Pritzker Architecture Prize
|Pritzker Architecture Prize|
Medal of the Pritzker Architecture Prize
|Awarded for||A career of achievement in the art of architecture.|
The Pritzker Architecture Prize was founded in 1979 by Jay and Cindy Pritzker to honor outstanding living architects worldwide. Awarded annually as one of the highest accolades of the profession, it is frequently described as the Nobel Prize of architecture.
The Pritzker Prize is intended "to honor a living architect or architects whose built work demonstrates a combination of those qualities of talent, vision and commitment, which has produced consistent and significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture." The laureate should be chosen "irrespective of nationality, race, creed, or ideology."
The Executive Director of the prize, as of 2009, Martha Thorne, solicits nominations from a range of people, including past laureates, academics, critics and others "with expertise and interest in the field of architecture".
The jury, each year consisting of five to nine "experts ... recognized professionals in their own fields of architecture, business, education, publishing, and culture", deliberate early the following year before announcing the winner in spring. As of 2015[update], the Prize Chair is Lord Palumbo (and has been since 2005); earlier chairs were J. Carter Brown (1979–2002), and Lord Rothschild (2003–04).
The recipients receive US$100,000, a citation certificate, and since 1987, a bronze medallion. The designs on the medal are inspired by the work of architect Louis Sullivan, while the Latin inspired inscription on the reverse of the medallion—firmitas, utilitas, venustas (English: firmness, commodity and delight)—is from Ancient Roman architect Vitruvius. Before 1987, a limited edition Henry Moore sculpture accompanied the monetary prize.
Inaugural winner Philip Johnson was cited "for 50 years of imagination and vitality embodied in a myriad of museums, theaters, libraries, houses, gardens and corporate structures". The 2004 laureate Zaha Hadid was the first female prize winner. Ryue Nishizawa became the youngest winner in 2010 at age 44. The 32nd prize winners, Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa, were cited for "architecture that is simultaneously delicate and powerful, precise and fluid, ingenious but not overly or overtly clever". The most recent winner, in 2015, is the German architect Frei Otto, who received word that he would be given the award before his death, and whose name was announced to the public as the winner shortly after his death, the first time in the prize's history that a Laureate died before being able to attend the award ceremony.
In 2013, "Women in Design", a student organization at the Harvard Graduate School of Design started a petition on behalf of Denise Scott Brown to receive joint recognition with her partner, past prize winner Robert Venturi, furthering a debate about sexism in architecture. The petition, according to The New York Times has "reignited long-simmering tensions in the architectural world over whether women have been consistently denied the standing they deserve in a field whose most prestigious award was not given to a woman until 2004, when Zaha Hadid won." Although the petition received international support of several past recipients, the jury said that it cannot revisit the work of past juries, in order to acknowledge the work of Scott Brown and Lu Wenyu, both women and equal partners to their spouses Venturi and Wang Shu, who won in 1991 and 2012 respectively. Scott Brown told CNN that "as a woman, she had felt excluded by the elite of architecture throughout her career," and that "the Pritzker Prize was based on the fallacy that great architecture was the work of a 'single lone male genius' at the expense of collaborative work."
Table of Laureates
|No.||Year||Laureate||Nationality||Photo||Example work (year completed)||Ceremony location||Ref.|
|1||1979||Johnson, PhilipPhilip Johnson||United States||Glass House (1949)||Dumbarton Oaks, Washington DC|||
|2||1980||Barragán, LuisLuis Barragán||Mexico||–||Torres de Satélite (1957)||Dumbarton Oaks, Washington DC|||
|3||1981||Stirling, JamesJames Stirling||United Kingdom||Seeley Historical Library (1968)||National Building Museum, Washington DC|||
|4||1982||Roche, KevinKevin Roche||United States
|–||Knights of Columbus Building (1969)||Art Institute of Chicago||[A]|
|5||1983||Pei, Ieoh MingIeoh Ming Pei||United States
|National Gallery of Art, East Building (1978)||Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City||[B]|
|6||1984||Meier, RichardRichard Meier||United States||High Museum of Art (1983)||National Gallery of Art, Washington DC|||
|7||1985||Hollein, HansHans Hollein||Austria||Abteiberg Museum (1982)||The Huntington Library, San Marino, California|||
|8||1986||Böhm, GottfriedGottfried Böhm||Germany||Christi Auferstehung, Cologne (1968)||Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, London|||
|9||1987||Tange, KenzōKenzō Tange||Japan||St. Mary's Cathedral, Tokyo (1964)||Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas|||
|10||1988||Bunshaft, GordonGordon Bunshaft
|United States||–||Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library (1963)||Art Institute of Chicago|||
|10||1988||Niemeyer, OscarOscar Niemeyer
|Brazil||Cathedral of Brasília (1958)||Art Institute of Chicago|||
|11||1989||Gehry, FrankFrank Gehry||United States
|Walt Disney Concert Hall (1999–2003)||Tōdai-ji, Nara, Japan||[C]|
|12||1990||Rossi, AldoAldo Rossi||Italy||Bonnefanten Museum (1990)||Palazzo Grassi, Venice|||
|13||1991||Venturi, RobertRobert Venturi||United States||National Gallery, Sainsbury Wing (1991)||Palace of Iturbide, Mexico City|||
|14||1992||Siza Vieira, ÁlvaroÁlvaro Siza Vieira||Portugal||Pavilion of Portugal in Expo'98 (1998)||Harold Washington Library, Chicago|||
|15||1993||Maki, FumihikoFumihiko Maki||Japan||Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium (1991)||Prague Castle|||
|16||1994||de Portzamparc, ChristianChristian de Portzamparc||France||-||French Embassy, Berlin (2003)||The Commons, Columbus, Indiana|||
|17||1995||Ando, TadaoTadao Ando||Japan||Church of the Light (1989)||Palace of Versailles|||
|18||1996||Moneo, RafaelRafael Moneo||Spain||Kursaal Palace (1999)||Getty Center, Los Angeles|||
|19||1997||Fehn, SverreSverre Fehn||Norway||–||Norwegian Glacier Museum (1991)||Guggenheim Museum Bilbao|||
|20||1998||Piano, RenzoRenzo Piano||Italy||Kansai International Airport (1994)||White House, Washington DC|||
|21||1999||Foster, NormanNorman Foster||United Kingdom||Millennium Bridge (London) (2000)||Altes Museum, Berlin|||
|22||2000||Koolhaas, RemRem Koolhaas||Netherlands||Casa da Música, Porto (2003)||Jerusalem Archaeological Park|||
|23||2001||Herzog & de Meuron||Switzerland||–||Tate Modern (2000)||Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia|||
|24||2002||Murcutt, GlennGlenn Murcutt||Australia||Berowra Waters Inn (1983)||Campidoglio, Rome|||
|25||2003||Utzon, JørnJørn Utzon||Denmark||–||Sydney Opera House (1973)||Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando, Madrid|||
|26||2004||Hadid, ZahaZaha Hadid||United Kingdom
|Bridge Pavilion (2008)||Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg||[D]|
|27||2005||Mayne, ThomThom Mayne||United States||–||San Francisco Federal Building (2007)||Pritzker Pavilion, Chicago|||
|28||2006||Mendes da Rocha, PauloPaulo Mendes da Rocha||Brazil||Saint Peter Chapel, Campos do Jordão, São Paulo (1987)||Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul|||
|29||2007||Rogers, RichardRichard Rogers||United Kingdom
|Lloyd's building (1986)||Banqueting House, Whitehall, London||[E]|
|30||2008||Nouvel, JeanJean Nouvel||France||Torre Agbar (2005)||Library of Congress, Washington DC|||
|31||2009||Zumthor, PeterPeter Zumthor||Switzerland||–||Therme Vals (1996)||Legislative Palace of the City Council, Buenos Aires|||
|32||2010||Sejima, KazuyoKazuyo Sejima and
Ryue Nishizawa (SANAA)
|Japan||21st Century Museum of Contemporary Art, Kanazawa (2003)||Ellis Island, New York City|
|33||2011||Souto de Moura, EduardoEduardo Souto de Moura||Portugal||Estádio Municipal de Braga, Braga (2004)||Andrew W. Mellon Auditorium, Washington DC|||
|34||2012||Wang Shu||China||Ningbo Museum, Ningbo (2008)||Great Hall of the People, Beijing|||
|35||2013||Ito, ToyoToyo Ito||Japan||Sendai Mediatheque, Sendai (2001)||John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston|||
|36||2014||Ban, ShigeruShigeru Ban||Japan||Centre Pompidou-Metz, Metz (2010)||Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam|||
|37||2015||Otto, FreiFrei Otto||Germany||–||Olympic Stadium, Munich (1972)||New World Center, Miami|||
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- Basulto, David (February 2012). "2012 Pritzker Prize: Wang Shu". Arch Daily. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- Hawthorne, Christopher (March 17, 2013). "Japanese architect Toyo Ito, 71, wins Pritzker Prize". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 17, 2013.
- Hawthorne, Christopher (March 24, 2014). "Architect Shigeru Ban, known for disaster relief, wins Pritzker Prize". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 24, 2014.
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