D-Psicose; D-Allulose; D-Ribo-2-hexulose
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||180.16 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||58 °C (136 °F; 331 K) |
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
D-Psicose (D-allulose, D-ribo-2-hexulose, C6H12O6) is a low-energy monosaccharide sugar present in small quantities in natural products. First identified in wheat more than 70 years ago, psicose is a C-3 epimer of D-fructose, and is present in small quantities in agricultural products and commercially prepared carbohydrate complexes. The sweetness of psicose is estimated to be 70% of the sweetness of sucrose. As of 2018, major commercial food or beverage manufacturers use psicose as a sweetener.
The first mass-production method for psicose was established when Ken Izumori at Kagawa University in Japan discovered the key enzyme, D-tagatose 3-epimerase, to convert fructose to D-psicose in 1994. This method of production has a high yield, but suffers from a very high production cost.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lists psicose as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Psicose is not approved for use in the European Union. CJ CheilJedang was the first company to file for GRAS status in the US.
Commercial manufacturers and food laboratories are looking into properties of D-psicose that may differentiate it from sucrose and fructose sweeteners, including an ability to induce the high foaming property of egg white protein and the production of antioxidant substances produced through the Maillard reaction.
Commercial uses of psicose include low-calorie sweeteners in beverages, yogurt, ice cream, baked goods, and other typically high-calorie items. London-based Tate & Lyle released its proprietary variant of psicose, known as Dolcia Prima allulose, and U.S.-based Anderson Global Group released its own proprietary variant into the North American market in 2015.
Coca-Cola Company utilizes psicose in Fuze low calorie Meyer Lemon Black Tea.
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