Raffinose

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Raffinose
Raffinose.svg
Rafinosa-3D.png
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-{[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-Dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}-6-({[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol
Other names
rafinosa
D-(+)-Raffinose
D-Raffinose
D-raffinose pentahydrate
Gossypose
Melitose
Melitriose
NSC 170228
NSC 2025
6G-α-D-galactosylsucrose;
β-D-fructofuranosyl-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-D-galactopyranoside hydrate(1:5)
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.007.407 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
UNII
  • InChI=1S/C18H32O16/c19-1-5-8(22)11(25)13(27)16(31-5)30-3-7-9(23)12(26)14(28)17(32-7)34-18(4-21)15(29)10(24)6(2-20)33-18/h5-17,19-29H,1-4H2/t5-,6-,7-,8+,9-,10-,11+,12+,13-,14-,15+,16+,17-,18+/m1/s1 checkY
    Key: MUPFEKGTMRGPLJ-ZQSKZDJDSA-N checkY
  • InChI=1S/C18H32O16/c19-1-5-8(22)11(25)13(27)16(31-5)30-3-7-9(23)12(26)14(28)17(32-7)34-18(4-21)15(29)10(24)6(2-20)33-18/h5-17,19-29H,1-4H2/t5-,6-,7-,8+,9-,10-,11+,12+,13-,14-,15+,16+,17-,18+/m1/s1
    Key: MUPFEKGTMRGPLJ-ZQSKZDJDBO
  • Key: MUPFEKGTMRGPLJ-ZQSKZDJDSA-N
  • C([C@@H]1[C@@H]([C@@H]([C@H]([C@H](O1)OC[C@@H]2[C@H]([C@@H]([C@H]([C@H](O2)O[C@]3([C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](O3)CO)O)O)CO)O)O)O)O)O)O)O
Properties
C18H32O16
Molar mass 594.5 g/mol (pentahydrate)
Melting point 118 °C
203 g/L
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Raffinose is a trisaccharide composed of galactose, glucose, and fructose. It can be found in beans, cabbage, brussels sprouts, broccoli, asparagus, other vegetables, and whole grains. Raffinose can be hydrolyzed to D-galactose and sucrose by the enzyme α-galactosidase (α-GAL), an enzyme not found in the human digestive tract. α-GAL also hydrolyzes other α-galactosides such as stachyose, verbascose, and galactinol, if present. The enzyme does not cleave β-linked galactose, as in lactose.

Chemical properties[edit]

The raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) are alpha-galactosyl derivatives of sucrose, and the most common are the trisaccharide raffinose, the tetrasaccharide stachyose, and the pentasaccharide verbascose. RFOs are almost ubiquitous in the plant kingdom, being found in a large variety of seeds from many different families, and they rank second only to sucrose in abundance as soluble carbohydrates.

Raffinose may have a form of a white crystalline powder. It is odorless and has a sweet taste approximately 10% that of sucrose.[1]

Biochemical properties[edit]

Energy source[edit]

It is non-digestible in humans and other monogastric animals (pigs and poultry) who do not possess the α-GAL enzyme to break down RFOs. These oligosaccharides pass undigested through the stomach and small intestine. In the large intestine, they are fermented by bacteria that do possess the α-GAL enzyme and make short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)(acetic, propionic, butyric acids), as well as the flatulence commonly associated with eating beans and other vegetables. These SCFAs have been recently found to impart a number of health benefits. α-GAL is present in digestive aids such as the product Beano.

Disease relevance[edit]

Research has shown that the differential ability to utilize raffinose by strains of the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, impacts their ability to cause disease.[2]

Uses[edit]

Procedures concerning cryopreservation have used raffinose to provide hypertonicity for cell desiccation prior to freezing.[3] Either raffinose or sucrose is used as a base substance for sucralose.

Raffinose is also used in:[1]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "D(+)-Raffinose pentahydrate | 17629-30-0". www.chemicalbook.com. Retrieved 2019-08-19.
  2. ^ Minhas, Vikrant; Harvey, Richard M.; McAllister, Lauren J.; Seemann, Torsten; Syme, Anna E.; Baines, Sarah L.; Paton, James C.; Trappetti, Claudia (2019-01-15). McDaniel, Larry S. (ed.). "Capacity To Utilize Raffinose Dictates Pneumococcal Disease Phenotype". mBio. 10 (1). doi:10.1128/mBio.02596-18. ISSN 2150-7511.
  3. ^ Storey B., Noiles, E., Thompson, K. (1998). "Comparison of Glycerol, Other Polyols, Trehalose, and Raffinose to Provide a Defined Cryoprotectant Medium for Mouse Sperm Cryopreservation". Cryobiology. 37 (1): 46–58. doi:10.1006/cryo.1998.2097. PMID 9698429.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Zartl B, Silberbauer K, Loeppert R, Viernstein H, Praznik W, Mueller M. Fermentation of non-digestible raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactomannans by probiotics. Food Funct. 2018 Mar 1;9(3):1638-1646. doi: 10.1039/c7fo01887h. Epub 2018 Feb 21. PMID: 29465