AMD Radeon Rx 200 series

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This article is about the GPU series announced in 2013. For the similarly named series, released in 2001 by ATI, see R200.
AMD Radeon R5/R7/R9 200 Series
AMD Radeon graphics logo
Release date October 8, 2013
Codename Southern Islands
Sea Islands
Volcanic Islands
Architecture GCN 2nd gen
Cards
Entry-level Radeon R5 210
Radeon R5 220
Radeon R5 230
Radeon R5 235
Radeon R5 235X
Mid-range Radeon R7 240
Radeon R7 250
Radeon R7 250X
Radeon R7 260
Radeon R7 260X
Radeon R7 265
High-end Radeon R9 270
Radeon R9 270X
Radeon R9 280
Radeon R9 280X
Radeon R9 285
Enthusiast Radeon R9 290
Radeon R9 290X
Radeon R9 295X2
API support
Direct3D
OpenCL OpenCL 2.0
OpenGL OpenGL 4.5[1]
Vulkan Vulkan 1.0
SPIR-V
History
Predecessor Radeon HD 7000 series
Radeon HD 8000 series
Successor Radeon Rx 300 series

The AMD Radeon R5/R7/R9 200 series is a family of GPUs developed by AMD. These GPUs are manufactured on a 28 nm Gate-Last process through TSMC or Common Platform Alliance.[2]

Release[edit]

The Rx 200 series was announced on September 25, 2013, at the AMD GPU14 Tech Day event.[3] Non-disclosure agreements were lifted on October 15, except for the R9 290X, and pre-orders opened on October 3.[4]

Architecture[edit]

This article is about all products under the AMD Radeon Rx 200 Series brand.

  • A GPU implementing Graphics Core Next 3 (Volcanic Islands) is found on the R9 285 (Tonga Pro) branded products.
  • A GPU implementing Graphics Core Next 2 (Sea Islands) is found on R7 260 (Bonaire), R7 260X (Bonaire XTX), R9 290 (Hawaii Pro), R9 290X (Hawaii XT), and R9 295X2 (Vesuvius) branded products.
  • A GPU implementing Graphics Core Next 1 (Southern Islands) is found on R9 270, 270X, 280, 280X, R7 240, 250, 250X, 265, and R5 240 branded products.
  • A GPU implementing TeraScale 2 (VLIW5) (Northern Islands or Evergreen) is found on R5 235X and "below" branded products.

Multi-monitor support[edit]

Main article: AMD Eyefinity

The AMD Eyefinity-branded on-die display controllers were introduced in September 2009 in the Radeon HD 5000 Series and have been present in all products since.[5]

AMD TrueAudio[edit]

Main article: AMD TrueAudio

AMD TrueAudio was introduced with the AMD Radeon Rx 200 Series, but can only be found on the dies of GCN 2/3 products.

Video acceleration[edit]

AMD's SIP core for video acceleration, Unified Video Decoder and Video Coding Engine, are found on all GPUs and supported by AMD Catalyst and by the free and open-source graphics device driver.

Use in cryptocurrency mining[edit]

Radeon GPUs once performed better in cryptocurrency mining than their Nvidia GeForce counterparts. This led to limited supply and huge price increases in Q4 of 2013 and Q1 of 2014.[6][7] Since Q2 of 2014 availability of AMD GPUs as well as pricing has, in most cases, returned to normal.

CrossFire Compatibility[edit]

Because many of the products in the range are rebadged versions of Radeon HD products, they remain compatible with the original versions when used in CrossFire mode. For example, the Radeon HD 7770 and Radeon R7 250X both use the 'Cape Verde XT' chip so have identical specifications and will work in CrossFire mode. This provides a useful upgrade option for anyone who owns an existing Radeon HD card and has a CrossFire compatible motherboard.

Desktop products[edit]

Radeon R9 295X2[edit]

The Radeon R9 295X2 was released on April 21, 2014. It is a dual GPU card. Press samples were shipped in a metal case. It is the first reference card to utilize a closed looped liquid cooler.[8][9] At 11.5 teraflops of computing power, the R9 295X2 was the most powerful dual-gpu consumer-oriented card in the world, until it was succeeded by the Radeon Pro Duo on April 26, 2016, which is essentially a combination of two (2) R9 Fury X (Fiji XT) GPUs on a single card.[8] The R9 295x2 has essentially two R9 290x (Hawaii XT) GPUs each with 4GB GDDR5 VRAM. [8]

Radeon R9 290X[edit]

A R9 290X by Sapphire

The Radeon R9 290X, codename "Hawaii XT", was released on October 24, 2013 and features 2816 Stream Processors, 176 TMUs, 64 ROPs, 512-bit wide buses, 44 CUs (compute units) and 8 ACE units. The R9 290X had a launch price of $549.

Radeon R9 290[edit]

The Radeon R9 290 and R9 290X were announced on September 25, 2013.[10][11] The R9 290 is based on AMD's Hawaii Pro chip and R9 290X on Hawaii XT. R9 290 and R9 290X will support AMD TrueAudio, Mantle, Direct3D 11.2, and bridge-free Crossfire technology using XDMA. A limited "Battlefield 4 Edition" pre-order bundle of R9 290X that includes Battlefield 4 was available on October 3, 2013, with reported quantity being 8,000. The R9 290 had a launch price of $399.

Radeon R9 285[edit]

The Radeon R9 285 was announced on August 23, 2014 at AMD's 30 years of graphics celebration and released September 2, 2014. It was the first card to feature AMD's GCN 3 microarchitecture, in the form of a Tonga-series GPU.

Radeon R9 280X[edit]

Radeon R9 280X was announced on September 25, 2013. With a launch price of $299, it is based on the Tahiti XTL chip, being a slightly upgraded, rebranded Radeon HD 7970 GHz Edition.

Radeon R9 280[edit]

Radeon R9 280 was announced on March 4, 2014. With a launch MSRP set at $279, it is based on a rebranded Radeon HD 7950 with an increased clock speed, from 725 MHz to 900 MHz.[12]

Radeon R9 270X[edit]

Radeon R9 270X was announced on September 25, 2013. With a launch price of $199, it is based on the Curaçao XT chip, which was formerly called Pitcairn.[13] It is speculated to be faster than a Radeon HD 7870 GHz edition. Radeon R9 270 has a launch price of $179.

Radeon R7 260X[edit]

Radeon R7 260X was announced on September 25, 2013. With a launch price of $139, it is based on the Bonaire XTX chip, a faster iteration of Bonaire XT that the Radeon HD 7790 is based on. It will have 2 GB of GDDR5 memory as standard and will also feature TrueAudio, on-chip audio DSP based on Tensilica HiFi EP architecture. The stock card features a boost clock of 1100 MHz. It has 2 Gbs of GDDR5 memory with a 6.5 GHz memory clock over a 128-bit Interface. The 260X will draw around 115 W in typical use.[14][15]

Radeon R7 250[edit]

Radeon R7 250 was announced on September 25, 2013. It has a launch price of $89.[14] The card is based on the Oland core with 384 GCN cores. In February 10, 2014, AMD announced the R7 250X which is based on the Cape Verde GPU with 640 GCN cores and an MSRP of $99.[16]

Mobile products[edit]

Chipset table[edit]

Model
(Codename)
Launch Architecture
(Fab)
Transistors
Die Size
Core config[a] Clock rate Fillrate[b][c] Memory Processing Power[d]
(GFLOPS)
TDP (W) Bus interface API support (version) Release Price (USD)
Core (MHz)
(Boost)
Memory (MT/s) Pixel (GP/s)
(Boost)
Texture (GT/s)
(Boost)
Size (MiB) Bus width (bit) Bus type Bandwidth (GB/s) Single
(Boost)
Double
(Boost)
Direct3D OpenGL
OpenCL
Vulkan
Radeon
R5 210[17]
(Cedar)
Unknown Terascale 2
(40 nm)
292×106
59 mm2
80:8:4 400
(?)
900 1.6 3.2 256 64 DDR3 7.2 64 N/A 19 PCIe 2.1 ×16 11.0 4.4
1.2
N/A OEM
Radeon
R5 220[17]
(Caicos Pro)
Unknown 370×106
67 mm2
80:8:4 625
(650)
1066 2.5 5 1024 64 DDR3 8.53 200 N/A 18 OEM
Radeon
R5 230[18]
(Caicos Pro)
3 April 2014[19] 160:8:4 625
(-)
1066 2.5 5 1024
2048
64 DDR3 8.53 200 N/A 19[20] Unknown
Radeon
R5 235[17]
(Caicos XT)
Unknown 160:8:4 775
(?)
1800 3.1 6.2 1024 64 DDR3 14.4 248 N/A 35[21] OEM
Radeon
R5 235X[17]
(Caicos XT)
Unknown 160:8:4 875
(?)
1800 3.5 7.0 1024 64 DDR3 14.4 280 N/A 18 OEM
Radeon
R5 240[17]
(Oland)
1 November 2013[22] GCN 1st gen
(28 nm)
1040×106
90 mm2
320:20:8 730
(780)
1800
?
5.84 14.6 1024
2048
128 DDR3
GDDR5
28.8
?
467.2
499.2
29.2 50 PCIe 3.0 ×8 12.0 (11_1) 4.5
1.2
1.0 OEM
Radeon
R7 240[23]
(Oland Pro)
8 August 2013 320:20:8 730
(780)
1800
4500
5.84 14.6 2048 128 DDR3
GDDR5
28.8
72
467.2
499.2
29.2 30 12.0 (11_1) $69
Radeon
R7 250[23]
(Oland XT)
8 August 2013 384:24:8 1000
(1050)
1800
4600
8 24 1024
2048
128 DDR3
GDDR5
73.6 768
806.4
48 75 12.0 (11_1) $89
Radeon
R7 250E[24]
(Cape Verde Pro)
21 December 2013 1500×106
123 mm2
512:32:16 800
(-)
4500 12.8 25.6 1024
2048
128 GDDR5 72 819.2 51.2 55 PCIe 3.0 ×16 12.0 (11_1) Unknown
Radeon
R7 250X[23]
(Cape Verde XT)
10 February 2014 640:40:16 1000
(-)
4500 16 40 1024
2048
128 GDDR5 72 1280 80 95 12.0 (11_1) $99
Radeon
R7 260[23]
(Bonaire)
17 December 2013 GCN 2nd gen
(28 nm)
2080×106
160 mm2
768:48:16 1000
(-)
6000 16 48 1024 128 GDDR5 96 1536 96 95 12.0 (12_0) 4.5
2.0[e]
$109
Radeon
R7 260X[23]
(Bonaire XTX)
8 August 2013 896:56:16 1100
(-)
6500 17.6 61.6 1024
2048
128 GDDR5 104 1971.2 123.2 115 12.0 (12_0) $139
Radeon
R7 265[23]
(Pitcairn Pro)
13 February 2014 GCN 1st gen
(28 nm)
2800×106
212 mm2
1024:64:32 900
(925)
5600 28.8 57.6 2048 256 GDDR5 179.2 1843.2 115.2 150 12.0 (11_1) 4.5
1.2
$149
Radeon
R9 270[26]
(Pitcairn XT)
13 November 2013 1280:80:32 900
(925)
5600 28.8 72 2048 256 GDDR5 179.2 2304
2368
144
148
150 12.0 (11_1) $179
Radeon
R9 270X)[26]
(Pitcairn XT)
8 August 2013 1280:80:32 1000
(1050)
5600 32 80 2048
4096
256 GDDR5 179.2 2560
2688
160
168
180 12.0 (11_1 $199
Radeon
R9 280[26]
(Tahiti Pro)
4 March 2014 4313×106
352 mm2
1792:112:32 827
(933)
5000 26.5 92.6 3072 384 GDDR5 240 2964
3343.9
741
836
250 12.0 (11_1) $249
Radeon
R9 280X[26]
(Tahiti XTL)[27]
8 August 2013 2048:128:32 850
(1000)
6000 27.2–32 109–128 3072 384 GDDR5 288 3481.6
4096
870.4
1024
250 12.0 (11_1) $299
Radeon
R9 285[26]
(Tonga Pro)
2 September 2014 GCN 3rd gen
(28 nm)
5000×106
359 mm2[28]
1792:112:32 918
(-)
5500 29.4 102.8 2048 256 GDDR5 176[f] 3290 206.6[30] 190 12.0 (12_0) 4.5
2.0
$249
Radeon
R9 290[26]
(Hawaii Pro)
5 November 2013 GCN 2nd gen
(28 nm)
6200×106
438 mm2[31]
2560:160:64 up to 947[g]
(-)
5000 60.608 151.52 4096 512 GDDR5 320 4848.6 606.1 250[33] 12.0 (12_0) $399
Radeon
R9 290X[26]
(Hawaii XT)
24 October 2013 2816:176:64 1000[g]
(-)
5000 64 176 4096
8192
512 GDDR5 320 5632 704 250[33] 12.0 (12_0) $549
Radeon
R9 295X2[26][34]
(Vesuvius)
8 April 2014 6200×106
2× 438 mm2
2× 2816:176:64 1018
(-)
5000 2× 65.152 2× 179.168 2× 4096 2× 512 GDDR5 2× 320 2× 5733.376 2× 716.672 500 12.0 (12_0) $1499
Model
(Codename)
Launch Architecture
(Fab)
Transistors
Die Size
Core config[a] Core (MHz)
(Boost)
Memory (MT/s) Pixel (GP/s)
(Boost)
Texture (GT/s)
(Boost)
Size (MiB) Bus width (bit) Bus type Bandwidth (GB/s) Single
(Boost)
Double
(Boost)
TDP (W) Bus interface Direct3D OpenGL
OpenCL
Vulkan Release Price (USD)
Clock rate Fillrate[b][c] Memory Processing Power[d]
(GFLOPS)
API support (version)
  1. ^ a b Unified Shaders : Texture Mapping Units : Render Output Units
  2. ^ a b Pixel fillrate is calculated as the number of ROPs multiplied by the base (or boost) core clock speed.
  3. ^ a b Texture fillrate is calculated as the number of TMUs multiplied by the base (or boost) core clock speed.
  4. ^ a b Precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation. Double precision performance is 1/16 of the single precision performance on GCN 3rd gen,[35][36] 1/2 on GCN 2nd gen (capped to 1/8 on high-end consumer Radeon cards, and 1/16 on mid- and entry-level cards),[37][38] and 1/4 on GCN 1st gen (capped to 1/16 on mid- and entry-level cards).[39]
  5. ^ The AMD OpenCL 2.0 driver is compatible with AMD graphics products based on GCN first generation products or higher.[25]
  6. ^ The R9 285 utilizes loss-less colour compression which can increase effective memory performance (relative to GCN 1st gen and 2nd gen cards) in certain situations.[28][29]
  7. ^ a b Base clock of R9 290 and R9 290X will maintain at 947 MHz and 1000 MHz before reaching 95 °C, respectively.[32]



Model
(Codename)
Launch Architecture
(Fab)
Core config[a] Clock rate Fillrate[b][c] Memory Processing Power[d]
(GFLOPS)
(Boost)
TDP (W)
(GPU only)
API support (version)
Core (MHz)
(Boost)
Memory (MHz) Pixel (GP/s) Texture (GT/s) Size (GiB) Bus width (bit) Bus type Bandwidth (GB/s) Direct3D OpenGL
OpenCL
Vulkan
Radeon
R5 M230
(Jet Pro)
2014 GCN 1st gen
(28 nm)
320:20:8:5 780
(855)
1000 3.4 17.1 2
4
64 DDR3 16 547 Unknown 11.2/12 4.5
1.2
1.0
Radeon
R5 M255
(Jet Pro)
June 2014 320:20:8:5 925
(940)
1000 7.5 18.8 2
4
64 DDR3 16 601 Unknown
Radeon
R7 M260
(Topaz)
June 2014 384:24:8:6 620
(980)
1000 5.7
7.8
17.2
23.5
2
4
128
64
DDR3 32
16
549.1
(752.6)
Unknown
Radeon
R7 M260X
(Opal)
June 2014 384:24:8:6 620
(715)
1000 5.7 17.2 2
4
128 GDDR5 64 549 Unknown
Radeon
R7 M265
(Opal XT)
1 May 2014 384:24:8:6 725
(825)
1000 6.6 19.8 2
4
64
128
DDR3 16
32
633.6 Unknown
Radeon
R9 M265X
(Venus Pro)
1 May 2014 640:40:16:10 575
(625)
1125 10 25 2
4
128 GDDR5 72 800 Unknown
Radeon
R9 M270X
(Venus XT)
1 May 2014 640:40:16:10 725
(775)
1125 12.4 31 2
4
128 GDDR5 72 992 Unknown
Radeon
R9 M275X
(Venus XTX)
1 May 2014 640:40:16:10 900
(925)
1125 14.8 37 2
4
128 GDDR5 72 1184 50
Radeon
R9 M280X
(Saturn XT)
9 February 2015 GCN 2nd gen
(28 nm)
896:56:16:14 1000
(1100)
1500 17.6 61.6 2
4
128 GDDR5 96 1792 ~75 4.5
2.0
Radeon
R9 M290X
(Neptune XT)
1 May 2014 GCN 1st gen
(28 nm)
1280:80:32:20 850
(900)
1200 28.8 72 4 256 GDDR5 153.6 2176
(2304)
100 4.5
1.2
Radeon
R9 M295X
(Amethyst XT)
2014 GCN 3rd gen
(28 nm)
2048:128:32:32 750
(800)
1375 25.6 102.4 4 256 GDDR5 176 3276.8 250 4.5
2.0
  1. ^ Unified Shaders : Texture Mapping Units : Render Output Units
  2. ^ Pixel fillrate is calculated as the number of ROPs multiplied by the base core clock speed.
  3. ^ Texture fillrate is calculated as the number of TMUs multiplied by the base core clock speed.
  4. ^ Precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.


Graphics device drivers[edit]

AMD's proprietary graphics device driver "Catalyst"[edit]

Main article: AMD Catalyst

AMD Catalyst is being developed for Microsoft Windows and Linux. As of July 2014, other operating system are not officially supported. This may be different for the AMD FirePro brand, which is based on identical hardware but features OpenGL-certified graphics device drivers.

AMD Catalyst supports of course all features advertised for the Radeon brand.

Free and open-source graphics device driver "Radeon"[edit]

The free and open-source drivers are primarily developed on Linux and for Linux, but have been ported to other operating systems as well. Each driver is composed out of five parts:

  1. Linux kernel component DRM
  2. Linux kernel component KMS driver: basically the device driver for the display controller
  3. user-space component libDRM
  4. user-space component in Mesa 3D;
  5. a special and distinct 2D graphics device driver for X.Org Server, which if finally about to be replaced by Glamor

The free and open-source "Radeon" graphics driver supports most of the features implemented into the Radeon line of GPUs.[40] Unlike the nouveau project for Nvidia graphics cards, the open-source "Radeon" drivers are not reverse engineered, but based on documentation released by AMD.[41]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.techpowerup.com/200081/amd-catalyst-14-4-rc-available-for-download.html Full support for OpenGL 4.4
  2. ^ "AMD Launches Next Generation Volcanic Islands (VI) GPUs in 2014 - Successor to Sea Islands". WCCFtech. 
  3. ^ Ryan Smith. "AMD Announces Next Generation Radeon R7 and R9 Video Cards". anandtech.com. 
  4. ^ Sebastian Pop (30 September 2013). "Launch Date Revealed for AMD Radeon R9 290X Hawaii Graphics Card". softpedia. 
  5. ^ "AMD Eyefinity: FAQ". AMD. 2011-05-17. Retrieved 2014-07-02. 
  6. ^ Ryan Smith. "Radeon R9 290X Retail Prices Hit $900". anandtech.com. 
  7. ^ "AMD graphics card pricing skyrockets due to cryptocurrency mining, could kill AMD's gaming efforts". ExtremeTech. 
  8. ^ a b c AMD Radeon R9 Series Graphics Archived April 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ Ryan Smith. "Meet the Radeon R9 295X2: Cooling & Power Delivery - The AMD Radeon R9 295X2 Review". anandtech.com. 
  10. ^ "What to expect from GPU14 event in Hawaii". Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  11. ^ "AMD GPU Lineup Announced: R9 and R7 Series". pcper.com. 
  12. ^ Ryan Smith. "AMD Announces Radeon R9 280: Radeon HD 7950 w/Boost Returns". anandtech.com. 
  13. ^ Woligroski, Don. "AMD Radeon R9 270 Review: Replacing The Radeon HD 7800s". TomsHardware.com. Retrieved 12 November 2013. 
  14. ^ a b "AMD Releases R7 Series Graphics Cards With AMD Radeon R7 240, AMD Radeon R7 250 and AMD Radeon R7 260X GPUs". Advanced Micro Devices. Retrieved 29 November 2013. 
  15. ^ Ung, Gordon Mah (8 October 2013). "Everything You Wanted to Know About AMD's New TrueAudio Technology". maximumpc. Archived from the original on 11 July 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  16. ^ Ryan Smith. "AMD Announces Radeon R7 250X; Shipping Today". anandtech.com. 
  17. ^ a b c d e "Radeon™ R5 Series Graphics Cards | OEM | AMD". www.amd.com. Retrieved 2017-03-13. 
  18. ^ "Radeon™ R5 Series Graphics Cards | AMD". www.amd.com. Retrieved 2017-02-19. 
  19. ^ btarunr (3 April 2014). "AMD Launches Radeon R5 230 in the Retail Channel, Gigabyte Outs its Offering". TechPowerUp. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  20. ^ Wiles, Debbie (4 April 2014). "AMD Launches Radeon R5 230 for Retail Market". CPU-World.com. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  21. ^ "AMD Radeon R5 235 OEM". TechPowerUp. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  22. ^ "AMD Radeon R5 240 OEM". TechPowerUp. Retrieved 30 January 2016. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f "Radeon™ R7 Series Graphics Cards | AMD". www.amd.com. Retrieved 2017-02-19. 
  24. ^ "AMD Radeon R7 250E". TechPowerUp. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  25. ^ "AMD OpenCL™ 2.0 Driver". support.amd.com. Retrieved 2017-02-14. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h "Radeon™ R9 Series Graphics Cards | AMD". www.amd.com. Retrieved 2017-02-19. 
  27. ^ Mujtaba, Hassan (26 October 2013). "AMD Preparing Tahiti XTL Revision of Radeon R9 280X Graphic Card for November Release". WCCFtech.com. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  28. ^ a b Sandhu, Tarinder (2 September 2014). "Review: Sapphire Radeon R9 285 Dual-X OC (28nm Tonga)". Hexus. Retrieved 11 September 2014. 
  29. ^ Hruska, Joel (2 September 2014). "AMD Radeon R9 285 review: The GCN 3rd gen Torpedo that Takes out Nvidia's GTX 760". ExtremeTech. Ziff Davis. Retrieved 11 September 2014. 
  30. ^ Smith, Ryan (10 September 2014). "AMD Radeon R9 285 Review: Feat. Sapphire R9 285 Dual-X OC". AnandTech. Purch Group. p. 17. Retrieved 11 September 2014. 
  31. ^ Smith, Ryan (24 October 2013). "The AMD Radeon R9 290X Review". AnandTech. Purch Group. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  32. ^ Angelini, Chris (5 November 2013). "AMD Radeon R9 290 Review: Fast and $400, But is it Consistent?". Tom's Hardware. Purch Group. Retrieved 6 November 2013. 
  33. ^ a b Moammer, Khalid (21 June 2015). "AMD R9 Nano Performance Indirectly Revealed – More Compute Power than a Titan X". WCCFtech.com. Retrieved 25 July 2015. 
  34. ^ Shilov, Anton (4 April 2014). "AMD Radeon R9 295 X2: Final Specs Out, Card may not Fit into All PCs". KitGuru. Korona Solutions. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  35. ^ Smith, Ryan (2 July 2015). "The AMD Radeon R9 Fury X Review: Aiming for the Top". AnandTech. Purch Group. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  36. ^ Smith, Ryan (10 September 2014). "AMD Radeon R9 285 Review: Feat. Sapphire R9 285 Dual-X OC". AnandTech. Purch Group. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  37. ^ Angelini, Chris (23 October 2013). "Radeon R9 290X Review AMD's Back In Ultra-High-End Gaming". Tom's Hardware. Purch Group. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  38. ^ Smith, Ryan (2 July 2015). "The AMD Radeon R9 Fury X Review: Aiming For the Top". AnandTech. Purch Group. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  39. ^ Smith, Ryan (22 December 2011). "AMD Radeon HD 7970 Review: 28nm And Graphics Core Next, Together As One". AnandTech. Purch Group. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  40. ^ "RadeonFeature". Xorg.freedesktop.org. Retrieved 2014-07-06. 
  41. ^ "AMD Developer Guides". 

External links[edit]