaim, speak publicly" [12][13]
  • abandono= abandonment, solitude
  • abandonado= abandoned, rejected, derelict
  • abordar= to board a ship, to approach, to undertake: from a- + bordo "side of a ship", variation of borde, see borde below
  • abotoar: to button: from a- + botão "button", see botão below
  • abrasar= to burn, to parch: from a- + brasa "a coal, ember" (see brasa below) + the verbal suffix -ar
  • aguentar= "to put up with" (< maybe It agguantare, from guanto "gauntlet" < Old Provençal < OFr guant < Frankish *want)
  • aguardar= to wait, wait for: from a- + guardar, see guardar below.
  • alemão= of Germany (adjective), the German language: from Late Latin Alemanni, an ancient Germanic tribe, from Germanic (*)alamanniz (represented in Gothic alamans), from ala- "all" + mannis, plural of manna-/mannaz "man" (Gothic manna) from the IE root (*)man- "man" [14]
  • ardil= trick, scheme, ruse: from Old Spanish ardid "risky undertaking in war", from Catalan ardit (noun) "risky undertaking, strategy", from ardit (adjective) "daring, bold", from a Germanic source represented in Old High German harti "daring, bold" and hart "hard", both from the IE root (*)kor-tu- [15].
  • arenque= herring: possibly via French hareng, from Germanic (compare Old High German hārinc).
  • harpa= a harp: from French: harpe, from Germanic (*)harpōn-.
  • arrimar= to approach: possibly from Old French arrimer, arimer "to arrange the cargo in the storeroom of a ship", from Germanic (*)rūmaz "room"
  • atrapar= to trap, to ensnare: from French attraper, from Old French a- + trape "trap", from Germanic (*)trep- (seen in the Old English træppe) from the IE root (*)dreb-, from (*)der- "to run."
  • bala= a bullet: Italian balla/palla, from Germanic (*)ball-, see beisebol above in Old English section.
  • balear= "to shoot"
  • balcão== a balcony: from Italian balcone, from Old Italian balcone "scaffold", from Germanic (*)balkōn "beam, crossbeam", from the IE root (*)bhelg- "beam, board, plank."
  • balão= a large ball: from Italian ballone, pallone, balla (see bala above) + -one, an augmentive suffix, related to and possibly the source of Spanish -ão (in balão). see here.
  • banda= ribbon, band, sash: from Old French bande "knot, fastening", from Germanic '*band-', from the IE root (*)bhondh-, from (*)bhendh-[16]
  • banda= band, troop, musical group: from Germanic '*bandwa-', "standard, signal", also "group" (from the use of a military standard by some groups), from the IE root (*)bha- "to shine" (implicit sense "signal that shines").
  • bandeira= banner: from Vulgar Latin (*)bandaria "banner", from Late Latin bandum "standard", from Germanic (*)bandwa, see banda= group below
  • bandido= bandit, gangster: from Italian bandito "bandit", from bandire "to band together", from Germanic '*banwan', see abandonar above
  • banco "bench; bank" (OFr bank < Germanic *banki)
  • banqueiro "banker, financier"
  • banca "bench, seat"
  • bancada "row of seats, stall"
  • Abancar "to settle somewhere"
  • banquete= a banquet: rom Old French banquet, diminutive of banc "bench, long seat", of Germanic origin, of the same family as the Old High German banc, see banco= bench above in Old High German section.
  • banquetear "to feast, to have a banquet"
  • barão, baronesa, baronato "baron, baroness, baronet"
  • bisonte== Bison bison: from Latin bisontem (accusative of bison) "wisent (Bison bonasus)", from Germanic (*)wisand-, wisunt- (Old High German wisant, wisunt).
  • branco= white, white person, blank: from Vulgar Latin (*)blancus, from Germanic (*)blank- "to shine", from the IE root[17].
  • briga= fight, scuffle: from Gothic *Brika-, Old High German Brech-en, Anglo-Saxon break. :Derivatives: brigar [v] 'to fight'
  • bloco= a block, a bloc: from French bloc, from Middle Dutch blok "trunk of a tree", from a Germanic source represented in the Old High German bloh.
  • bloqueio= "roadblock, blockade"
  • bloquear= "to block, to veto, to stop"
  • bloqueado= "something or someone which is blocked, halted, trapped"
  • boémio or boêmio(Brazil)= a bohemian, of Bohemia, vagabond, eccentric, Gitano, Gypsy: from bohemio/Bohemia (from the belief that the Gitanos came from Bohemia), from Latin bohemus, from Boihaemum, literally "place of the Boi/Boii (from Celtic, see bohemio here) + Latin -haemum "home", from Germanic (*)haima "home", from the IE root (*)koi-mo-
  • bola= ball from Proto-Germanic *balluz, *ballô (“ball”), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰoln- (“bubble”), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- (“to blow, inflate, swell”)
  • bolas= colloquial bollocks, coward, popular interjection idiom 'ora bolas!' oh my! or damn it!, to express frustration or disapproval. From Proto-Germanic *balluz
  • borda= border, edge: from Old French bord "side of a ship, border, edge", from Frankish
  • bordar= "to knit"
  • bordado= "knit work"
  • bosque= forest, woods: from Catalan of Provençal of Old French bosc, from Germanic (*)busk- "brush, underbrush, thicket" (source of Old High German busc).
  • bosquejo= a sketch, outline, rough draft: from Spanish bosquejar "to sketch, to outline", probably from Catalan bosquejar from bosc, see bosque above.
  • bota= a boot: from or simply from the same source as French botte "boot", from Old French bote "boot", probably from the same source as Modern French pied bot "deformed foot" in which bot is from Germanic (*)būtaz, from the IE root (*)bhau- "to strike", see botar below.
  • botar= to throw, to bounce, to jump: from Old French boter, bouter "to open, to hit, to strike, to perforate", from Romance bottare "to strike, to push, to shove", from Germanic (*) buttan "to hit, to strike" from the IE root (*)bhau- [18]
  • botão= button: from Old French boton, bouton "button", from boter, bouter "to open, perforate", see botar above
  • bóia= a buoy: probably from Old French boie, from Germanic, possibly from Old High German bouhhan, from Germanic (*)baukna- "signal", from the IE root (*)bha- "to shine" [19]
  • brasa= a coal, ember: from Old French brese "a coal" (Modern French braise), probably from Germanic (*)bres-, (*)bhres-, from the IE root (*)bhreu- [20]
  • chouriço, choiriça= Latinezed SAURICIUM, from Suebian/Gothic SAURAZ 'dried, smoked'
  • churrasco, churrasqueira, churrascaria, churrascar[v]= from Suebian/Gothic SAURUS[21]
  • estaca= a stake: from Germanic (*)stak-, from the IE root (*)steg- "pale, post pointed stick" [22].
  • estibordo= starboard side of a ship: from Old French estribord "starboard", (Modern French tribord), from a Germanic source (confer Old English stēorbord). From Germanic (*)stiurjō "to steer", + Germanic
  • faca= knife from a Germanic source, uncertain if Old German happa (hatchet, sickle) or Frankish *happja, cognate of French hache, Spanish hacha, English hatchet or axe
Derivatives: facalhão 'eustace', faqueiro 'cutlery or cutlery cabinet', facada 'stabbing', colloquial facada nas costas 'to stab (someone) behind the back'
  • gaita= bagpipe Uncertain, but likely from Old Suebian , akin to Visigothic *agaits- 'goat' from Proto Indo-European *ghaido-. Most logical origin as bagpipes were traditionally made from goats skin.
Derivatives: gaiteiro '(bag)piper', gaita 'penis, or swearword akin to "cock"'(colloquial), gaita-de-foles, gaita-de beiços, 'different types or names for bagpipes, gaitar 'to sob or to fail an exam' (colloquail).
Derivatives: agrupar 'to group, to organise into a section', agrupado 'part of a group', agrupamento 'act of grouping, a team'.
  • guardar= to guard, watch over, keep, observe (a custom): from Germanic (*)wardōn "to look after, take care of", from the IE root (*)wor-to-, "to watch", from (*)wor-, (*)wer- "to see, watch, perceive" [23]
  • oboé= an oboe: from French hautbois from haut (ultimately from Latin altus "high") + bois "wood", see bosque above.
  • roca= roc, spindle: from Gothic *rukka
Derivatives: enrocar[v], rocar[v], 'to spindle', enrocamento 'riprap'
  • saco, sacola= bag, sack, rucksack
  • sacar = to snap, to extract, to snatch, to withdraw (i.e. money from an ATM or account)
  • saque= withdrawal, theft
  • ressaque, ressacar= money order, to collect a money order (i.e. Forex)
  • saxónico, saxão= Saxon
  • sala, salinha, saleta= a room: from Germanic sal- "room, house", from the IE root (*)sol- "hamlet, human settlement."
  • salão= main room of a house (see sala above) + -on, augmentive suffix.
  • saxofone "saxophone"
  • sopa = soup (it comes from Sanskrit suppa)
  • sul= south
  • sudeste= southeast
  • sudoeste= southwest
  • sueco= Swedish
  • suisso, suíço= Swiss
  • suíno= swine, pig from Proto-Germanic *swinan 'pig'
  • suinicultor, suinocultor= pig farmer from Proto-Germanic swinan + Latin cultor
  • suinicultura= porcine breeding from Proto-Germanic swinan + Latin colere
  • suinicídio= pig killing from Proto-Germanic swinan + Latin cidium
  • tacho= pot, pan
  • taco= stick, chalck
  • tacão = heel
  • talo, talão= stem, branch, heel
  • tampão, tampon= tampon
  • tampa= "top, lid"
  • tapar= to cover, to hide
  • teta, tetinha, tetona, tetão= tit, breast
  • teutónico= teutonic, powerful
  • trampa= a trap: possibly from Germanic, from the same derivation as trampolín (see below) and atrapar (see above).
  • trampolim= a trampoline: from Italian trampolino "trampoline" (implicit sense: game of agility on stilts), from trampoli, plural of a Germanic word (*)tramp- (such as German trampeln and Old High German trampen, both meaning "to tread, trample"), from the IE root (*)dreb-,
  • toalha= towel
  • toalhete= "handtowel"
  • toalhinha= "small towel"
  • toldo= tarpaulin, cover
  • toldar= to mist up, to darken, to sadden
  • trepar= to climb, to copulate
  • trepada= (informal) shag
  • trombone= trombone
  • tromba= snout, face
  • trombudo= someone unfriendly looking
  • tromba d'água= gusty showers
  • trombão, trompão= thicker part of a fishing rod
  • trombar= to sip down food, to scoff up
  • tropa= troop
  • atropar= to gather troops
  • trupe= group, band, gang, student group, artistic group
  • trupar= to knock someone's door
  • trotar= to run, a horse running
  • tungsténio= tungsten
  • vanguarda= vanguard: from Old Spanish avanguardia, from Catalan avantguarda from avant "before, advance", (from Latin ab- + ante "before") + guarda "guard", from Germanic wardaz, see guardia above in Visigothic section.
  • vagão, vagonete, vagoneta "wagon"
  • valquiria
  • vandalo "vandal, destructive person"
  • vandalismo "vandalism" (second element only)
  • varão, varonil "male, manly"
  • venda
  • vermute, vermuth
  • wagneriano "Wagnerian"

Further list:


  • abandonar; abandono= "to abandon" ; "abandon"
  • atacar= "to attack"
  • abordar= "to attack (a problem)"


  • bala
  • balcão= "balcony"
  • bandeira
  • bandoleiro= "bandit"
  • banquete
  • barão
  • bébé or bebê(Brazil)= "baby"
  • bife= "beefsteak"
  • bigode= "moustache" (from German Bei Gott, "By God")
  • bisonte
  • branco; branca= "white"
  • bloco; bloquear= "block; to block"
  • bordar="to embroider"
  • bote= "boat"
  • bramar= "to bellow, roar"
  • brecha= "breach, opening"
  • brinde= "toast(with drinks)"
  • brio= "spirit", "brio" (Celtic???)
  • brisa= "breeze" (Old Spanish briza from East Frisian brisen, to blow fresh and strong)
  • brocha
  • brotar= "to sprout"
  • buganvília = "bougainvillea"
  • burguês= "bourgeoisie", "member of the middle class"
  • busca; buscar="search, find, look for"




  • edredão/edredom= "eiderdown"
  • emboscar= "to ambush"
  • embraiagem= "clutch"
  • enriquecer= "get rich"
  • estampar= "to stamp"
  • estampida=same as "estampido" bang, beat, blow (sound like a shot)
  • estandarte
  • este= "east"
  • estuco; estuque


  • feudal
  • feudo
  • flibusteiro
  • filme= movie, picture
  • filtro; filtrar
  • flutuar; frota; flotilha
  • folclore (from English Folklore)
  • fornido; fornecido
  • forragem
  • forrar
  • framboesa
  • francês
  • franco (candid)
  • franco (money)
  • franquear=free, no charge, no cost, for free,
  • frasco=bottle, urn, pot, vase, container
  • fresco=chilly, icy,freesing, cold
  • futebol=soccer


  • gabardine; gabardina
  • gaita
  • galante
  • galardão
  • galope
  • gado
  • ganhar
  • ganso; gansa
  • garagem
  • garantia
  • garbo
  • gardênia
  • garrote
  • gavião
  • gravar
  • gripe, gripa
  • grisalho
  • groselha
  • grupo
  • gadanha
  • guarida
  • guarnição
  • guerra, germ. warra, lat. bellum
  • guerrilha
  • gueto
  • guia= "a guide"
  • guiar
  • guilhotina
  • guião
  • grinalda
  • guisa
  • guisar


  • falar
  • heraldo


  • inglês
  • instalar


  • jardim



  • lastro
  • lata
  • lista
  • lote
  • lotaria
  • lua-de-mel (calque)


  • maleta
  • Malta
  • maqui(l)agem
  • marcar
  • marcha
  • marchar
  • marechal
  • marquês
  • marquesa
  • marta
  • mascote
  • mação
  • mastro


  • nórdico
  • normando
  • norte


  • oeste= "west"
  • orgulho = pride


  • palco
  • paquete
  • placa


  • queque= "cake"
  • quinquilharia= "old junk", "cheap antiques shop"


  • rancho
  • raça= "race (lineage)" from Italian raza of Gmc origin, akin to OHG rīga, line; OE ræw, row
  • raspar
  • rata
  • ratão
  • refrescar
  • refutar (Gmc origin???)
  • reno
  • retaguarda
  • rico
  • rifa
  • rifle
  • riqueza
  • roubar
  • roubo
  • rum
  • roupa
  • rufião
  • rumba
  • russo


  • sala
  • salão
  • saxofone
  • sopa
  • sud- /sul
  • sueco
  • suíço


  • tacha
  • taco
  • tacão
  • talar
  • tampão
  • tapa
  • tapar
  • tarjeta
  • teta
  • teutônico
  • toalha
  • toldo
  • tope
  • trampa
  • trégua
  • trepar
  • trombone
  • trompa
  • trompeta
  • tropa
  • trotar
  • tungstênio (Tungsten)


  • ufano


  • vagão
  • valquíria
  • valsa
  • vadio
  • vandalismo
  • vândalo
  • varão
  • venda
  • vermute


  • wagneriano



Germanic Names[edit]

Ancient Roman-derived names are the most numerous in Portugal and Portuguese-speaking countries. Together with Germanic-derived names they constitute the majority of those (and similarly to most European/Western countries inherited also a number of ancient Greek and Hebrew names) today. With globalisation, a number of new Germanic names (and other origins) exist in Portuguese:


  • Alberto, Adalberto= from the Germanic name Adalbert, composed of the elements adal "noble" and beraht "bright". This name was common among medieval German royalty. Used in Western Europe mainly: Aubert (French), Adalbert, Adelbert, Albrecht (German), Adalbert (Polish), Adelbert, Albertus (Dutch), Adalberht, Adalbert, Albertus (Ancient Germanic), Alpertti, Altti, Pertti (Finnish), Abbe, Abe (Frisian), Alberte (Galician), Adalberto, Alberto (Italian), Bèr (Limburgish), Albertas (Lithuanian), Adalberto, Alberto (Spanish)
  • Albertina, Alberta= same as above
  • Albina= Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Slovene, Polish, German, Ancient Roman form of 'ALBINUS'
  • Adelaide= from Germanic Adalheidis, which was composed of the elements adal "noble" and heid "kind, sort, type". It was borne in the 10th century by Saint Adelaide, the wife of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto the Great.
  • Adelardo, Abelardo= from the ancient Germanic name Adalhard, composed of the elements adal "noble" and hard "brave, hardy
  • Adélia, Adelina, Adele, Aline= Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, Romanian, German, Ancient Germanic *ADELA (Latinized)
  • Adelino= from Germanic “Athal-win”, meaning of noble birth
  • Ademar=
  • Adolfo=
  • Adosinda= from a Visigothic name derived from the Germanic elements aud "wealth" and sinþs "path".
  • Adriano= Portuguese for Adrian in English, Romanian, Polish, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Russian, form of 'Hadrianus'
  • Afonso= from Ancient Germanic Adalfuns, Alfons, Hadufuns, Hildefons. Used in Western Europe
  • Afonsina=
  • Agildo=
  • Agnaldo=
  • Aldo=
  • Alda, Aldina= originally a short form of Germanic names beginning with the element ald "old", and possibly also with adal "noble"
  • Alfredo=
  • Alice= from the Old French name Aalis, a short form of Adelais, itself a short form of the Germanic name Adalheidis. Used in English, French, Portuguese, Italian and all over Europe with numerous variants.
  • Aloísio=
  • Álvaro= cognate of Nordic ALVAR. From Ancient Germanic Alfher, Alfarr, name composed of the elements alf "elf" and hari "army, warrior". Mainly Nordic= Alvar (Estonian), Elvar (Icelandic), Alvar (Swedish), Alvaro (Spanish)
  • Alzira= relatively rare name. 'Alzira' or 'Alzire' is a Germanic name meaning `Beauty, Ornament`
  • Amalia, Amália, Amélia, = Portuguese, Italian, Romanian, Dutch, German, from Latinized form of the Germanic name 'Amala', a short form of names beginning with the element amal meaning "work".
  • Amaro= from the Germanic name 'Audamar', derived from the elements aud "wealth, fortune" and meri "famous". Variants: Otmar (Czech), Othmar, Otmar, Ottmar, Ottomar (German), Amaro (Spain, specially Galicia and Asturias)
  • Américo= Portuguese form of Ancient German 'Emmerich'. In other languages: Emery, Amery, Emory (English), Émeric (French), Emmerich (German), Imre, Imrus (Hungarian), Amerigo (Italian), Imrich (Slovak)
  • Anselmo= from the Germanic elements ans "god" and helm "helmet, protection". Used in Western Europe
  • Arlete= variation of French Arlette, from Germanic 'Herleva' possibly a derivative of hari "army", era "honour", or erla "noble" (or their Old Norse cognates). This was the name of the mother of William the Conqueror, who, according to tradition, was a commoner.
  • Armando, Armindo= a derivation of Herman, from Ancient Germanic Hariman, Herman, Hermanus
  • Armanda, Arminda= same as above
  • Arnaldo= from Proto-Germanic Arnold, used in Western Europe= Arnau (Catalan), Arnoud, Aart, Arend (Dutch), Arnold, Arn, Arnie (English), Arnaud (French), Ane, Anne (Frisian), Arnold, Arend, Arndt, Arne (German), Nöl, Nölke (Limburgish)
  • Arnaldina=
  • Anselmo= Portuguese variation of German, English (Rare), Ancient Germanic 'ANSELM' from the elements ans "god" and helm "helmet, protection".
  • Astolfo=
  • Ataúlfo=
  • Aubri= from the Germanic Alberich, derived from the elements alf "elf" and ric "power".
  • Austragésilo=
  • Baldemar, Baldomero= from Ancient Germanic Baldomar, derived from the elements bald "bold, brave" and meri "famous
  • Balduíno=
  • Belmiro=
  • Beltrão= from the Germanic element beraht "bright" combined with hramn "raven. Used in Western Europe: Beltran (Catalan) Bertrand (English), Bertrand (French) Bertram (German), Bertrando (Italian)
  • Barbara= Portuguese, English, Italian, French, German, Polish, Hungarian, Slovene, Croatian, Late Roman derived from Greek βαρβαρος (barbaros) meaning "foreign"
  • Bernardo= from the Germanic name Bernard, derived from the element bern "bear" combined with hard "brave, hardy"
  • Bernardino, Bernardim=
  • Bernardina, Bernadete, Bernardete=
  • Branca, Bianca= from the Germanic word "blanc" (white, fair). European variants: Blanka (Croatian), Blanka (Czech), Blanche (English), Blanche (French) Branca (Galician), Bianka (German), Bianka, Blanka (Hungarian), Bianca (Italian), Bianka, Blanka (Polish), Bianca (Romanian), Blanka (Serbian), Blanka (Slovak), Blanca (Spanish)
  • Bruno= Portuguese, German, Italian, French, Spanish, Croatian, Polish, from Ancient Germanic element brun "armour, protection" or brun "brown"
  • Brunilde= from Ancient Germanic variant of 'BRÜNHILD'
  • Carlos, Carlo= from the Germanic name Karl, which was derived from a Germanic word meaning "man". An alternative theory states that it is derived from the common Germanic element hari meaning "army, warrior". Used all over Europe
  • Carolina, Carla, Carlota= female versions of the Germanic name 'Karl' above. Used in the UK, Portugal, Italy, Spain, Sweden and with variants all over Europe (and colonies): Charlize (Afrikaans), Carla (Catalan), Karla, Karolina, Lina (Croatian), Karolína, Kája (Czech), Caroline, Karla, Karolina, Karoline, Charlotte, Ina, Lina, Line (Danish), Carla, Carola, Carolien, Caroline, Charlotte, Lien (Dutch), Karoliina, Iina, Liina (Finnish), Carole, Caroline, Charline, Charlotte, Line (French), Carla, Carola, Carolin, Caroline, Karla, Karolina, Karoline, Charlotte, Ina, Karola (German), Karola, Karolina, Lili (Hungarian), Séarlait (Irish), Karolina, Lina (Lithuanian), Karolina (Macedonian), Caroline, Karla, Karolina, Karoline, Charlotte, Ina, Lina, Line (Norwegian), Karolina (Polish), Karolina (Slovene)
  • Clodoaldo=
  • Clodomir=
  • Clodovil=
  • Clotilde= form of the Germanic name Chlotichilda which was composed of the elements hlud "fame" and hild "battle". Saint Clotilde was the wife of the Frankish king Clovis, whom she converted to Christianity. Used in France, Portugal, Italy, Spain
  • Clóvis=
  • Conrado= from the Germanic elements kuoni "brave" and rad "counsel". This was the name of a 10th-century saint and bishop of Konstanz, in southern Germany. Variants: Konrad, Kurt (German), Dino (Croatian), Konrád (Czech), Konrad (Danish), Koenraad, Koen, Koert (Dutch), Konrád (Hungarian), Corrado, Corradino, Dino (Italian), Konrad (Norwegian), Kondrat, Konrad (Polish), Konrád (Slovak), Konrad (Slovene), Conrado (Spanish), Konrad (Swedish)
  • Cremilde=
  • Deolinda= from the Germanic name Theudelinda, derived from the elements theud "people" and linde "soft, tender". In decline, mainly used in Portugal, Brazil and Galicia
  • Duarte= from Germanic Ead "rich" and Weard "guardian"
  • Dieter= from ancient Germanic Theudhar, derived from the elements theud "people" and hari "army"
  • Djalma=
  • Eberardo=
  • Edgar=
  • Edite, Edith= from the Old English name Eadgyð, derived from the elements ead "wealth, fortune" and gyð "war". It was popular among Anglo-Saxon royalty, being borne for example by Saint Eadgyeth;, the daughter of King Edgar the Peaceful. Variants: Edyth, Edytha (English), Edit (Swedish), Edita (Croatian), Edita (Czech), Édith (French), Edit (Hungarian), Edita (Lithuanian), Eda (Medieval English), Edyta (Polish), Edita (Slovak), Edita (Slovene)
  • Edmar=
  • Edmundo= Portuguese form of EDMUND. In other European languages: Eadmund (Anglo-Saxon), Edmund, Ed, Eddie, Eddy, Ned (English), Edmond, Edmé (French), Edmund (German), Ödön, Ödi (Hungarian), Éamonn, Eamon, Éamon (Irish), Edmondo (Italian), Edmao, Mao (Limburgish), Edmund (Polish)
  • Edna=
  • Eduardo= see 'Duarte' above
  • Eduarda=
  • Eduvigis=
  • Edvaldo=
  • Edvino= Portuguese form of Edwin, from the Old English elements ead "wealth, fortune" and wine "friend"
  • Egil= from the Old Norse name Egill, a diminutive of names that began with the element agi "awe, terror"
  • Elba=
  • Elder=
  • Elgar= from Old English ælf "elf" and gar "spear"
  • Elmar, Elmer= from the Old English name ÆÐELMÆR
  • Elvira=
  • Elsa=
  • Elza=
  • Eurico, Érico, Eric, Erik= From Old High German êwa "time, age, law" combined with rîcja "powerful, strong, mighty." The second element is also closely related to Celtic rîg or rix and Gothic reiks, which all mean "king, ruler." However, this name can also be a short form of Eburic. Euric was the name of a 5th-century king of the Visigoths.
  • Ermenegildo=
  • Ermelindo=
  • Ernesto= Portuguese form of Ancient Germanic 'ERNST' used in German, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Dutch, English 'ERNEST'
  • Ernestina=
  • Etelvina=
  • Evaldo= from the ancient Germanic name Ewald, composed of the elements ewa "law, custom" and wald "rule"
  • Evelina, Ivelina, Avelina, Evelyne= from the Norman French form of the Germanic name Avelina, a diminutive of AVILA. Variants: Eileen, Evelina, Avaline (English), Ava, Avelina, Aveza, Avila (Ancient Germanic), Evelien, Eveline (Dutch), Evelin (Estonian), Eveliina (Finnish), Eveline, Évelyne (French), Ava, Evelin (German), Evelin (Hungarian), Eibhlín, Eileen, Aileen (Irish), Evelina, Lina (Italian), Ewelina (Polish), Aileen (Scottish), Evelina (Swedish)
  • Francisco, Francisca= FRANCISCUS, FRANZISKA from Ancient Germanic form of Franciscus (see FRANCIS, Franz, Frans, François, Francisque, Francesco, Francesc, Pranciškus)
  • Fernando, Fernão, Fernandino= from a Germanic name composed of the elements fardi "journey" and nand "daring, brave". The Visigoths brought the name to the Iberian Peninsula, where it entered into the royal families of Spain and Portugal. From there it became common among the Habsburg royal family of the Holy Roman Empire and Austria, starting with the Spanish-born Ferdinand I in the 16th century. A notable bearer was Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521), called Fernão de Magalhães in Portuguese, who was the leader of the first expedition to sail around the earth. Variants: Fernand (French), Ferdinand, Ferdi (German), Ferdinand, Ferdi (Dutch), Ferdie, Ferdy (English), Veeti, Vertti (Finnish), Ferran (Catalan), Ferdinánd, Nándor (Hungarian), Ferdinando (Italian), Ferdynand (Polish), Fernando, Hernando, Hernán, Nando (Spanish)
  • Fernanda= same as above
  • Frederico, Fred= form of a Germanic name meaning "peaceful ruler", derived from frid "peace" and ric "ruler, power". This name has long been common in continental Germanic-speaking regions, being borne by rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, Germany, Austria, Scandinavia, and Prussia. Variants: Bedřich (Czech), Frederik (Danish), Frederik, Fred, Freek, Frits, Rik (Dutch), Fredrik, Veeti (Finnish), Frédéric, Fred (French), Fedde (Frisian), Friedrich, Fiete, Fred, Fritz (German), Frigyes (Hungarian), Friðrik (Icelandic), Federico, Federigo, Fredo (Italian), Fricis, Frīdrihs (Latvian), Fredrik (Norwegian), Fryderyk (Polish), Friderik (Slovene), Federico (Spanish), Fredrik (Swedish)
  • Genival=
  • Geraldo=
  • Germano=
  • Germana=
  • Gertrudes= from Ancient Germanic Geretrudis, Gertrud. Used all over Europe with variations
  • Gilberto, Gil=
  • Gildo=
  • Gilmar=
  • Giraldo=
  • Gisele, Gisela=
  • Godiva=
  • Godofredo= from Germanic Godafrid, which meant "peace of god" from the Germanic elements god "god" and frid "peace"
  • Gonçalo= from Ancient Germanic Gundisalvus. See Gonçal (Catalan), Gonzalo (Spanish)
  • Gualberto= from the Germanic name Waldobert, composed of the elements wald "rule" and beraht "bright". Variants: Gaubert (French), Wob, Wubbe (Dutch), Wob, Wobbe, Wubbe (Frisian)
  • Gualter= see also Valter/Walter
  • Guido=
  • Guilherme= Portuguese equivalent of William in English, from Ancient Germanic Wilhelm or n Willahelm. See Breton: Gwilherm. Used all over Europe in numerous variations
  • Guilhermina=
  • Guiomar= from the Germanic name Wigmar, which is formed of the elements wig "war, battle" and meri "famous"
  • Gumercindo=
  • Gustavo= from Gundstaf, possibly means "staff of the Goths", derived from the Old Norse elements Gautr "Goth" and stafr "staff". Used all over Europe
  • Haroldo= from Old Norse Haraldr derived from the elements here "army" and weald "power, leader, ruler". Variants: Hariwald (Ancient Germanic), Hereweald (Anglo-Saxon), Harald (Danish), Harold (English), Harri (Finnish), Harald (German), Haraldur (Icelandic), Aroldo (Italian), Harald (Norwegian), Haroldo (Spanish), Harald (Swedish), Harri (Welsh)
  • Hedda=
  • Hélder, Helder, Elder= maybe from the name of the Dutch town of Den Helder (meaning "hell's door" in Dutch) or derived from the Germanic given name HULDERIC; elments hulda "merciful, graceful" and ric "power, rule".
  • Helga=
  • Hélmut= from the Germanic name Helmut, formed of the elements helm "helmet" and muot "spirit, mind"
  • Heloísa=
  • Henrique=
  • Henriqueta=
  • Heraldo= from the Old English name Hereweald, derived from the elements here "army" and weald "power, leader, ruler". The Old Norse cognate Haraldr was also common among Scandinavian settlers in England. This was the name of five kings of Norway and three kings of Denmark. See also Harold and Harald.
  • Herberto, Heriberto=
  • Herman, Hermano= from the Germanic elements hari "army" and man "man". Used in English, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Slovene
  • Hermenegildo= from a Visigothic name which meant "complete sacrifice" from the Germanic elements ermen "whole, entire" and gild "sacrifice, value". It was borne by a 6th-century saint, the son of Liuvigild the Visigothic king of Hispania. Used in Western Europe: Erminigild (Ancient Germanic), Ermenegilde (French), Hermenegild (German), Ermenegildo (Italian), Hermenegildo (Spanish)
  • Hermínio=
  • Herminia=
  • Hilda, Ilda= From Proto-Germanic Hildr (Ancient Scandinavian), Hild, Hilda (Anglo-Saxon), used in Western Europe= Hilda (Danish), Hilda, Hilde (Dutch), Hilda (English), Hilda, Hilde (German), Hildur (Icelandic), Hildr (Norse Mythology), Hilda, Hilde, Hildur (Norwegian), Hilda (Spanish), Hilda, Hildur (Swedish)
  • Hildeberto, Hildiberto= Portuguese variant of Hildebert, Hilbert, from the Germanic elements hild "battle" and beraht "bright"
  • Hildebrando=
  • Hildegardo=
  • Hugo=
  • Humberto=
  • Idália, Idalina, Ida= Originally a medieval short form of names beginning with the Old Frankish element idal, extended form of Old Frankish id meaning "work, labour" (cf. Ida). Used in Western Europe
  • Ildefonso= from Ancient Germanic Hildefons
  • Inga=
  • Ingrid=
  • Isilda= * possibly Germanic, perhaps from a hypothetic name like Ishild, composed of the elements is "ice, iron" and hild "battle". Could be an early version of Isolda.
  • Isnard=
  • Ivo= Germanic name, originally a short form of names beginning with the Germanic element iv meaning "yew". Alternative theories suggest that it may in fact be derived from a cognate Celtic element. This was the name of several saints (who are also commonly known as Saint Yves or Ives). Variants: Yvo (German), Yvo (Dutch), Erwan, Erwann (Breton), Yves, Yvon (French), Ives (History), Iwo (Polish)
  • Ivone= female version of Ivo
  • Juscelino, Joscelino= from a Germanic masculine name, variously written as Gaudelenus, Gautselin, Gauzlin, along with many other spellings. It was derived from the Germanic element Gaut, which was from the name of the Germanic tribe the Gauts, combined with a Latin diminutive suffix.
  • Lars=
  • Leonardo=
  • Leonildo=
  • Leonor, Eleonor, Eleonora= from Occitan Aliénor derived from Ancient Germanic Eanor
  • Leopoldo= from the Germanic elements leud "people" and bald "bold". The spelling was altered due to association with Latin leo "lion". Used in Western Europe
  • Liduína= female form derived from Ludwin, Leutwin or Liutwin. There are instances where the first element of the name can also be derived from Old High German hlûd "famous"
  • Lindolfo=
  • Lorelei=
  • Lotário=
  • Luís, Luiz, Aloisio, Aloysio, Ludovico= from Ancient Germanic Chlodovech, Clodovicus, Ludovicus, Clovis, Hludowig. Used all over Europe
  • Luisa=
  • Mafalda= variant from the Germanic name Mahthildis meaning "strength in battle", from the elements maht "might, strength" and hild "battle". Used in Western and central Europe
  • Manfred=
  • Matilde= from the Germanic name Mahthildis meaning "strength in battle", from the elements maht "might, strength" and hild "battle". Used in Western and central Europe
  • Nivaldo=
  • Norberto= from the Germanic elements nord "north" and beraht "bright". Variants: Norberto (Italian), Norbaer, Baer, Bèr, Nor (Limburgish), Norberto (Spanish)
  • Odorico=
  • Olavo= from Old Norse Áleifr meaning "ancestor's descendant", derived from the elements anu "ancestor" and leifr "descendant". This was the name of five kings of Norway, including Saint Olaf (Olaf II). Used mainly in Northern Europe: Olaf, Olav, Oluf, Ole (Danish), Olaf (Dutch), Olev (Estonian), Olavi, Uolevi, Olli (Finnish), Olaf (German), Ólafur (Icelandic), Amhlaoibh (Irish), Olaf, Olav, Ola, Ole (Norwegian), Olaf (Polish), Amhlaidh, Aulay (Scottish), Olof, Olov, Ola, Olle (Swedish)
  • Orlando=
  • Osmar=
  • Osvaldo, Oswaldo= Portuguese variant of Oswald, from the Old English elements os "god" and weald "power, ruler". See also Old Norse name Ásvaldr.
  • Osvalda, Osvaldina= female form of Osvaldo
  • Oto, Otto= short form of various names beginning with the Germanic element aud meaning "wealth, fortune". Used mainly in Northern & Western Europe: Audo, Odilo, Odo, Otto (Ancient Germanic), Otto (Danish), Otto (Dutch), Otto (English), Otto (Finnish), Otto, Udo (German), Ottó (Hungarian), Ottó (Icelandic), Oddo, Ottone, Ottorino (Italian), Ode (Medieval English), Eudes (Medieval French), Otto (Norwegian), Otto (Swedish)
  • Raimundo= from Proto-Germanic *raginaz («council») and *mundō («protection»), Raymund
  • Ramiro= Latinized form of the Visigothic name 'Ramirus' (Raginmar) derived from the Germanic elements ragin "advice" and meri "famous". Rare, mainly in Portugal and Spain.
  • Raul=
  • Reginaldo=
  • Reinaldo, Ronaldo, Reynaldo= from the Germanic name Raginald, made of elements ragin "advice" and wald "rule". Used in Western Europe: Ragnvald (Danish), Reinoud, Reinout (Dutch), Reino (Finnish), Renaud, Reynaud (French), Reinhold (German), Raghnall (Irish), Rinaldo (Italian), Ragnvald (Norwegian), Raghnall, Ranald, Ronald (Scottish), Reynaldo (Spanish), Ragnvald (Swedish), Rheinallt (Welsh)
  • Ricardo= from the Germanic elements ric "power, rule" and hard "brave, hardy". Used all over Europe: Ricard (Catalan), Richard (Czech), Rikard (Danish), Richard (Dutch), Richard, Dick, Rich, Richie, Rick, Rickey, Ricki, Rickie, Ricky, Ritchie (English), Rikhard, Riku (Finnish), Richard (French), Richard (German), Richárd, Rikárd (Hungarian), Risteárd (Irish), Riccardo (Italian), Rihards (Latvian), Ričardas (Lithuanian), Rikard (Norwegian), Ryszard (Polish), Rihard (Slovene), Rikard (Swedish), Rhisiart (Welsh)
  • Roberto=
  • Roberta=
  • Rodrigo= from Germanic Hrodric/Hrēðrīc/Rørik/Hrœrekr (Roderick, Rodrick, Roderich; a compound of hrod ‘renown’ + ric ‘power(ful)’), from the Proto-Germanic *Hrōþirīk(i)az; it was borne by the last of the Visigoth kings and is one of the most common Lusophone personal names of Germanic origin.[[103]]
  • Rodolfo= Portuguese variation from Ancient Germanic 'Hrodulf', 'Hrolf', 'Hrólfr', Hróðólfr (Ancient Scandinavian), Hrothulf, Hroðulf (Anglo-Saxon), Rudolf (Armenian), Rudolf (Croatian), Rudolf (Czech), Rolf, Rudolf (Danish), Roelof, Rudolf, Rodolf, Roel, Ruud (Dutch), Rolf, Rollo, Rudolph, Rodolph, Rolph, Rudy (English), Rodolphe, Rodolph (French), Rolf, Rudolf, Rodolf, Rudi (German), Ruedi (German (Swiss)), Rudolf, Rudi (Hungarian), Roul (Medieval English), Roul (Medieval French), Rolf, Rudolf (Norwegian), Rudolf (Polish), Rudolf (Russian), Rudolf (Slovene), Rolf, Rudolf, Roffe (Swedish)
  • Rogério= from Proto-Germanic Hrodger, Hróarr, Hróðgeirr (Ancient Scandinavian), Hroðgar (Anglo-Saxon), used in Western Europe= Roger (Danish), Roger, Rogier, Rutger (Dutch), Roger, Rodge, Rodger (English), Roger (French), Roger, Rüdiger (German), Ruggero, Ruggiero (Italian), Ruth (Limburgish), Roar, Roger (Norwegian), Roger (Swedish)
  • Rolando, Orlando, Roldão= from Proto-Germanic Hrodland used all over Europe= Roeland, Roland, Roel (Dutch), Roland, Rolland, Roly, Rowland, Rowley (English), Roland (French), Roland (German), Loránd, Lóránt, Roland (Hungarian), Orlando, Rolando (Italian), Rolan (Russian), Rolando, Roldán (Spanish), Roland (Swedish)
  • Romildo=
  • Ronaldo=
  • Rosalina, Rosalinda= from Ancient Germanic Roslindis. Used in Western Europe
  • Rui= Equivalent to English Roy (Roderick) from Ancient Germanic Hroderich. Used in Western Europe: Roderic (Catalan), Roderick, Rod, Roddy (English), Rodrigue (French), Rodrigo, Roi (Galician), Rodrigo (Italian), Rodrigo, Ruy (Spanish)
  • Ubaldo=
  • Ulrico=
  • Valkyria=
  • Wagner=
  • Waldemar, Valdemar=
  • Waldevino, Balduíno = from Proto-Germanic Baldovin, Baldwin, used in Western Europe= Boudewijn (Dutch), Baldwin (English), Baudouin (French), Baldovino, Baldo (Italian), Balduino (Spanish), Maldwyn (Welsh)
  • Waldir=
  • Waldo=
  • Walfredo=
  • Walter, Valter=
  • Wanda, Vanda=
  • Wania, Vânia=
  • Wilfried, Vilfredo= from Proto-Germanic Willifrid, Wilfrith, Wilfrið (Anglo-Saxon), used in Western Europe= Guifré (Catalan), Vilfred (Danish), Wilfred, Wilfrid, Wil, Wilf (English), Wilfried (German), Vilfredo (Italian) Wilfredo (Spanish)
  • Wolfgang=


  • Abreu= toponymic, from “Avredo” (avi + redo) derived from Gothic 'avi' grace and 'redo' to give, to offer. See Norman-French Évreux
  • Afonso= patronymic of the same name
  • Antunes= patronymic form of Antonio
  • Aires= Germanic hypocorism of 'Hari' or 'Hêri' meaning army
  • Araújo, Araujo= toponymic, from Gothic 'Ruderic' [104]
  • Arouca= toponymic, derived from Frankish or Gaulish *rusk (iris) maybe via old French 'rouche'
  • Alencar, Alenquer= toponymic, derived from Ancient Germanic “Alankerk” (Alan + kerk, temple of the Alans) referring to the Alans
  • Alves, Álvares= patronymic form of Álvaro
  • Bandeira= from Ancient Germanic *bandwa, band-
  • Beltrão= patronymic of the same name
  • Berenguer, Beringer, Berengar= derived from Ancient Germanic 'Geir', 'Ger' meaning bear and spear (see Geraldo= Gerald)
  • Bernardes= patronymic form of Bernardo
  • Branco= from Germanic 'blank' (white, fair)
  • Esteves= patronymic form of Estêvão
  • Fernandes= patronymic form of Fernando, archaic Fernão
  • Geraldes, Giraldes= patronymic form of Geraldo
  • Gonçalves= patronymic form of Gonçalo
  • Guarda, Guardão= from Germanic 'wardon' (to guard, watch)
  • Guerra= from Gothic 'wirro' (war)
  • Guerrinha= from Gothic 'wirro' (war)
  • Guerreiro= from Gothic 'wirros' (warrior)
  • Gusmão= from Gothic 'gutsman' (goodman)
  • Guterres= patronymic form of Guterre
  • Henriques= patronymic form of Henrique
  • Martins= patronymic form of Martim, Martinho
  • Mendes= patronymic form of Menendo (short form of Hermenergildo)
  • Moniz= patronymic form of archaic Moninho or Munio
  • Norberto= patronymic of the same name, from Germanic Nordberctus, elements 'nort' (north)+ berth (illustrious)
  • Nunes= patronymic form of Nuno
  • Resende, Rezende= toponymic of Resende, from Suebian 'sinde' and 'sende', derived from the Germanic "sinths" (military expedition)
  • Ródão= from ancient Germanic H1reiH- 'flow, river'
  • Rodrigues= patronymic form of Rodrigo
  • Roldão= patronymic form of the same name, variant of Roland
  • Sá= from Germanic 'sal' (room, building)
  • Saavedra= combination of Germanic 'sal' + Latin 'vetus< vetera (old)
  • Salas= from Germanic 'sal' (room, building)
  • Sousa, Souza= Visigothic toponymic, from archaic 'Souza'
  • Velêz, Velez= from Visigothic baptismal name 'vigila', also possible patronymic of Vela (Pre-Roman 'bela')
  • Viegas= patronymic form of Egas

See also[edit]


Between the early VIII and XIII centuries, Portugal was occupied and under the influence of the Islamic Emirate of Cordoba known as (Al-Andalus). During that period, although the local populations continued to speak Western Romance, and further south Mozarabic dialects; Arabic being the elite language, lent many new words to Portuguese, thanks to a rich cultural and scientific legacy left in the Iberian Peninsula[105] and the Western world in the Middle Ages. Words such as 'algebra','algorism (algorithm)', 'alcohol', 'azimuth', 'sugar', 'coffee' and many others were incorporated into Portuguese and are everyday words:

  • Alcova (alcove) from alkubba ( الكبة )
  • Aldeia (village) from aldaya ( الدية )
  • Alface (lettuce) from alkhass ( الخس )
  • Algarismo (number, figure) from alkarizmi ( الكرزم )
  • Algema (handcuff) from alzhaimar (bracelet) (سوار)
  • Almirante (admiral) from amir + ar-rahl ( امير الرّال )
  • Almofada (cushion) from almukhadda ( المخدّة )
  • Âmbar (amber) from anbar ( انبر )
  • Armazém (warehouse; a cognate of English "magazine") from almahazan ( المحزا )
  • Arroz (rice) from arruz (loan from Greek óryza) ( الروز )
  • Açúcar (sugar) from "as-sukkar" ( السكّر )
  • Azeite (olive oil) from azzait ( الزّيت )
  • Bairro (barri)
  • Fátima (woman's name, and name of a town in Portugal) from Fāṭimah ( فاطمة )
  • Garrafa (bottle) from garrafā (cognate of English "caraffe") ( الغرّافة )
  • Girafa (giraffe) from zurafa ( الزرفة )
  • Jasmim (jasmine) from yasmin (loan from Persian jasamin) ( يسمن )
  • Jarra (vase) from jarra ( الجارة )

Many words from the Islamic period were borrowings from Spanish and Mozarabic dialects from the South. Because Portugal expelled the Moors 300 years earlier than Spain, the Arabic influence in Portuguese was relatively small and left no loanwords in the Portuguese lexicon related to human feelings or emotions. Arabic-derived words are easily identifiable in toponymic names of towns and villages, increasing as you travel south Alfama, Alcácer do Sal, Alcoutim, Aljustrel, Algarve and in words relating to geography, agriculture, architecture, astronomy, mathematics, chemicals and food. Projections estimate 400 to 800 Arabic-derived words in Portuguese, with a tendency to decrease as many of these words have entered in disuse over time:

List of Portuguese words of Arabic origin[edit]


  • Açafrão (azzae'faran) الزعفران
  • Acéquia (assāqiyyah) الساقية
  • Achaque (ashshaka)
  • Acicate (ashshukat) الشكّة
  • Açoite (assaut) السوط
  • Açorda (athurda)
  • Açoteia (assutaiha)
  • Açougue (assok)
  • Açucena (assusana) السوسنة
  • Açude (assudd)
  • Açúcar (assukar derived from Sanskrit çarkara) السكّر
  • Adarga (addarka)
  • Aduana (addwana) الديوان
  • Alá (al-ilâh)
  • Alabão (allabban) اللبّان
  • Alambique
  • Alarife (alarif)
  • Alarve (al-árab) العرب
  • Albarda (albarda'a)
  • Albardar (albarda'a) البردعة
  • Albufeira (al-buHera) البحيرة
  • Alcáçova (alkasaba) القصبة
  • Alcachofra (alkharshof) الخرشف
  • Alcalóide (composed word: Arabic. alcali and Greek eîdos)
  • Alcaravia (alkarawiya) الكروية
  • Alcateia (alkataia)
  • Alcatifa (al-qatifa) القطيفة
  • Alcatruz (alkadus compound word: Arabic. al and Greek kádos, jar for water or wine)
  • Alcofa (alkuffa) القفّة
  • Álcool (alkohul) الكحول
  • Alcorão (Alkuran) القرآن
  • Alcova (alkubba) القبّة
  • Alecrim (aliklil)
  • Aletria (alitríya)
  • Alface (al-kass) خس
  • Alfafa
  • Alfaia
  • Alfaiate (al-khayyáţ) الخيّاط
  • Alfândega (al-funduq) الفندق
  • Alfarela
  • Alfarrábio
  • Alfarrabista
  • Alfarroba (al-kharrūbah) الخرّوبة
  • Alfarrobeira
  • Alfavaca (al-habaqa) آل
  • Alfazema (al-khazāmā) الخزامى
  • Alferes (alfaris)
  • Alfobre (alhufra)
  • Alforge (alhurj)
  • Alforria (alhuriya') الحرية
  • Algarismo (alkarizmi, name of Arab mathematician Abu Ibn Muça)
  • Algarve(al-gharb) الغرب
  • Álgebra (al-jabar) علم الجبر
  • Algema (aljami'a)
  • Algibeira (al-jibaira)
  • Algodão (alkutun) القطن
  • Algodoeiro
  • Algoritmo ('khawarzmy) خوارزمية
  • Alguidar (algidar) القِدر
  • Alicate (al-qatiea) قاطعة
  • Almanaque (almanakh)
  • Almedina (almedina) المدينة
  • Almóada
  • Almocreve (almukari)
  • Almofada (almukhadda) المخدّة
  • Almofate (almikhyat)
  • Almogávar (almugauar)
  • Almôndega (albundeca)
  • Almorávida (almurabiti) المرابط
  • Almotacé (almuhtasib) المحتسب
  • Almotolia (almutli)
  • Almoxarife (al-musharif) المشرف
  • Almude
  • Alqueire
  • Alqueive
  • Alvanel
  • Alvará
  • Alvíssaras
  • Alvorge
  • Armazém (al-mahzan) ألمخزن
  • Arroba (arrúb) ألربع
  • Arroz (ar-rūz) الرز
  • Arsenal (alttirsana) الترسانة
  • Atafona
  • Atalaia
  • Azar
  • Azeite (az-zeyt) الزيت
  • Azeitona (az-zeytūnah) الزيتونة
  • Azemel
  • Azémola
  • Azimute (alssamt) السمت
  • Azenha
  • Azinhaga
  • Azulejo (az-zillij) الزليج


  • Bafafá
  • Bairro (barri)
  • Baraço
  • Bolota (balluta)


  • Café قهوة
  • Cáfila
  • Califa
  • Ceifa
  • Ceroulas (sarawil) سراويل
  • Chafariz
  • Cherne
  • Chifra
  • Cifra


  • Damasco (dimashq) دمشق


  • Elixir
  • Emir
  • Emirato (Emirado)
  • Escabeche (Sikbaj)


  • Falua (faluka)
  • Fatímida


  • Garrafa (gharrāfa) غرّافة


  • Harém (Hareem) حريم
  • Haxixe (Hash�īsh) حشيش


  • Imã (imām) إمام
  • Islão (Islã) (Islām) إسلام


  • Javali (jabali) جبلي


  • Laranja (naranj derived from the Persian naräng)
  • Laranjeira (naranj derived from the Persian naräng)
  • Lezíria (al-jazīra) الجزيرة


  • Madraçal (madrasa, school) مدرسة
  • Magazine
  • Masmorra (matmura)
  • Matraca (mitraka)
  • Mesa
  • Mesquita (masdjid) مسجد
  • Metical (Mozambican currency, from mitķāl, an Arabic unit of weight, from taķāl', weigh).
  • Moçárabe (must'rib) مستعرب
  • Muezim (mu'ađđin) مؤذّن
  • Maomé (originally Muhammad; also Maomet; formerly Maomede, Mafoma, Mafamede)
  • Muladi (malado)


  • Nadir (natir)ناطر
  • Nora (na'ûra)نورا : اسم فتاة مشتق من النور


  • Omíada
  • Oxalá (in sha allah or inshallah, God willing)


  • Ramadão (Ramadã)
  • Rês
  • Resma (rizmah) رزمة
  • Romã (ramaan) رمان


  • Sáfaro (sahrā', desert) صحراء
  • Safra (safaria)
  • Saloio (çahroi)
  • Sofá (suffah, couch)
  • Sultanato (sultan, ruler)
  • Sultão (sultan, ruler)


  • Tambor (tanbur derived from the Persian dänbära)
  • Tâmara (tamar ) تمر


  • Xarope (xarab) شرب
  • Xaveco (xabbak)
  • Xeque (shaikh) شيخ


  • Zarabatana (zarba tãnâ)
  • Zénite (samt)


External links[edit]

See also[edit]

Influences from outside Europe[edit]

With the Portuguese discoveries linguistic contact was made, and the Portuguese language became influenced by other languages with which it came into contact outside Europe. In Brazil, many placenames and local animals have Amerindian names, the same occurring with the local Bantu languages in Angola and Mozambique.


  • Banana (banana) from Wolof
  • Babá (babysitter), a name developed by the slaves to wet-nurses
  • Bungular (to dance like African wizards) from Kimbundu kubungula
  • Cachimbo (smoking pipe) from Kimbundu
  • Careca (bald) from Kimbundu
  • Cabiri (small domestic animal) from Kimbundu kabiribiri
  • Cafuné (caress on the head) from Kimbundu kifumate
  • Capoeira (Brazilian martial art) from Kikongo kipura (cf. Port. & Lat. cap)
  • Cubata/Kubata (African hut/shack) from Kimbundu kubata
  • Marimba (musical instrument) from Bantu marimba/malimba
  • Missanga (glass beads for threading) from Kimbundu

The country name "Angola" is from a Bantu word, N'gola.


  • Ananás (pineapple) from Tupi–Guarani naná
  • Abacaxi (pineapple) from Tupi ibá + cati
  • Açaí (açaí palm) from Tupi–Guarani ïwaca'i
  • Apache (apache) via Fra. from Yuman epache or apachu
  • Capivara (capybara) from Tupi ka'apiûara
  • Caiaque, Kayak (kayak) via Fra. from Intikut  ᖃᔭᖅ, from Proto-Eskimo qyaq
  • Goiaba (guava) from Arawak guaiaba
  • Jaguar (jaguar) from Tupi–Guarani jaguara
  • Jacarandá (jacaranda) from Tupi yakara'nda
  • Maracujá (passionfruit, maracuya) from Tupi moruku'ia
  • Mocassim (moccasin) via Eng. from Algonquian mockasin
  • Moicano (mohican/mahican) via Eng. from Algonquian ma'hi'kan
  • Muriqui (muriqui monkeys) from Tupi muri'ki
  • Piranha (piranha) from Tupi–Guarani pirá + sainha
  • Sumaúma (kapok, java cotton) Tupi suma'uma
  • Tatu (armadillo) from Guarani tatu
  • Tucano (toucan) from Guarani tucan


  • Bengala reduced form of «cana de Bengala»; Bengala is a golf on the eastern coast of India.
  • Biombo (screen with multiple panels to divide a room) from the Japanese byōbu
  • Canja from malaiala (language of Malabar – Índia) through concani or concanim (Goese).
  • Chá (Tea), from Chinese cha
  • Corja (rabble) from Malay kórchchu
  • Leque abbreviated form of "abano léquio", where léquio means "related to Léquias islands, south of Japan".
  • Ramarrão, ramerrão or rame-rame (monotonous sound), from Hindi ráma-ráma
  • Manga (mango), from Malay mangga
  • Catana (cutlass) from Japanese katana

The country name Macau is from Chinese A-mok, name of the city's temple.

See also[edit]


  2. ^ https://www.priberam.pt/dlpo/manteiga
  3. ^ https://www.priberam.pt/dlpo/sapato
  4. ^ BDELC 1967.
  5. ^ Trumper 2004, p. 4, footnote 13.
  6. ^ a b Behind the name: Vasco
  7. ^ Behind the name: Xavier
  8. ^ Omaechevarria 1949.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Matasović 2008.
  10. ^ a b Ward 1996, s.v. BECLOS.
  11. ^ a b Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 1013.
  12. ^ Meyer-Lübke, s.v. 1830.
  13. ^ a b Ballester & Quinn 2002.
  14. ^ cf. Varela Sieiro (2008, pp. 205–206)
  15. ^ a b Ward 1996, s.v. LĀGENĀ.
  16. ^ Matasović 2008, s.v. Lîwank.
  17. ^ a b c d e Ward 1996, s.v..
  18. ^ a b Matasović 2008, s.v. frikā.
  19. ^ a b Ward 1996, s.v. RIKS.
  20. ^ a b Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 7299.
  21. ^ Coromines 1997, s.v. serna.
  22. ^ Matasovic 2008, s.v. *aro-.
  23. ^ a b s.v. 4307
  24. ^ a b Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 9166.
  25. ^ DCECH 1992, s.v. BROLLAR.
  26. ^ Rivas Quintas 1991, p. 17.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ward 1996.
  28. ^ cf. Meyer-Lübke (1911, s.v. 294)
  29. ^ a b s.v. *baccos-
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Mariño Paz 1998.
  31. ^ a b c Matasović 2008, s.v..
  32. ^ Ward 1996, s.v. BORWOS.
  33. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 1235.
  34. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 1252.
  35. ^ Ward 1996, s.v. KAGOS.
  36. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 1480.
  37. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 1542.
  38. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 1552.
  39. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 1550.
  40. ^ a b Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 1541.
  41. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 1721.
  42. ^ Coromines 1997, s.v. quejigo.
  43. ^ Matasović 2008, s.v.*casso-.
  44. ^ DCECH s.v. centollo
  45. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 1830.
  46. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 1988.
  47. ^ Donkin 1864, s.v..
  48. ^ a b c https://www.progael.com/es/tematicos/ver/21
  49. ^ Varela Sieiro 2008, pp. 205-206.
  50. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 2386.
  51. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911.
  52. ^ Prósper 2002, p. 242.
  53. ^ Varela Sieiro 2003, pp. 293–294.
  54. ^ Matasović 2008, s.v. *durno-.
  55. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 2754.
  56. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 448.
  57. ^ Ward 1996, s.v. GABIT.
  58. ^ Matasović 2008, s.v. *gab-yo-.
  59. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 3627.
  60. ^ Ward 1996, s.v. GORIT.
  61. ^ Matasović 2008, s.v. *gwer-o-.
  62. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 4884.
  63. ^ Búa 2007, p. 34.
  64. ^ Coromines 1973, s.v. legua.
  65. ^ cf. Meyer-Lübke (1911, s.v. 4911)
  66. ^ CNRTL s.v. lotte
  67. ^ Ward 1996, s.v. OLCĀ.
  68. ^ Matasović 2008, s.v. *folkā.
  69. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 6050.
  70. ^ Ward 1996, s.v. QEZDI.
  71. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 6450.
  72. ^ Ward 1996, s.v. ROTIS.
  73. ^ Varela Sieiro 2003, pp. 103–105.
  74. ^ de Vaan 2008, p. 534.
  75. ^ Coromines 1997.
  76. ^ Coromines 1997, s.v. tascar.
  77. ^ Matasovic (2009) s.v.
  78. ^ Ward 1996, s.v. TONDOS.
  79. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 8987.
  80. ^ Ward 1996, s.v. TOGIT.
  81. ^ da Cunha 2014, p. 773.
  82. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 8570.
  83. ^ Matasović 2008, s.v. *tarankyo-.
  84. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. 8585.
  85. ^ a b "Trencha". Portal das Palabras. Retrieved 17 June 2016. 
  86. ^ a b "Trencha". DIGALEGO. Retrieved 17 June 2016. 
  87. ^ Coromines 1997, s.v. varga.
  88. ^ CNRTL s.v. BARGE
  89. ^ Ward 1996, s.v. WORÊDOS.
  90. ^ Matasović 2008, s.v. *ufo-rēdos.
  91. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1911, s.v. *betulus, *betullus.
  92. ^ La Onomástica Sueva
  93. ^ SciELO – Scientific Electronic Library Online
  95. ^ http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/guigne
  96. ^ http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/guinder
  97. ^ http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/guindeau
  98. ^ a b http://www.littre.org/definition/vague
  99. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo Dicionário Priberam da Língua Portuguesa (DPLP)
  100. ^ a b c d e f g CNRTL s.v. braise
  101. ^ a b c d e f g h https://www.priberam.pt/dlpo/escarnir
  102. ^ Língua Portuguesa s.v. texugo
  103. ^ Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4
  104. ^ http://apelidosgalicia.org/Ara%C3%BAjo-1777
  105. ^ http://www.hispanicmuslims.com/andalusia/andalusia.html


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  • Varela Sieiro, Xaime (2003). O enxoval [the trousseau]. Léxico cotián na Alta Idade Media de Galicia [Vocabulary everyday in the Middle Ages in Galician] (in Galician). Coruña: Do Castro. ISBN 978-8484851202. 
  • Varela Sieiro, Xaime (2008). A arquitectura civil [civil architecture]. Léxico Cotián na Alta Idade Media de Galicia [Vocabulary everyday in the Middle Ages in Galician] (in Galician). Santiago de Compostela: USC. ISBN 978-8497507813. 
  • Ward, Alan (1996) [1982]. A Checklist of Proto-Celtic lexical items. 

External links[edit]